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Cobalt (II) chloride

RTECS #: GF9800000

CAS #: 7646-79-9


UPDATE: May 2009 MW: 129.83 MF: Cl2Co


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA:
  3. MUTATION DATA:
  4. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA:
  5. TUMORIGENIC DATA:
  6. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  7. OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA:
  8. REVIEWS:
  9. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:
  10. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  11. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  12. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. Cobalt chloride
  2. Cobalt dichloride
  3. Cobalt muriate
  4. Cobaltous chloride
  1. Cobaltous dichloride
  2. Dichlorocobalt
  3. Kobalt chlorid (German)


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
skin
human
1%/48 hour CODEDG 12,93,1985


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
DNA damage mammal (species unspecified) lymphocyte 750 µmol/L SCIEAS 198,513,1977
DNA damage other microorganisms 750 µmol/L SCIEAS 198,513,1977
DNA inhibition human HeLa cell 1 mmol/L MUREAV 92,427,1982
DNA repair Bacillus subtilis 50 mmol/L MUREAV 77,109,1980
unscheduled DNA synthesis hamster embryo 200 µmol/L MUREAV 131,173,1984
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 1 mg/L (+enzymatic activation step) BECTA6 40,597,1988
mutation in microorganisms Saccharomyes cerevisiae 100 µmol/L (-enzymatic activation step) CPBTAL 33,1571,1985
gene conversion and mitotic recombination Saccharomyes cerevisiae 3 gm/L MUREAV 155,117,1985
mutation in mammalian somatic cells hamster lung 200 µmol/L MUREAV 68,259,1979
other mutation test systems human leukocyte 24 mg/L/24 hour TXAPA9 227,299,2008
specific locus test oral
Drosophila melanogaster
2 mmol/L MUREAV 320,133,1994


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 25 mg/kg (10 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue) JPMSAE 58,766,1969
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 30 gm/kg (15-16 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
TJADAB 29(3),23A,1984
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 7,280 mg/kg (13 week male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Male fertility index (e.g., # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile nonpregnant females)
TOXID9 6,31,1986
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 3,940 mg/kg (84 day male) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea) TXAPA9 197,351,2004
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 2,155 mg/kg (84 day male) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
TXAPA9 197,351,2004
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 3,360 mg/kg (7 day male) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Male fertility index (e.g., # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile nonpregnant females) HBTME* -,511,2007
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 11 mg/kg (1-22 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea) GISAAA 45(2),6,1980
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 77.9 mg/kg (1 day pregnant-2 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic EKFAE9 58,41,1995


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 400 mg/kg/19 day- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
LBANAX 11,43,1977


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
intraperitoneal
chicken
lowest published toxic dose: 10 mg/kg Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol) CBPAB5 46,427,1973
intraperitoneal
chicken
lowest published toxic dose: 20 mg/kg Endocrine: Other changes CBPAB5 46,427,1973
intraperitoneal
chicken
lowest published toxic dose: 40 mg/kg Endocrine: Hyperglycemia CBPAB5 46,427,1973
intraperitoneal
guinea pig
lowest published lethal dose: 165 mg/kg N/R AEHLAU 11,201,1965
intraperitoneal
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 49 mg/kg N/R AEPPAE 244,17,1962
intraperitoneal
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 17,402 µg/kg N/R JAPMA8 48,143,1959
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2.2 mg/kg Endocrine: Hyperglycemia

Blood: Other changes
TXAPA9 32,316,1975
intraperitoneal
rat
lethal dose : 30 mg/kg Cardiac: Cardiomyopathy including infarction

Cardiac: Arrythmias (indlucing changes in conduction)

Vascular: Thromobosis distant from injection site
VCVN5* -,455,1989
intravenous
dog
lowest published lethal dose: 36 mg/kg N/R HBAMAK 4,1289,1935
intravenous
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 23,300 µg/kg Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold
INJPD2 23,153,1991
intravenous
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 4,300 µg/kg Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold
INJPD2 23,153,1991
intravenous
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 20 mg/kg Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea

Gastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of exocrine pancreas

Endocrine: Hyperglycemia
PSEBAA 82,406,1953
intravenous
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 40 mg/kg Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
PSEBAA 82,406,1953
intravenous
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 9 mg/kg Behavioral: Food intake (animal)

Behavioral: Muscle contraction or spasticity

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Incontinence
VCVN5* -,453,1989
intravenous
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 10 mg/kg Vascular: BP lowering not characterized in autonomic section

Endocrine: Hyperglycemia
VCVN5* -,454,1989
intravenous
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 0.1 mg/kg Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerve VCVN5* -,454,1989
oral
child
lowest published toxic dose: 48 mg/kg Behavioral: Anorexia (human)

