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Dichromic acid, dipotassium salt

RTECS #: HX7680000

CAS #: 7778-50-9


UPDATE: May 2009 MW: 294.20 MF: Cr2O7•2K


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA:
  3. MUTATION DATA:
  4. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA:
  5. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  6. OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA:
  7. REVIEWS:
  8. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:
  9. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  10. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  11. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. Bichromate of potash
  2. Dipotassium dichromate
  3. Iopezite
  4. Kaliumdichromat (German)
  1. Potassium bichromate
  2. Potassium dichromate
  3. Potassium dichromate (VI)


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
eye
rabbit
140 mg severe FATOAO 46,106,1983
skin
human
0.5%/48 hour CODEDG 12,93,1985


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
cytogenetic analysis intraperitoneal
hamster
8 mg/kg BLOAAO 40,651,1985
cytogenetic analysis hamster lung 500 µg/L MUREAV 67,55,1979
cytogenetic analysis hamster embryo 100 µg/L/24 hour MUREAV 46,87,1977
cytogenetic analysis hamster ovary 250 µg/L TXCYAC 17,219,1980
cytogenetic analysis hamster ovary 0.1 mg/L/30 hour MUREAV 67,231,1979
cytogenetic analysis human leukocyte 500 nmol/L MUREAV 58,175,1978
cytogenetic analysis human lymphocyte 300 µg/L MUREAV 97,192,1982
cytogenetic analysis human other cell types 500 mg/L BJCAAI 44,219,1981
cytogenetic analysis human fibroblast 150 µg/L DCTODJ 4,185,1981
cytogenetic analysis human lung 1 µmol/L/30 hour EMMUEG 40,200,2002
cytogenetic analysis oral
mouse
20 mg/kg EMMUEG 28,121,1996
cytogenetic analysis mouse mammary gland 1 µmol/L/48 hour MUREAV 67,221,1979
cytogenetic analysis multiple
non-mammalian species
10 mg/L MUREAV 319,223,1993
cytogenetic analysis intraperitoneal
rat
5 mg/kg ZDKAA8 38(8),48,1978
cytogenetic analysis rat lymphocyte 1,200 nmol/L MUREAV 169,61,1986
cytogenetic analysis intravenous
rat
12 mg/kg MUREAV 169,61,1986
cytogenetic analysis oral
rat
365 mg/kg/1 year- continuous CYGEDX 10(3),27,1976
cytogenetic analysis intraperitoneal
rat
12.5 mg/kg/5 day EMS37* -,463,2006
dominant lethal test intraperitoneal
mouse
20 mg/kg MUREAV 103,345,1982
dominant lethal test unreported route
mouse
20 mg/kg MUREAV 97,180,1982
DNA adduct multiple
other fish
2 mg/L MUREAV 577S,1,2005
DNA damage Escherichia coli 250 gm/L DANKAS 268,720,1983
DNA damage hamster kidney 10 mg/L TXCYAC 17,219,1980
DNA damage hamster ovary 10 mmol/L MUREAV 119,195,1983
DNA damage hamster lung 10 µmol/L MUREAV 117,279,1983
DNA damage human fibroblast 500 nmol/L MUREAV 193,237,1988
DNA damage human lung 10 µmol/L STEVA8 86,131,1989
DNA damage human liver 1 µmol/L CRNGDP 21,701,2000
DNA damage human lymphocyte 300 mmol/L/30 minute TCMUD8 23(Suppl 2),53,2003
DNA damage human other cell types 5,000 µmol/L/3 hour TCMUD8 23(Suppl 2),53,2003
DNA damage human mammary gland 0.38 mg/L/24 hour (-enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 588,47,2005
DNA damage mouse leukocyte 200 µmol/L CBINA8 36,345,1981
DNA damage oral
mouse
0.59 mg/kg FCTOD7 39,859,2001
DNA damage intraperitoneal
mouse
25 mg/kg FCTOD7 39,859,2001
DNA damage oral
mouse
25 mg/kg/1 day TOXID9 228,16,2006
DNA damage oral
mouse
125 mg/kg/5 day TOXID9 228,16,2006
DNA damage multiple
other fish
100 µmol/L/24 hour MUREAV 608,16,2006
DNA damage intraperitoneal
rat
12.5 mg/kg/5 day- intermittent TOXID9 90,106,2006
DNA inhibition hamster lung 300 µmol/L TIVIEQ 5,549,1991
DNA inhibition hamster kidney 1 mg/L TXCYAC 17,219,1980
DNA inhibition hamster fibroblast 100 µmol/L DCTODJ 4,185,1981
DNA inhibition human fibroblast 100 µmol/L NASGEJ 3,237,1985
DNA inhibition human HeLa cell 13 µmol/L CRNGDP 13,2389,1992
DNA inhibition intraperitoneal
mouse
20 gm/kg ARGEAR 51,605,1981
DNA repair Bacillus subtilis 1,050 µg/L WATRAG 14,1613,1980
DNA repair Salmonella typhimurium 50 mmol/L TOLED5 7,439,1981
unscheduled DNA synthesis human fibroblast 50 µmol/L NASGEJ 3,237,1985
