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Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

Dichromic acid, dipotassium salt

RTECS #

HX7680000

CAS #

7778-50-9

Updated

December 2012

Molecular Weight

294.20

Molecular Formula

Cr2O7·2K

Synonyms

Bichromate of potash
Dipotassium dichromate
Iopezite
Kaliumdichromat (German)
Potassium bichromate
Potassium dichromate
Potassium dichromate(VI)

Skin and Eye Irritation and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
eye /rabbit 140 mg severeFATOAO 46,106,1983
skin /human 0.5%/48HCODEDG 12,93,1985

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
Cytogenetic Analysismultiple/non-mammalian species10 mg/LMUREAV 319,223,1993
Cytogenetic Analysisleukocyte/human500 nmol/LMUREAV 58,175,1978
Cytogenetic Analysislymphocyte/human300 µg/LMUREAV 97,192,1982
Cytogenetic Analysisother cell types/human500 mg/LBJCAAI 44,219,1981
Cytogenetic Analysisfibroblast/human150 µg/LDCTODJ 4,185,1981
Cytogenetic Analysisintraperitoneal/rat5 mg/kgZDKAA8 38(8),48,1978
Cytogenetic Analysislymphocyte/rat1200 nmol/LMUREAV 169,61,1986
Cytogenetic Analysisintravenous/rat12 mg/kgMUREAV 169,61,1986
Cytogenetic Analysisoral/rat365 mg/kg/1Y-continuousCYGEDX 10(3),27,1976
Cytogenetic Analysisoral/mouse20 mg/kgEMMUEG 28,121,1996
Cytogenetic Analysismammary gland/mouse1 µmol/L/48HMUREAV 67,221,1979
Cytogenetic Analysisintraperitoneal/hamster8 mg/kgBLOAAO 40,651,1985
Cytogenetic Analysislung/hamster500 µg/LMUREAV 67,55,1979
Cytogenetic Analysisembryo/hamster100 µg/L/24HMUREAV 46,87,1977
Cytogenetic Analysisovary/hamster250 µg/LTXCYAC 17,219,1980
Cytogenetic Analysisovary/hamster0.1 mg/L/30HMUREAV 67,231,1979
Cytogenetic Analysislung/human1 µmol/L/30HEMMUEG 40,200,2002
Cytogenetic Analysisintraperitoneal/rat12.5 mg/kg/5DEMS37* -,463,2006
Cytogenetic Analysislung/human1 µmol/L/10DMUREAV 670,42,2009
DNA adductmultiple/other fish2 mg/LMUREAV 577S,1,2005
DNA Damageintraperitoneal/rat12.5 mg/kg/5D- intermittentTOXID9 90,106,2006
DNA Damagemultiple/other fish100 µmol/L/24HMUREAV 608,16,2006
DNA Damageoral/mouse25 mg/kg/1DTOXID9 228,16,2006
DNA Damageoral/mouse125 mg/kg/5DTOXID9 228,16,2006
DNA Damageoral/rat28 mg/kg/4W- intermittentFCTOD7 48,89,2010
DNA Damagelymphocyte/human300 mmol/L/30MTCMUD8 23(Suppl 2),53,2003
DNA Damageother cell types/human5000 µmol/L/3HTCMUD8 23(Suppl 2),53,2003
DNA Damagemammary gland/human0.38 mg/L/24H (-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 588,47,2005
DNA Damageoral/Drosophila melanogaster200 mg/L/48H-continuousMUREAV 721,142,2011
DNA Damageoral/Drosophila melanogaster5 mg/L/48HMUREAV 722,44,2011
DNA Damagekidney/hamster10 mg/LTXCYAC 17,219,1980
DNA Damageovary/hamster10 mmol/LMUREAV 119,195,1983
DNA Damagelung/hamster10 µmol/LMUREAV 117,279,1983
DNA Damageoral/mouse0.59 mg/kgFCTOD7 39,859,2001
DNA Damageintraperitoneal/mouse25 mg/kgFCTOD7 39,859,2001
DNA Damageleukocyte/mouse200 µmol/LCBINA8 36,345,1981
DNA Damagefibroblast/human500 nmol/LMUREAV 193,237,1988
DNA Damagelung/human10 µmol/LSTEVA8 86,131,1989
DNA Damageliver/human1 µmol/LCRNGDP 21,701,2000
DNA Damage/Escherichia coli250 gm/LDANKAS 268,720,1983
DNA inhibitionintraperitoneal/mouse20 gm/kgARGEAR 51,605,1981
DNA inhibitionfibroblast/human100 µmol/LNASGEJ 3,237,1985
DNA inhibitionHeLa cell/human13 µmol/LCRNGDP 13,2389,1992
DNA inhibitionlung/hamster300 µmol/LTIVIEQ 5,549,1991
DNA inhibitionkidney/hamster1 mg/LTXCYAC 17,219,1980
DNA inhibitionfibroblast/hamster100 µmol/LDCTODJ 4,185,1981
DNA repair/Bacillus subtilis1050 µg/LWATRAG 14,1613,1980
DNA repair/Salmonella typhimurium50 mmol/LTOLED5 7,439,1981
Dominant Lethal Testintraperitoneal/mouse20 mg/kgMUREAV 103,345,1982
Dominant Lethal Testunreported route/mouse20 mg/kgMUREAV 97,180,1982
gene conversion and mitotic recombinationoral/Drosophila melanogaster0.1 mmol/LEMMUEG 37,70,2001
gene conversion and mitotic recombination/Saccharomyes cerevisiae60 mg/LMUREAV 155,117,1985
gene conversion and mitotic recombinationother cell types/Drosophila melanogaster0.5 mmol/LEMMUEG 50,483,2009
