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Chloral hydrate

RTECS #: FM8750000

CAS #: 302-17-0


UPDATE: May 2009 MW: 165.40 MF: C2H3Cl3O2


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. MUTATION DATA:
  3. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA:
  4. TUMORIGENIC DATA:
  5. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  6. OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA:
  7. REVIEWS:
  8. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  9. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  10. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. 1,1,1 - Trichloro - 2,2 - dihydroxyethane
  2. 1,1,1 - Trichloro - 2,2 - ethanediol
  3. 1,1 - Ethanediol, 2,2,2 - trichloro - (9CI)
  4. 2,2,2 - Trichloro - 1,1 - ethanediol
  5. Aquachloral
  6. Bi 3411
  7. Chloraldurat
  8. Dormal
  9. Felsules
  10. Hydral
  11. Hydrate de chloral
  12. Kessodrate
  13. Lorinal
  14. Noctec
  1. Nycoton
  2. Nycton
  3. Phaldrone
  4. Rectules
  5. SK - Chloral hydrate
  6. Somni SED
  7. Somnos
  8. Sontec
  9. Tosyl
  10. Trawotox
  11. Trichloracetaldehyd - hydrat (German)
  12. Trichloroacetaldehyde hydrate
  13. Trichloroacetaldehyde monohydrate


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
cytogenetic analysis mouse lymphocyte 1,250 mg/L MUREAV 413,265,1998
cytogenetic analysis non-mammalian species other cell types 100 mmol/L CHROAU 45,215,1974
DNA adduct intraperitoneal
mouse
2,000 nmol/L/1 week- intermittent CALEDQ 185,13,2002
DNA damage hamster ovary 5,000 mg/L/3 hour MUREAV 537,151,2003
DNA damage human liver 3 mmol/L/48 hour FCTOD7 41,621,2003
DNA damage human lymphocyte 0.5 mmol/L/48 hour FCTOD7 41,621,2003
DNA damage human lymphocyte 5.67 mg/L/48 hour MUREAV 607,160,2006
host-mediated assay mouse
Saccharomyes cerevisiae
500 mg/kg MUREAV 141,19,1984
mutation in microorganisms Aspergillus nidulans 5 mg/plate (-enzymatic activation step) CBINA8 30,9,1980
mutation in microorganisms other microorganisms 2 mg/plate (-enzymatic activation step) CBINA8 30,9,1980
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 1 mg/plate (+/-enzymatic activation step) ENMUDM 5(Suppl 1),3,1983
micronucleus test hamster lung 80 mg/L MUREAV 287,71,1993
micronucleus test human lymphocyte 500 µmol/L CRNGDP 18,1687,1997
micronucleus test oral
human
50 mg/kg MUREAV 564,159,2004
micronucleus test intraperitoneal
mouse
41 mg/kg MUREAV 323,81,1994
micronucleus test multiple
non-mammalian species
200 ppm MUREAV 292,83,1993
gene conversion and mitotic recombination Saccharomyes cerevisiae 15 mmol/L MUREAV 141,19,1984
mutation in mammalian somatic cells mouse lymphocyte 1 gm/L MUREAV 413,265,1998
morphological transform hamster embryo 1 mg/L MUREAV 343,7,1995
morphological transform hamster embryo 5 mg/L/7 day MUREAV 654,108,2008
other mutation test systems hamster embryo 165 mg/L MUREAV 287,47,1993
other mutation test systems human lymphocyte 100 mg/L MUREAV 334,1,1995
other mutation test systems non-mammalian species other cell types 100 mmol/L CHROAU 45,215,1974
sister chromatid exchange human lymphocyte 54 mg/L AGTQAH 24,105,1981
sister chromatid exchange oral
human
50 mg/kg MUREAV 564,159,2004
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction Aspergillus nidulans 5 mmol/L MUREAV 155,105,1985
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction hamster embryo 100 mg/L MUREAV 287,47,1993
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction hamster lung 500 mg/L MUREAV 287,29,1993
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction human lymphocyte 50 mg/L MUREAV 287,57,1993
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction intraperitoneal
mouse
82,700 µg/kg ENMUDM 6,695,1984
specific locus test oral
Drosophila melanogaster
5 mmol/L MUREAV 322,111,1994