mutation in microorganisms Escherichia coli 1,600 µmol/L (-enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 58,175,1978
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 10 µg/plate (+enzymatic activation step) CRNGDP 3,1331,1982
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 20 µg/plate/72 hour (-enzymatic activation step) TCMUD8 23(Suppl 2),53,2003
mutation in microorganisms Saccharomyes cerevisiae 60 mg/L (-enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 155,117,1985
micronucleus test intraperitoneal
hamster
20 mg/kg NTIS** DE83-770037
micronucleus test human lymphocyte 300 µg/L MUREAV 97,192,1982
micronucleus test human fibroblast 4 µmol/L/24 hour MUREAV 490,99,2001
micronucleus test human fibroblast 2 µmol/L/25 hour EMMUEG 40,200,2002
micronucleus test human lung 2 µmol/L/30 hour EMMUEG 40,200,2002
micronucleus test intraperitoneal
mouse
20 mg/kg EMS37* -,460,2006
micronucleus test multiple
non-mammalian species
10 mg/L MUREAV 283,157,1992
gene conversion and mitotic recombination oral
Drosophila melanogaster
0.1 mmol/L EMMUEG 37,70,2001
gene conversion and mitotic recombination Saccharomyes cerevisiae 60 mg/L MUREAV 155,117,1985
mutation in mammalian somatic cells hamster lung 100 µg/L MUREAV 122,361,1983
mutation in mammalian somatic cells hamster ovary 7 µmol/L MUREAV 117,279,1983
mutation in mammalian somatic cells mouse lymphocyte 1 mg/L JTEHD6 9,367,1982
morphological transform hamster embryo 200 µg/L MUREAV 46,87,1977
morphological transform hamster kidney 25 µg/L TXCYAC 19,55,1981
morphological transform human fibroblast 200 nmol/L CNREA8 47,3815,1987
other mutation test systems Escherichia coli 1,500 nmol/tube ENMUDM 8,571,1986
other mutation test systems hamster kidney 10 mg/L BJCAAI 44,219,1981
other mutation test systems human fibroblast 100 µmol/L NASGEJ 3,237,1985
other mutation test systems human fibroblast 150 µg/L DCTODJ 4,185,1981
other mutation test systems human lymphocyte 3 mg/L MUREAV 97,192,1982
other mutation test systems human other cell types 500 mg/L BJCAAI 44,219,1981
other mutation test systems human other cell types 100 µmol/L/1 hour CARYAB 30,469,1977
other mutation test systems Salmonella typhimurium 76 mg/L MUREAV 192,239,1987
sister chromatid exchange hamster ovary 10 nmol/L JTEHD6 11,227,1983
sister chromatid exchange hamster fibroblast 800 µg/L MUREAV 104,141,1982
sister chromatid exchange hamster lung 16 mg/L CBINA8 42,45,1982
sister chromatid exchange intraperitoneal
hamster
10 mg/kg NTIS** DE83-770037
sister chromatid exchange hamster kidney 20 µmol/L TOLED5 23,51,1984
sister chromatid exchange hamster ovary 0.1 mg/L/30 hour MUREAV 67,231,1979
sister chromatid exchange hamster ovary 0.1 mg/L/39 hour MUREAV 67,231,1979
sister chromatid exchange human lymphocyte 300 µg/L MUREAV 97,192,1982
sister chromatid exchange human fibroblast 100 nmol/L DCTODJ 4,185,1981
sister chromatid exchange mouse lymphocyte 1 µmol/L CRNGDP 4,33,1983
sister chromatid exchange mouse embryo 1 µmol/L TJADAB 27,109,1983
sister chromatid exchange mouse other cell types 1 µmol/L TJADAB 27,109,1983
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction intraperitoneal
Drosophila melanogaster
400 ppm CYTOAN 51,421,1986
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction human lung 250 nmol/L MUREAV 469,35,2000
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction human fibroblast 2 µmol/L/30 hour EMMUEG 40,200,2002
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction Saccharomyes cerevisiae 136 µmol/L MUTAEX 1,21,1986
specific locus test intraperitoneal
Drosophila melanogaster
200 ppm CYTOAN 51,421,1986
specific locus test oral
Drosophila melanogaster
0.5 mmol/L MUREAV 520,93,2002
specific locus test multiple
Drosophila melanogaster
0.25 mmol/L EMMUEG 39,49,2002
specific locus test oral
Drosophila melanogaster
0.1 mmol/L/8 day- continuous EMMUEG 43,196,2004
specific locus test oral
Drosophila melanogaster
2 mmol/L/6 hour- continuous EMMUEG 43,196,2004
sperm morphology intraperitoneal
mouse
4 mg/kg BLOAAO 40,1151,1985
heritable translocation test multiple
Drosophila melanogaster
0.5 mmol/L/48 hour EMMUEG 43,196,2004
heritable translocation test multiple
Drosophila melanogaster
2 mmol/L/6 hour EMMUEG 43,196,2004