heritable translocation testmultiple/Drosophila melanogaster0.5 mmol/L/48HEMMUEG 43,196,2004
heritable translocation testmultiple/Drosophila melanogaster2 mmol/L/6HEMMUEG 43,196,2004
micronucleus testintraperitoneal/mouse20 mg/kgEMS37* -,460,2006
micronucleus testfibroblast/human0.4 µmol/L/24HMUTAEX 24,25,2009
micronucleus testlymphocyte/human300 µg/LMUREAV 97,192,1982
micronucleus testlung/human2 µmol/L/30HEMMUEG 40,200,2002
micronucleus testfibroblast/human2 µmol/L/25HEMMUEG 40,200,2002
micronucleus testmultiple/non-mammalian species10 mg/LMUREAV 283,157,1992
micronucleus testintraperitoneal/hamster20 mg/kgNTIS** DE83-770037
morphological transformembryo/hamster200 µg/LMUREAV 46,87,1977
morphological transformkidney/hamster25 µg/LTXCYAC 19,55,1981
morphological transformfibroblast/human200 nmol/LCNREA8 47,3815,1987
mutation in mammalian somatic cellslymphocyte/mouse1 mg/LJTEHD6 9,367,1982
mutation in mammalian somatic cellslung/hamster100 µg/LMUREAV 122,361,1983
mutation in mammalian somatic cellsovary/hamster7 µmol/LMUREAV 117,279,1983
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium20 µg/plate/72H (-enzymatic activation step)TCMUD8 23(Suppl 2),53,2003
mutation in microorganisms/Escherichia coli1600 µmol/L (-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 58,175,1978
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium10 µg/plate (+enzymatic activation step)CRNGDP 3,1331,1982
mutation in microorganisms/Saccharomyes cerevisiae60 mg/L (-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 155,117,1985
other mutation test systems/Salmonella typhimurium76 mg/LMUREAV 192,239,1987
other mutation test systems/Escherichia coli1500 nmol/tubeENMUDM 8,571,1986
other mutation test systemsfibroblast/human100 µmol/LNASGEJ 3,237,1985
other mutation test systemsfibroblast/human150 µg/LDCTODJ 4,185,1981
other mutation test systemslymphocyte/human3 mg/LMUREAV 97,192,1982
other mutation test systemsother cell types/human500 mg/LBJCAAI 44,219,1981
other mutation test systemsother cell types/human100 µmol/L/1HCARYAB 30,469,1977
other mutation test systemskidney/hamster10 mg/LBJCAAI 44,219,1981
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctionlung/human250 nmol/LMUREAV 469,35,2000
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctionintraperitoneal/Drosophila melanogaster400 ppmCYTOAN 51,421,1986
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction/Saccharomyes cerevisiae136 µmol/LMUTAEX 1,21,1986
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctionfibroblast/human2 µmol/L/30HEMMUEG 40,200,2002
sister chromatid exchangelymphocyte/human300 µg/LMUREAV 97,192,1982
sister chromatid exchangefibroblast/human100 nmol/LDCTODJ 4,185,1981
sister chromatid exchangelymphocyte/mouse1 µmol/LCRNGDP 4,33,1983
sister chromatid exchangeembryo/mouse1 µmol/LTJADAB 27,109,1983
sister chromatid exchangeother cell types/mouse1 µmol/LTJADAB 27,109,1983
sister chromatid exchangeovary/hamster10 nmol/LJTEHD6 11,227,1983
sister chromatid exchangefibroblast/hamster800 µg/LMUREAV 104,141,1982
sister chromatid exchangelung/hamster16 mg/LCBINA8 42,45,1982
sister chromatid exchangeintraperitoneal/hamster10 mg/kgNTIS** DE83-770037
sister chromatid exchangekidney/hamster20 µmol/LTOLED5 23,51,1984
sister chromatid exchangeovary/hamster0.1 mg/L/30HMUREAV 67,231,1979
sister chromatid exchangeovary/hamster0.1 mg/L/39HMUREAV 67,231,1979
specific locus testoral/Drosophila melanogaster0.5 mmol/LMUREAV 520,93,2002
specific locus testmultiple/Drosophila melanogaster0.25 mmol/LEMMUEG 39,49,2002
specific locus testintraperitoneal/Drosophila melanogaster200 ppmCYTOAN 51,421,1986
specific locus testoral/Drosophila melanogaster0.01 mmol/L/8D-continuousEMMUEG 43,196,2004
specific locus testoral/Drosophila melanogaster2 mmol/L/6H-continuousEMMUEG 43,196,2004
sperm morphologyintraperitoneal/mouse4 mg/kgBLOAAO 40,1151,1985
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisfibroblast/human50 µmol/LNASGEJ 3,237,1985