Endocrine: Thyroid weight (goiter)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
JAMAAP 157,117,1955
oral
child
lowest published lethal dose: 1,500 mg/kg N/R 34ZIAG -,182,1969
oral
guinea pig
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 55 mg/kg N/R VCVN5* -,453,1989
oral
man
lowest published toxic dose: 1,042 mg/kg/13 week- intermittent Eye: Optic nerve neuropathy

Eye: Visual field changes
IJMDAI 8,61,1972
oral
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 80 mg/kg N/R VCVN5* -,453,1989
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 80 mg/kg N/R HYSAAV 36(1-3),277,1971
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 418 mg/kg Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in both tubules and glomeruli

Blood: Hemorrhage
VCVN5* -,453,1989
oral
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 1,272 mg/kg N/R SMSJAR 26,131,1826
oral
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 0.1 mg/kg Blood: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other hydrolases
VCVN5* -,454,1989
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 60 mg/kg Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
TOLED5 138,235,2003
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 32.458 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count
VCVN5* -,454,1989
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 15 mg/kg Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes primarily in glomeruli

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Blood: Methemoglobinemia- Carboxhemoglobinemia
TOLED5 151,459,2004
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published lethal dose: 20 mg/kg Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes primarily in glomeruli

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Blood: Methemoglobinemia- Carboxhemoglobinemia
TOLED5 151,459,2004
subcutaneous
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 200 mg/kg N/R HBAMAK 4,1289,1935
skin
guinea pig
lowest published lethal dose: 165 mg/kg N/R AEHLAU 11,201,1965
skin
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 1 pph Skin: After topical application: Dermatitis, allergic AJCDE* 13,125,2002
skin
rat
lowest published lethal dose: 2 gm/kg Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain RCCRC* NOTOX1073/1335,1988
unreported route
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 10 mg/kg Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases VCVN5* -,455,1989
unreported route
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 0.2 mg/kg Vascular: BP lowering not characterized in autonomic section VCVN5* -,456,1989


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
guinea pig
lowest published toxic concentration: 2.4 mg/m3/2 week- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Sputum HBTME* -,511,2007
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.5 mg/m3/6 hour/4 week- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Emphysema

Immunological Including Allergic: Decreased immune response
VCVN5* -,457,1989
intraperitoneal
guinea pig
lowest published toxic dose: 60 mg/kg/2 day- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Proteinuria

Endocrine: Hyperglycemia
VCVN5* -,459,1989
intraperitoneal
guinea pig
lowest published toxic dose: 180 mg/kg/6 day- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Urine volume decreased or anuria
VCVN5* -,459,1989
intravenous
dog
lowest published toxic dose: 1,150 mg/kg/10 week- intermittent Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Cardiac: Other changes

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
TXAPA9 61,89,1981
oral
man
lowest published toxic dose: 220 µg/kg/22 day- intermittent Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count TOXID9 72,246,2003
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 3,940.44 mg/kg/12 week- continuous Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Male fertility index (e.g., # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile nonpregnant females)
TXAPA9 197,351,2004
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 2,155.44 mg/kg/12 week- continuous Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count) TXAPA9 197,351,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,003 mg/kg/30 week- intermittent Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning GISAAA 36(2),95,1971
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 140 mg/kg/2 week- intermittent Cardiac: Other changes VCVN5* -,459,1989
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 90 mg/kg/30 week- intermittent Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response
VCVN5* -,462,1989
oral
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 140 mg/kg/2 week- intermittent Cardiac: Other changes VCVN5* -,459,1989
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 60 mg/kg/3 day- intermittent Behavioral: Food intake (animal)

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
JJPAAZ 43,335,1987
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 77.9 mg/kg/24 day- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
EKFAE9 58,41,1995
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 46 mg/kg/2 day- intermittent Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.) FCTOD7 41,431,2003
skin
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 1 pph/48 hour- continuous Skin: After topical application: Dermatitis, allergic AJCDE* 13,177,2002
unreported route
dog
lowest published toxic dose: 2 mg/kg/10 day- intermittent Gastrointestinal: Alteration in gastric secretion VCVN5* -,462,1989


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value time-weighted average 0.02 mg(Co)/m3 DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value Confirmed animal carcinogen DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Limited Evidence IMEMDT 52,363,1991
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT 52,363,1991
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Group 2B IMEMDT 52,363,1991
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 567,227,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 567,109,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 567,151,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUTAEX 15,431,2000
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 533,227,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HBTME* ,511,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 543,191,2003


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

Occupational Exposure Limit - HUNGARY time-weighted average 0.1 mg(Co)/m3, short term exposure limit 0.4 mg(Co)/m3, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit - JAPAN Occupational Exposure Limit 0.05 mg(Co)/m3, 2B carcinogen, APR2007
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWEDEN time-weighted average 0.05 mg(Co)/m3, Sen, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWITZERLAND MAK- week 0.1 mg(Co)/m3, dust, aerosol, DEC2006