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 20 mg/kg (1 day male) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death MUREAV 103,345,1982
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 980 µg/kg (7 week male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)
GISAAA (5),30,1997
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1,710 mg/kg (19 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)
REPTED 3,275,1989
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1 gm/kg (20 day prior to copulation) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
BECTA6 57,327,1996
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1,697 mg/kg (14-19 day pregnant) Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)
VHTODE 37,320,1995
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 2,546 mg/kg (14-19 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Blood and lymphatic systems (including spleen and marrow)
VHTODE 37,320,1995
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 19.4 mg/kg (multigenerations) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral NTIS** #PB97-144919
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 19.4 mg/kg (multigenerations) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Blood and lymphatic systems (including spleen and marrow) NTIS** #PB97-144919
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 85.7 mg/kg (multigenerations) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Blood and lymphatic systems (including spleen and marrow)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
NTIS** #PB97-144919
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 525 mg/kg (21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
EGESAQ 36,273,1992
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kg (0-19 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)
TOLED5 89,207,1996
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1 gm/kg (0-19 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system TOLED5 89,207,1996
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,771 mg/kg (90 day prior to copulation) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
TOLED5 95,165,1998
unreported route
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 700 mg/kg (35 week male) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Other measures of fertility MUREAV 97,180,1982


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.1 mg/m3 Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cough
VCVN5* -,302,1993
intraperitoneal
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 37 mg/kg N/R CRNGDP 4,1535,1983
intraperitoneal
non-mammalian species
lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kg Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
ETOPFR 17,149,2004
intraperitoneal
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 28 mg/kg N/R GISAAA (5),30,1997
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 20 mg/kg Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
ETOPFR 17,149,2004
intravenous
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 27,900 µg/kg N/R EQSSDX 1,1,1975
oral
child
lowest published lethal dose: 26 mg/kg Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory stimulation

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
ZEKIA5 81,417,1958
oral
child
lowest published lethal dose: 50 mg/kg N/R YAKUD5 40,2677,1998
oral
dog
lowest published lethal dose: 2,829 mg/kg N/R EQSSDX 1,1,1975
oral
guinea pig
lowest published lethal dose: 163 mg/kg N/R ZEKIA5 81,417,1958
oral
man
lowest published lethal dose: 143 mg/kg Vascular: BP lowering not characterized in autonomic section