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 13 gm/kg (3 week prior to copulation-3 week after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral NTOTDY 6,137,1984


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 10 mg/kg Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
CDPRD4 9,279,1986
skin
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 960 mg/kg/1 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
BJCAAI 9,177,1955


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
intraarterial
guinea pig
lowest published lethal dose: 400 mg/kg N/R AEPPAE 131,171,1928
intraperitoneal
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 580 mg/kg Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity) ARZNAD 10,665,1960
intraperitoneal
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 472 mg/kg Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
JAPMA8 41,100,1952
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 400 mg/kg Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decrease FATOAO 47,21,1984
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kg Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport FCTOD7 41,621,2003
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 350 mg/kg Behavioral: General anesthetic ACPSI* 25,1267,2004
intravenous
child
lowest published toxic dose: 39 mg/kg Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Skin: After systemic exposure: Dermatitis, other
JTCTDW 34,101,1996
intravenous
child
lowest published toxic dose: 88 mg/kg Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cyanosis

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
JTCTDW 34,101,1996
intravenous
cattle
lowest published lethal dose: 10 mg/kg N/R HBAMAK 4,1289,1935
intravenous
dog
lowest published lethal dose: 180 mg/kg Behavioral: General anesthetic BDHU** -,-,1936
intravenous
guinea pig
lowest published lethal dose: 400 mg/kg N/R AEPPAE 131,171,1928
intravenous
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 530 mg/kg N/R APFRAD 38,65,1980
intravenous
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 400 mg/kg N/R JPETAB 63,453,1938
oral
cat
lowest published lethal dose: 400 mg/kg Behavioral: Sleep JPETAB 78,340,1943
oral
child
lowest published toxic dose: 70 mg/kg Eye: Miosis (pupilliary constriction)

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Cardiac: Pulse rate increased without fall in BP
JOPDAB 131,787,1997
oral
child
lowest published toxic dose: 219 mg/kg Cardiac: Arrythmias (indlucing changes in conduction) JTCTDW 34,101,1996
oral
cattle
lowest published lethal dose: 30 mg/kg N/R HBAMAK 4,1289,1935
oral
dog
lowest published lethal dose: 1 gm/kg Behavioral: Sleep JPETAB 78,340,1943
oral
frog
lowest published lethal dose: 938 mg/kg N/R AIPTAK 8,77,1901
oral
human
lowest published lethal dose: 4 mg/kg Eye: Miosis (pupilliary constriction)

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
PHBTH* 3,132,1967
oral
human
lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kg Behavioral: General anesthetic

Cardiac: Arrythmias (indlucing changes in conduction)

Vascular: BP lowering not characterized in autonomic section
BMJOAE 2,994,1977
oral
man
lowest published toxic dose: 1 gm/kg Behavioral: Coma

Cardiac: Pulse rate increased without fall in BP

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cyanosis
JTCTDW 34,97,1996
oral
man
lowest published lethal dose: 143 mg/kg Eye: Miosis (pupilliary constriction)

Behavioral: Coma

Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea
JFSCAS 46,1507,2001
oral
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,100 mg/kg N/R JPETAB 106,444,1952
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kg Liver: Tumors EVHPAZ 108,241,2000
oral
pigeon
lowest published lethal dose: 300 mg/kg N/R HBAMAK 4,1289,1935
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 479 mg/kg N/R TXAPA9 18,185,1971
oral
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 1,200 mg/kg Behavioral: General anesthetic AEPPAE 132,214,1928
oral
woman
lowest published toxic dose: 960 mg/kg Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Hallucinations, distorted perceptions

Cardiac: Pulse rate increased without fall in BP
JTCTDW 34,101,1996
oral
woman
lowest published toxic dose: 465 mg/kg Eye: Other eye effects