Reproductive Effects Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
intraperitoneal/rat 980 µg/kg (7W male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)
GISAAA (5),30,1997
intraperitoneal/mouse 20 mg/kg (1D male)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal deathMUREAV 103,345,1982
intraperitoneal/rat 5.2 mg/kg (13D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands
REPTED 24,388,2007
intraperitoneal/rat 10.4 mg/kg (26D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands
REPTED 24,388,2007
oral/mouse 19.4 mg/kg (multigenerations)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: BehavioralNTIS** #PB97-144919
oral/mouse 19.4 mg/kg (multigenerations)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Blood and lymphatic systems (including spleen and marrow)NTIS** #PB97-144919
oral/mouse 85.7 mg/kg (multigenerations)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Blood and lymphatic systems (including spleen and marrow)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
NTIS** #PB97-144919
oral/rat 420 mg/kg (1-21D after birth)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
TXAPA9 232,180,2008
oral/mouse 150 mg/kg (30D prior to copulation)Reproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubesFCTOD7 47,1368,2009
oral/mouse 1710 mg/kg (19D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)
REPTED 3,275,1989
oral/mouse 1 gm/kg (20D prior to copulation)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
BECTA6 57,327,1996
oral/mouse 1697 mg/kg (14-19D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)
VHTODE 37,320,1995
oral/mouse 2546 mg/kg (14-19D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Blood and lymphatic systems (including spleen and marrow)
VHTODE 37,320,1995
oral/rat 525 mg/kg (21D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
EGESAQ 36,273,1992
oral/rat 500 mg/kg (0-19D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)
TOLED5 89,207,1996
oral/rat 1 gm/kg (0-19D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal systemTOLED5 89,207,1996
oral/rat 1771 mg/kg (90D prior to copulation)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
TOLED5 95,165,1998
unreported route/mouse 700 mg/kg (35W male)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Other measures of fertilityMUREAV 97,180,1982