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Urine volume decreased or anuria
YAKUD5 40,2677,1998
oral
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 190 mg/kg N/R SAIGBL 20,590,1978
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kg Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Catalases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TOXID9 228,16,2006
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kg Liver: Other changes TOXID9 228,16,2006
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 25 mg/kg Eye: Other eye effects

Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Ataxia
NTIS** OTS0545929
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 127 mg/kg Liver: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Conditioned vitamin deficiency

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
JAPTO* 25,440,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 127 mg/kg Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation JAPTO* 25,440,2005
oral
woman
lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kg Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Blood: Other changes
CTOXAO 43,111,2005
subcutaneous
guinea pig
lowest published lethal dose: 29,400 µg/kg N/R EQSSDX 1,1,1975
subcutaneous
monkey
lowest published lethal dose: 40 mg/kg Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis) AJPAA4 9,133,1933
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published lethal dose: 100 mg/kg N/R EQSSDX 1,1,1975
subcutaneous
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 7.8 mg/kg N/R VCVN5* -,301,1993
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 15 mg/kg Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Renal function tests depressed

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
TOXID9 44,232,2005
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 15 mg/kg Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Renal function tests depressed
TOXID9 78,239,2004
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 15 mg/kg Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Renal function tests depressed

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Proteinuria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
TXCYAC 218,237,2006
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 15 mg/kg Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis) HBTME* -,487,2007
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 15 mg/kg Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Renal function tests depressed

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Proteinuria
FCTOD7 46,1089,2008
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 15 mg/kg Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TOXID9 12,436,2008
subcutaneous
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 10 mg/kg Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Interstitial nephritis
PSEBAA 9,13,1911
skin
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.5 pph Skin: After topical application: Dermatitis, allergic AJCDE* 13,125,2002
skin
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 14 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea

Skin: After systemic exposure: Dermatitis, other
NTIS** OTS0537040
unreported route
dog
lowest published lethal dose: 2,300 µg/kg N/R GISAAA 27(12),77,1962


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
intramuscular
chicken
lowest published toxic dose: 70 mg/kg/7 day- intermittent Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Conditioned vitamin deficiency
TXCYAC 211,124,2005
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 22,500 µg/kg/12 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Blood: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
ZYYZEW 5,144,1991
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 15 mg/kg/3 day- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Blood: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
WDZAEK 6,205,1992
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2.5 mg/kg/5 day- intermittent Musculoskeletal: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: P

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
HETOEA 25,311,2006
intraperitoneal
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 84 mg/kg/6 week- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
ENVRAL 15,90,1978
intraperitoneal
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 40 mg/kg/5 day- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
JEPOEC 16,51,1997
intraperitoneal
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 54.6 mg/kg/6 week- intermittent Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse HBTME* -,487,2007
intratracheal
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 56 mg/kg/26 week- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis (interstitial) VCVN5* -,303,1989
oral
monkey
lowest published toxic dose: 1,220 mg/kg/122 day- continuous Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count) TXAPA9 215,237,2006
oral
monkey
lowest published toxic dose: 2,440 mg/kg/61 day- continuous Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count) TXAPA9 215,237,2006
oral
monkey
lowest published toxic dose: 1,820 mg/kg/91 day- continuous Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Catalases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Isomerases
TXAPA9 215,237,2006
oral
monkey
lowest published toxic dose: 600 mg/kg/30 day- continuous Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases TXAPA9 215,237,2006
oral
monkey
lowest published toxic dose: 1,200 mg/kg/30 day- continuous Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects TXAPA9 215,237,2006
oral
monkey
lowest published toxic dose: 1,520 mg/kg/152 day- continuous Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Catalases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Isomerases
TXAPA9 215,237,2006
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 33,600 mg/kg/12 week- continuous Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
TXCYAC 116,39,1997
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 7,245 mg/kg/9 week- continuous Blood: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NTIS** #PB97-125363
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 7,245 mg/kg/9 week- continuous Blood: Other changes NTIS** #PB97-125363
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1,764 mg/kg/9 week- continuous Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain NTIS** #PB97-125363
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 252 mg/kg/9 week- continuous Behavioral: Food intake (animal) NTIS** #PB97-125363
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 819 mg/kg/9 week- continuous Liver: Other changes NTIS** #PB97-125363
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 2,999.5 mg/kg/35 day- continuous Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain NTIS** #PB97-144919
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 12,597.9 mg/kg/21 week- continuous Liver: Changes in liver weight NTIS** #PB97-144919
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 714 mg/kg/28 day- continuous Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight
TXAPA9 197,371,2004
oral
mouse
: 125 mg/kg/5 day- intermittent Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TOXID9 228,16,2006
oral
mouse
: 250 mg/kg/5 day- intermittent Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Catalases TOXID9 228,16,2006
oral
mouse
: 500 mg/kg/5 day- intermittent Liver: Other changes TOXID9 228,16,2006
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 56,680 µg/kg/20 day- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Skin: After systemic exposure: Dermatitis, irritative