Behavioral: Coma

Vascular: BP lowering not characterized in autonomic section
AMSVAZ 223,269,1988
parenteral
frog
lowest published lethal dose: 900 mg/kg N/R AEPPAE 166,437,1932
parenteral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 710 mg/kg N/R NIIRDN 6,784,1982
rectal
child
lowest published toxic dose: 97 mg/kg Cardiac: Pulse rate increased without fall in BP AACRAT 65,691,1986
rectal
child
lowest published toxic dose: 75 mg/kg Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Vascular: BP lowering not characterized in autonomic section

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
FCLPH* 18,347,2004
rectal
cattle
lowest published lethal dose: 30 mg/kg N/R HBAMAK 4,1289,1935
rectal
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 710 mg/kg N/R NIIRDN -,1114,1990
rectal
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 1 gm/kg Behavioral: General anesthetic

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
AEPPAE 132,214,1928
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published lethal dose: 800 mg/kg Behavioral: General anesthetic

Behavioral: Excitement

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
AEPPAE 166,437,1932
subcutaneous
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 1 gm/kg Behavioral: General anesthetic

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
ZEPTAT 18,61,1916
skin
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3,030 mg/kg N/R 85JFAN A065,1984
unreported route
child
lowest published toxic dose: 48 mg/kg/6 hour- intermittent Cardiac: Pulse rate increased without fall in BP AACRAT 65,691,1986
unreported route
guinea pig
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 940 mg/kg Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Excitement

Behavioral: Ataxia
GISAAA 35(3),14,1970
unreported route
infant
lowest published toxic dose: 160 mg/kg/3 day- intermittent Cardiac: Arrythmias (indlucing changes in conduction) AACRAT 65,691,1986
unreported route
man
lowest published lethal dose: 103 mg/kg N/R 85DCAI 2,73,1970
unreported route
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 850 mg/kg Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Excitement

Behavioral: Ataxia
GISAAA 35(3),14,1970
unreported route
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 725 mg/kg Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Excitement

Behavioral: Ataxia
GISAAA 35(3),14,1970
unreported route
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,400 mg/kg Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Excitement

Behavioral: Ataxia
GISAAA 35(3),14,1970


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 2,016 mg/kg/14 day- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
EVHPAZ 44,137,1982
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1,440 mg/kg/90 day- continuous Liver: Changes in liver weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
EVHPAZ 44,137,1982
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 4,800 mg/kg/16 day- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight NTPTR* NIH-99-3944
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 120.85 gm/kg/104 week- continuous Liver: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Tumor types after systemic administration not seen spontaneously
EVHPAZ 108,241,2000
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 2,016 mg/kg/14 day- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight EVHPAZ 108,241,2000
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 15,120 mg/kg/90 day- continuous Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
DCTODJ 15,217,1992
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 210 mg/kg/30 week- intermittent Blood: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesterase
GISAAA 35(3),14,1970
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,413 mg/kg/90 day- continuous Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decrease NTOTDY 6,137,1984
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4,800 mg/kg/17 day- intermittent Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NTPTR* NIH-99-3944
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 17.5 mg/kg/7 day- continuous Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
JJATDK 20,455,2000
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,750 mg/kg/7 day- continuous Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases
JJATDK 20,455,2000
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 10,800 mg/kg/90 day- continuous Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse EVHPAZ 108,241,2000
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3,983 mg/kg/13 week- continuous Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
JJATDK 22,227,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1.82 mg/kg/13 week- continuous Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
JAPTO* 22,227,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 17.29 mg/kg/13 week- continuous Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Catalases
JAPTO* 22,227,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,798 mg/kg/13 week- continuous Eye: Optic nerve neuropathy

Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
JAPTO* 22,227,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2,144.87 mg/kg/13 week- continuous Liver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Catalases
JAPTO* 22,227,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 230.23 mg/kg/13 week- continuous Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
JAPTO* 22,227,2002