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
In Vitro/Human, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 0.345 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell protein synthesisTIVIEQ 3,189,1989
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 0.1 mg/m3Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cough
VCVN5* -,302,1993
intraperitoneal/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 37 mg/kgCRNGDP 4,1535,1983
intraperitoneal/non-mammalian species lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
ETOPFR 17,149,2004
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 20 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
ETOPFR 17,149,2004
intraperitoneal/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 28 mg/kgGISAAA (5),30,1997
intravenous/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 27900 µg/kgEQSSDX 1,1,1975
oral/child lowest published lethal dose: 50 mg/kgYAKUD5 40,2677,1998
oral/child lowest published lethal dose: 26 mg/kgBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory stimulation

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
ZEKIA5 81,417,1958
oral/Dog lowest published lethal dose: 2829 mg/kgEQSSDX 1,1,1975
oral/guinea pig lowest published lethal dose: 163 mg/kgZEKIA5 81,417,1958
oral/man lowest published lethal dose: 143 mg/kgVascular: BP lowering not characterized in autonomic section

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Urine volume decreased or anuria
YAKUD5 40,2677,1998
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 190 mg/kgSAIGBL 20,590,1978
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kgBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Catalases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TOXID9 228,16,2006
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kgLiver: Other changesTOXID9 228,16,2006
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kgGastrointestinal: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
ARTODN 82,951,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 127 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Conditioned vitamin deficiency

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
JAPTO* 25,440,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 127 mg/kgBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammationJAPTO* 25,440,2005
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 25 mg/kgEye: Other eye effects

Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Ataxia
NTIS** OTS0545929
oral/woman lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kgGastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Blood: Other changes
JTCTDW 43,111,2005
skin/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 14 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea

Skin: After systemic exposure: Dermatitis, other
NTIS** OTS0537040
subcutaneous/guinea pig lowest published lethal dose: 29400 µg/kgEQSSDX 1,1,1975
subcutaneous/monkey lowest published lethal dose: 40 mg/kgKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)AJPAA4 9,133,1933
subcutaneous/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 7.8 mg/kgVCVN5* -,301,1993
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published lethal dose: 100 mg/kgEQSSDX 1,1,1975
subcutaneous/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 10 mg/kgKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Interstitial nephritis
PSEBAA 9,13,1911
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 15 mg/kgKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Renal function tests depressed

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
TOXID9 44,232,2005
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 15 mg/kgKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Renal function tests depressed
TOXID9 78,239,2004
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 15 mg/kgKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Renal function tests depressed

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Proteinuria
FCTOD7 46,1089,2008
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 15 mg/kgKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Renal function tests depressed

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Proteinuria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
TXCYAC 218,237,2006
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 15 mg/kgKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TOXID9 12,436,2008
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 8 mg/kgKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)TOLED5 182,84,2008
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 25 mg/kgKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TOLED5 182,84,2008
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kgKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changesTOPADD 36,397,2008
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 15 mg/kgKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Renal function tests depressed

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
TOLED5 184,61,2009
Tank with water/Limanda lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 175 mg/L/24HAQUTO* 7,135,1985
Tank with water/Limanda lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 95.6 mg/L/48HAQUTO* 7,135,1985
Tank with water/Limanda lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 69.7 mg/L/72HAQUTO* 7,135,1985
Tank with water/Limanda lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 47 mg/L/96HAQUTO* 7,135,1985
Tank with water/other fish lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 140.2 mg/L/24HAQUTO* 7,135,1985
Tank with water/other fish lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 90 mg/L/48HAQUTO* 7,135,1985
Tank with water/other fish lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 67.5 mg/L/72HAQUTO* 7,135,1985
Tank with water/other fish lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 47.2 mg/L/96HAQUTO* 7,135,1985
unreported route/Dog lowest published lethal dose: 2300 µg/kgGISAAA 27(12),77,1962