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
GISAAA 49(5),10,1984
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2,566 mg/kg/26 week- continuous Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes primarily in glomeruli

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Proteinuria
JJATDK 13,375,1993
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,386 mg/kg/9 week- continuous Blood: Other changes NTIS** #PB97-125355
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 420 mg(Cr)/kg/2 week- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain JOETD7 87,247,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 900 mg(Cr)/kg/30 day- intermittent Cardiac: Changes in heart weight

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight
JOETD7 87,247,2003
oral
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 350 mg/kg/10 week- intermittent Endocrine: Estrogenic

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
REPTED 21,322,2006
oral
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 350 mg/kg/10 week- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
REPTED 21,322,2006
skin
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.25 pph/48 hour- continuous Skin: After topical application: Dermatitis, allergic AJCDE* 13,177,2002
skin
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 36 mg/kg/3 day- intermittent Skin: After topical application: Cutaneous sensitization (experimental)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXCYAC 212,69,2005


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT 23,205,1980
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human Sufficient Evidence IMEMDT 49,49,1990
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT 23,205,1980
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Group 1 IMEMDT 49,49,1990
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
85DHAX Cr,22,1974
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 567,227,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 567,109,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 567,151,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ENTOX* -,602,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 533,227,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 659,60,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HUTOX* -,683,1996


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1988 PESTICIDE SUBJECT TO REGISTRATION OR RE-REGISTRATION FEREAC 54,7740,1989
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1998 STATUS OF PESTICIDES: Supported RBREV* -,100,1998
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD - air time-weighted average 0.5 mg(Cr)/m3 DTLVS* 3,35,1971
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry) ceiling concentration 0.1 mg(CrO3)/m3 CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction) ceiling concentration 0.1 mg(CrO3)/m3 CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards) ceiling concentration 0.1 mg(CrO3)/m3 CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors) ceiling concentration 0.1 mg(CrO3)/m3 CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRALIA time-weighted average 0.05 mg(Cr)/m3, JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRIA TRK 0.05 mg(Cr)/m3, JAN 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRIA TRK 0.1 mg(Cr)/m3 (production), JAN 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRIA TRK 0.1 mg(Cr)/m3 (welding fumes), JAN 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - DENMARK time-weighted average 0.005 mg(Cr)/m3, OCT 2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - FRANCE VME 0.05 mg(Cr)/m3, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - RUSSIA short term exposure limit 0.01 mg(Cr)/m3, Skin, Carcinogen, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWEDEN time-weighted average 0.005 mg(Cr)/m3;
short term exposure limit 0.015 mg(Cr)/m3, Carcinogen, Sen, JUN2005


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO CHROMIUM(VI)-air Carcinogen;
10 hour time-weighted average 0.001 mg(Cr)/m3
NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974: Hazard Code: 80064;
Number of Industries 73;
Total Number of Facilities 4,772;
Number of Occupations 53;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 42,402
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: 80064;
Number of Industries 70;
Total Number of Facilities 4,860;
Number of Occupations 58;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 61,073;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 19,198


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: SHE-clonal assay; In vitro cytogenetics-nonhuman
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: B subtilis rec assay
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: CHO gene mutation
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
Used in photomechanical processing, chrome-pigment production and wool preservative methods
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NTP 11th Report on Carcinogens,2004:Known to be human carcinogen