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974: Hazard Code: 84329;
Number of Industries 13;
Total Number of Facilities 267;
Number of Occupations 12;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 2,790
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: 84329;
Number of Industries 9;
Total Number of Facilities 185;
Number of Occupations 13;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 9,392;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 4,192


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: B subtilis rec assay; S cerevisiae-homozygosis
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: N crassa-aneuploidy
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
Used as absorbent for AMMONIA, gas masks, electroplating, sympathetic inks, hygrometers
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

34ZIAG "Toxicology of Drugs and Chemicals," Deichmann, W.B., New York, Academic Press, Inc., 1969
AEHLAU Archives of Environmental Health. (Heldref Pub., 4000 Albemarle St., NW, Washington, DC 20016) V.1- 1960-
AEPPAE Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archiv fuer Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie. (Berlin, Ger.) V.110-253, 1925-66. For publisher information, see NSAPCC.
AJCDE* American Journal of Contact Dermatitis: Official Journal of the American Contact Dermatitis Society (Philadelphia, PA : W.B. Saunders, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich) V.1-14 1990-2003.
BECTA6 Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. (Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., Service Center, 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, NJ 07094) V.1- 1966-
CBPAB5 Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, A: Comparative Physiology. (Elsevier Science, 660 White Plains Rd., Tarrytown, NY 10591) V.30- 1971-
CODEDG Contact Dermatitis. Environmental and Occupational Dermatitis. (Munksgaard International Pub., c/o Publications Expediting Inc., 200 Meacham Ave., Elmont, NY 11003) V.1- 1975-
CPBTAL Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. (Japan Pub. Trading Co., USA, 1255 Howard St., San Francisco, CA 94103) V.6- 1958-
DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996
EKFAE9 Eksperimental'naya i Klinicheskaya Farmakologiya. Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology. (Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, ul. B. Yakimanka, 39, 117049 Moscow, Russia) V.55- 1992-
FCTOD7 Food and Chemical Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.20- 1982-
GISAAA Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1- 1936-
HBAMAK "Abdernalden's Handbuch der Biologischen Arbeitsmethoden." (Leipzig, Ger. Dem. Rep.)
HBTME*
HYSAAV Hygiene and Sanitation (USSR). English translation of GISAAA. (Springfield, VA) 1964-71. Discontinued.
IJMDAI Israel Journal of Medical Sciences. (POB 1435, Jerusalem 91013, Israel) V.1- 1965-
IMEMDT IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) V.1- 1972-
INJPD2 Indian Journal of Pharmacology. (Dept. of Pharmacology, Baranas Hindu Univ., Varanasi 221 005, India) V.1- 1968(?)-
JAMAAP JAMA, Journal of the American Medical Association. (AMA, 535 N. Dearborn St., Chicago, IL 60610) V.1- 1883-
JAPMA8 Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association, Scientific Edition. (Washington, DC) V.29-49, 1940-60. For publisher information, see JPMSAE.
JJPAAZ Japanese Journal of Pharmacology. (Japanese Pharmacological Soc., c/o Dept. of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto Univ., Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606, Japan) V.1- 1951-
JPMSAE Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. (American Pharmaceutical Assoc., 2215 Constitution Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20037) V.50- 1961-
LBANAX Laboratory Animals. (Laboratory Animals Ltd., 1 Thrifts Mead, Theydon Bois, Essex CM16 7NF, UK) V.1- 1967-
MUREAV Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1964-
MUTAEX Mutagenesis. (Oxford Univ. Press, Pinkhill House, Southfield Road, Eynsham, Oxford OX8 1JJ, UK) V.1- 1986-
PSEBAA Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1903/04-
RCCRC* Research and Consulting Company, Technical Reports. (RCC NOTOX B.V., Hambakenwetering 7, 5231 DD 's-Hertogenbosch, Netherlands)
SCIEAS Science. (American Assoc. for the Advancement of Science, 1333 H St., NW, Washington, DC 20005) V.1- 1895-
SMSJAR Scottish Medical and Surgical Journal. (Edinburgh, Scotland) For publisher information, see SMDJAK.
TJADAB Teratology, The International Journal of Abnormal Development. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.1- 1968-
TOLED5 Toxicology Letters. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1977-
TOXID9 Toxicologist. (Soc. of Toxicology, Inc., 475 Wolf Ledge Parkway, Akron, OH 44311) V.1- 1981-
TXAPA9 Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1959-
VCVN5* "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva. Neorganicheskie soedinenia elementov V-VII groopp" (Hazardous substances. Inornanic substances containing V-VII group elements), Bandman A.L. et al., Chimia, 1989.

Used as absorbent for AMMONIA, gas masks, electroplating, sympathetic inks, hygrometers

NIOSH PROFILE (COBALT and ITS COMPOUNDS), SRI, 10/77

RTECS Compound Description:
   Tumorigen
   Drug
   Mutagen
   Reproductive Effector
   Human Data
   Primary Irritant

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