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
intramuscular/chicken lowest published toxic dose: 70 mg/kg/7D- intermittentBlood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Conditioned vitamin deficiency
TXCYAC 211,124,2005
intraperitoneal/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 84 mg/kg/6W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
ENVRAL 15,90,1978
intraperitoneal/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 40 mg/kg/5D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
JEPOEC 16,51,1997
intraperitoneal/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 54.6 mg/kg/6W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuseHBTME* -,487,2007
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 10.4 mg/kg/26D- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
FCTOD7 48,972,2010
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 22500 µg/kg/12W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Blood: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
ZYYZEW 5,144,1991
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 15 mg/kg/3D- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Blood: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
WDZAEK 6,205,1992
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2.5 mg/kg/5D- intermittentMusculoskeletal: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: P

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
HETOEA 25,311,2006
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5.2 mg/kg/13D- intermittentEndocrine: Change in LH

Endocrine: Androgenic

Endocrine: Changes in adrenal weight
REPTED 24,388,2007
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5.2 mg/kg/13D- intermittentEndocrine: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in prostate weight
REPTED 24,388,2007
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 7.8 mg/kg/13D- intermittentEndocrine: Estrogenic

Endocrine: Other changes
REPTED 24,388,2007
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 7.8 mg/kg/13D- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
REPTED 24,388,2007
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 10.4 mg/kg/26D- intermittentEndocrine: Change in LH

Endocrine: Other changes

Endocrine: Changes in adrenal weight
REPTED 24,388,2007
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 10.4 mg/kg/26D- intermittentEndocrine: Androgenic

Endocrine: Estrogenic

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
REPTED 24,388,2007
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 10.4 mg/kg/26D- intermittentEndocrine: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
REPTED 24,388,2007
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 15.6 mg/kg/26D- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weightREPTED 24,388,2007
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5.2 mg/kg/26D- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Changes in prostate weightREPTED 24,388,2007
intratracheal/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 56 mg/kg/26W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis (interstitial)VCVN5* -,303,1989
multiple/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 18 mg/kg/35D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Immunological Including Allergic: Increase in humoral response

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXCYAC 277,29,2010
oral/monkey lowest published toxic dose: 1.8 gm/kg/180D- continuousReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
FESTAS 86(Suppl 3),1097,2006
oral/monkey lowest published toxic dose: 1220 mg/kg/122D- continuousReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)TXAPA9 215,237,2006
oral/monkey lowest published toxic dose: 2440 mg/kg/61D- continuousReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)TXAPA9 215,237,2006
oral/monkey lowest published toxic dose: 1820 mg/kg/91D- continuousReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Catalases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Isomerases
TXAPA9 215,237,2006
oral/monkey lowest published toxic dose: 600 mg/kg/30D- continuousBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductasesTXAPA9 215,237,2006
oral/monkey lowest published toxic dose: 1200 mg/kg/30D- continuousBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effectsTXAPA9 215,237,2006
oral/monkey lowest published toxic dose: 1520 mg/kg/152D- continuousBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Catalases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Isomerases
TXAPA9 215,237,2006
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 714 mg/kg/28D- continuousLiver: Fatty liver degeneration

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight
TXAPA9 197,371,2004
oral/mouse : 125 mg/kg/5D- intermittentBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TOXID9 228,16,2006
oral/mouse : 250 mg/kg/5D- intermittentBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: CatalasesTOXID9 228,16,2006
oral/mouse : 500 mg/kg/5D- intermittentLiver: Other changesTOXID9 228,16,2006
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 7245 mg/kg/9W- continuousBlood: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NTIS** #PB97-125363
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 7245 mg/kg/9W- continuousBlood: Other changesNTIS** #PB97-125363
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1764 mg/kg/9W- continuousNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainNTIS** #PB97-125363
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 252 mg/kg/9W- continuousBehavioral: Food intake (animal)NTIS** #PB97-125363
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 819 mg/kg/9W- continuousLiver: Other changesNTIS** #PB97-125363
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2999.5 mg/kg/35D- continuousNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainNTIS** #PB97-144919
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 12597.9 mg/kg/21W- continuousLiver: Changes in liver weightNTIS** #PB97-144919
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 33600 mg/kg/12W- continuousNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
TXCYAC 116,39,1997
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 150 mg/kg/30D- intermittentEndocrine: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
FCTOD7 47,1368,2009
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kg/30D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in ovarian weight
FCTOD7 47,1368,2009
oral/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 350 mg/kg/10W- intermittentEndocrine: Estrogenic