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

85DHAX "Medical and Biologic Effects of Environmental Pollutants Series," Washington, DC, National Academy of Sciences, 1972-77
AJCDE* American Journal of Contact Dermatitis: Official Journal of the American Contact Dermatitis Society (Philadelphia, PA : W.B. Saunders, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich) V.1-14 1990-2003.
AJPAA4 American Journal of Pathology. (Lippincott/Harper, Journal Fulfillment Dept., 2350 Virginia Ave., Hagerstown, MD 21740) V.1- 1925-
ARGEAR Archiv fuer Geschwulstforschung. (VEB Verlag Volk und Gesundheit Neue Gruenstr. 18, Berlin DDR-1020, Ger. Dem. Rep.) V.1- 1949-
BECTA6 Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. (Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., Service Center, 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, NJ 07094) V.1- 1966-
BJCAAI British Journal of Cancer. (Macmillan Press Ltd., Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hants. RG21 2XS, UK) V.1- 1947-
BLOAAO Biologia (Bratislava). (PNS-Ustredna Expedicia a Dovoz Tlace, Gottwaldovo nam. 6, 813 81 Bratislava, Czechoslovakia) V.8- 1953-
CARYAB Caryologia. (Via G. LaPira 4, 50121 Florence, Italy) V.1- 1948-
CBINA8 Chemico-Biological Interactions. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1969-
CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402)
CNREA8 Cancer Research. (Public Ledger Building, Suit 816, 6th & Chestnut Sts., Philadelphia, PA 19106) V.1- 1941-
CODEDG Contact Dermatitis. Environmental and Occupational Dermatitis. (Munksgaard International Pub., c/o Publications Expediting Inc., 200 Meacham Ave., Elmont, NY 11003) V.1- 1975-
CRNGDP Carcinogenesis (London). (Oxford Univ. Press, Pinkhill House, Southfield Road, Eynsham, Oxford OX8 1JJ, UK) V.1- 1980-
CTOXAO Clinical Toxicology. (New York, NY) V.1-18, 1968-81. For publisher information, see JTCTDW.
CYGEDX Cytology and Genetics (English Translation). Translation of TGANAK. (Allerton Press Inc., 150 Fifth Ave., New York, NY 10011) V.8- 1974-
CYTOAN Cytologia. (Japan Pub. Trading Co. (USA), 1255 Howard St., San Francisco, CA 94103) V.1- 1929-
DANKAS Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR. Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. For English translation, see DBIOAM and DKBSAS. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1- 1933-
DCTODJ Drug and Chemical Toxicology. (Marcel Dekker, 270 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10016) V.1- 1977/78-
DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996
EGESAQ Egeszsegtudomany. (Kultura, POB 149, H-1389 Budapest, Hungary) V.1- 1957-
EMMUEG Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 1987-
EMS37*
ENMUDM Environmental Mutagenesis. (New York, NY) V.1-9, 1979-87. For publisher information, see EMMUEG.
ENTOX* Encyclopedia of Toxicology: Reference Book, Elsevier, 2005
ENVRAL Environmental Research. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1967-
EQSSDX Environmental Quality and Safety, Supplement. (Stuttgart, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.1-5, 1975-76. Discontinued.
ETOPFR Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology (Elsevier Science, P.O.Box 7247-7682,Philadelphia,PA 19170 -7682,USA OR Elsevier Science B.V.,P.O.Box 1270,1000 BG Amsterdam,The Netherlands) V.1- Feb.1996-
FATOAO Farmakologiya i Toksikologiya (Moscow). For English translation, see PHTXA6 and RPTOAN. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.2- 1939-
FCTOD7 Food and Chemical Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.20- 1982-
FEREAC Federal Register. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) V.1- 1936-
GISAAA Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1- 1936-
HBTME*
HETOEA Human & Experimental Toxicology. (Macmillan Press Ltd., Brunel Road, Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire, RG21 2XS, UK) V.9- 1990-
HUTOX*
IMEMDT IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) V.1- 1972-
JAPTO* Journal of Applied Toxicology (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Oldlands Way Bognor Regis West Sussex, PO22 9SA England) V.1- 1981-
JEPOEC Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology. (Chem-Orbital, POB 134, Park Forest, IL 60466) V.5(4)- 1984-
JJATDK JAT, Journal of Applied Toxicology. (John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Baffins Lane, Chichester, W. Sussex PO19 1UD, UK) V.1- 1981-
JOETD7 Journal of Ethnopharmacology. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1979-
JTEHD6 Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. (Hemisphere Pub., 1025 Vermont Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20005) V.1- 1975/76-
MUREAV Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1964-
MUTAEX Mutagenesis. (Oxford Univ. Press, Pinkhill House, Southfield Road, Eynsham, Oxford OX8 1JJ, UK) V.1- 1986-
NASGEJ NATO ASI Series, Series G: Ecological Sciences. (Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., Service Center, 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, NJ 07094) No.1- 1983-
NIOSH* National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda.
NTIS** National Technical Information Service. (Springfield, VA 22161) Formerly U.S. Clearinghouse for Scientific & Technical Information.
PSEBAA Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1903/04-
RBREV* Status of Pesticides in Registration, Reregistration, and Special Review (Rainbow Report), Special Review and Reregistration Division Office of Pesticide Programs U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 401 M. Street, S.W., Washington, D.C. 20460, Spring 1998
REPTED Reproductive Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.1- 1987-
SAIGBL Sangyo Igaku. Japanese Journal of Industrial Health. (Nippon Sangyo Eisei Igakkai, Kosu Eisei Bldg., 1-29-8, Shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160, Japan) V.1- 1959-
STEVA8 Science of the Total Environment. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1972-
TCMUD8 Teratogenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.1- 1980-
TIVIEQ Toxicology In Vitro. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.1- 1987-
TJADAB Teratology, The International Journal of Abnormal Development. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.1- 1968-
TOLED5 Toxicology Letters. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1977-
TOXID9 Toxicologist. (Soc. of Toxicology, Inc., 475 Wolf Ledge Parkway, Akron, OH 44311) V.1- 1981-
TXAPA9 Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1959-
TXCYAC Toxicology. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland, Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1973-
VCVN5* "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva. Neorganicheskie soedinenia elementov V-VII groopp" (Hazardous substances. Inornanic substances containing V-VII group elements), Bandman A.L. et al., Chimia, 1989.
VHTODE Veterinary and Human Toxicology. (American College of Veterinary and Comparative Toxicology, Publication Office, Comparative Toxicology, Manhattan, KS 66506) V.19- 1977-
WATRAG Water Research. (Pergamon Press Ltd., Headington Hill Hall, Oxford OX3 0BW, UK) V.1- 1967-
WDZAEK Weisheng Dulixue Zazhi. Journal of Health Toxicology. (Weisheng Dulixue Zazhi Bianjibu, Dongdaqiao, Chaoyang Menwai, Beijing, Peop. Rep. China) V.1- 1987
YAKUD5 Gekkan Yakuji. Pharmaceuticals Monthly. (Yakugyo Jihosha, Inaoka Bldg., 2-36 Jinbo-cho, Kanda, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101, Japan) V.1- 1959-
ZDKAA8 Zdravookhranenie Kazakhstana. Public Health of Kazakhstan. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1- 1941-
ZEKIA5 Zeitschrift fuer Kinderheilkunde. (Berlin, Ger.) V.1-120, 1910-75. For publisher information, see EJPEDT.
ZYYZEW Zhongguo Yaolixue Yu Dulixue Zazhi. (Chinese Pharmacological Society, 27 Tai-Ping Road, Beijing 100850, China) V.1- 1986-

Used in photomechanical processing, chrome-pigment production and wool preservative methods

NIOSH PROFILE (INORGANIC CHROMIUM COMPOUNDS), SRC, 2/82

NIOSH PROFILE (PHOTOGRAPHIC PROCESSING), FIRL, 4/78

RTECS Compound Description:
   Tumorigen
   Mutagen
   Reproductive Effector
   Human Data
   Natural Product
   Primary Irritant

Click Here for Additional Information about RTECS

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