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
REPTED 21,322,2006
oral/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 350 mg/kg/10W- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
REPTED 21,322,2006
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 56680 µg/kg/20D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Skin: After systemic exposure: Dermatitis, irritative

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
GISAAA 49(5),10,1984
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2566 mg/kg/26W- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes primarily in glomeruli

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Proteinuria
JJATDK 13,375,1993
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1386 mg/kg/9W- continuousBlood: Other changesNTIS** #PB97-125355
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 420 mg(Cr)/kg/2W- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainJOETD7 87,247,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 900 mg(Cr)/kg/30D- intermittentCardiac: Changes in heart weight

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight
JOETD7 87,247,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kg/4D- continuousNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainETPAEK 61,347,2009
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 62.5 mg/kg/10D- continuousMusculoskeletal: Changes in teeth and supporting structures

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
ETPAEK 61,347,2009
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 348 mg/kg/30D- continuousBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Endocrine: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TOLED5 185,187,2009
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 354.9 mg/kg/3W- continuousEndocrine: Changes in thyroid weightTOLED5 185,160,2009
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 28 mg/kg/4W- intermittentCardiac: Changes in heart weight

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
FCTOD7 48,89,2010
skin/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 36 mg/kg/3D- intermittentSkin: After topical application: Cutaneous sensitization (experimental)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXCYAC 212,69,2005

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 23,205,1980
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 49,49,1990
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 23,205,1980
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Group 1IMEMDT 49,49,1990
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW85DHAX Cr,22,1974
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 567,227,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 567,109,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 567,151,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,602,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 533,227,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 659,60,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHUTOX* -,683,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 681,51,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 26,223,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 721,27,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 751,15,2012

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1988 PESTICIDE SUBJECT TO REGISTRATION OR RE-REGISTRATIONFEREAC 54,7740,1989
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1998 STATUS OF PESTICIDESSupportedRBREV* -,100,1998
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD-airtime-weighted average 0.5 mg(Cr)/m3DTLVS* 3,35,1971
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRALIAtime-weighted average 0.05 mg(Cr)/m3, JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit-FINLANDtime-weighted average 0.05 mg(CrO4)/m3, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FRANCEVME 0.05 mg(Cr)/m3, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-RUSSIAshort term exposure limit 0.01 mg(Cr)/m3, Skin, Carcinogen, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWEDENtime-weighted average 0.005 mg(Cr)/m3;short term exposure limit 0.015 mg(Cr)/m3, Carcinogen, Sen, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-UNITED KINGDOMtime-weighted average 0.05 mg(Cr)/m3, carc, sen, OCT2007
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction)ceiling concentration 0.1 mg(CrO3)/m3CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors)ceiling concentration 0.1 mg(CrO3)/m3CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry)ceiling concentration 0.1 mg(CrO3)/m3CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards)ceiling concentration 0.1 mg(CrO3)/m3CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO CHROMIUM(VI)-air10H Carcinogen time-weighted average 0.001 mg(Cr)/m3NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code 80064; Number of Industries 70; Total Number of Facilities 4860; Number of Occupations 58; Total Number of Employees Exposed 61073; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 19198
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code 80064; Number of Industries 73; Total Number of Facilities 4772; Number of Occupations 53; Total Number of Employees Exposed 42402

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: B subtilis rec assay
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: CHO gene mutation
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: SHE-clonal assay; In vitro cytogenetics-nonhuman
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NTP 11th Report on Carcinogens,2004:Known to be human carcinogen
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