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Limited Evidence IMEMDT 63,245,1995
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT 63,245,1995
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Group 3 IMEMDT 63,245,1995
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
NEJMAG 342,186,2000
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
IMEMDT 84,317,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 628,31,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ENTOX* -,535,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ENTOX* -,546,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 627,10,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 584,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
BCLPT* 96,131,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 636,178,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
REPTED 22,557,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 659,248,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 659,248,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
PSBUL* 36,91,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HUTOX* -,281,1996


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

N/R N/R N/R


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974: Hazard Code: 84490;
Number of Industries 3;
Total Number of Facilities 1,191;
Number of Occupations 10;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 10,916
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: 84490;
Number of Industries 4;
Total Number of Facilities 264;
Number of Occupations 11;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 11,278;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 8,131


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Aspergillus-aneuploidy; Histidine reversion-Ames test
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Aspergillus-recombination; N crassa-aneuploidy
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Sperm morphology-mouse
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat; Mammalian micronucleus
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
Used as a sedative, anesthetic, narcotic
On EPA IRIS database
NCI Carcinogenesis Studies (gavage);equivocal evidence:mouse,rat
NTP Toxicity studies, RPT# TOX-59, October 2000
NTP Carcinogenesis studies; test completed (post peer review), October 2000


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

85DCAI "Poisoning; Toxicology, Symptoms, Treatments," 2nd ed., Arena, J.M., Springfield, IL, C.C. Thomas, 1970
85JFAN "Agrochemicals Handbook," with updates, Hartley, D., and H. Kidd, eds., Nottingham, Royal Soc. of Chemistry, 1983-86
AACRAT Anesthesia and Analgesia (New York). (Elsevier Science Pub. Co., Inc., 52 Vanderbilt Ave., New York, NY 10017) V.36- 1957-
ACPSI* Acta pharmacologica Sinica (Shanghai : Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica : Chinese Academy of Science ; Carlton, VIC, Australia : Blackwell Publishing Asia, 2005) V.21- 2000-
AEPPAE Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archiv fuer Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie. (Berlin, Ger.) V.110-253, 1925-66. For publisher information, see NSAPCC.
AGTQAH Annales de Genetique. (Expansion Scientifique Francaise, 15 rue Saint-Benoit, F-75278, Paris Cedex 06, France) V.1- 1958-
AIPTAK Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Therapie. (Heymans Institute of Pharmacology, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium) V.4- 1898-
AMSVAZ Acta Medica Scandinavica. (Almqvist & Wiksell, POB 45150, S-10430 Stockholm, Sweden) V.52-224, 1919-88.
APFRAD Annales Pharmaceutiques Francaises. (SPPIF, B.P.22, F-41353 Vineuil, France) V.1- 1943-
ARZNAD Arzneimittel-Forschung. Drug Research. (Editio Cantor Verlag, Postfach 1255, W-7960 Aulendorf, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.1- 1951-
BCLPT* Basic & clinical pharmacology & toxicology (Copenhagen, Denmark : Nordic Pharmacological Society Oxford, UK : Distributed by Blackwell Munksgaard) V.94- 2004-
BDHU** "Nachprufung der Toxicitat von Novocain und Tutocain bei Chloralisierten Tieren, Dissertation," Barke, A., Pharmakologischen Institut der Tierarztlichen Hochschule zu Hannover, Fed. Rep. Ger., 1936
BJCAAI British Journal of Cancer. (Macmillan Press Ltd., Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hants. RG21 2XS, UK) V.1- 1947-
BMJOAE British Medical Journal. (British Medical Assoc., BMA House, Tavistock Sq., London WC1H 9JR, UK) V.1- 1857-
CALEDQ Cancer Letters (Shannon, Ireland). (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1975-
CBINA8 Chemico-Biological Interactions. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1969-
CDPRD4 Cancer Detection and Prevention. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.1- 1976-
CHROAU Chromosoma. (Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., Service Center, 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, NJ 07094) V.1- 1939-
CRNGDP Carcinogenesis (London). (Oxford Univ. Press, Pinkhill House, Southfield Road, Eynsham, Oxford OX8 1JJ, UK) V.1- 1980-
DCTODJ Drug and Chemical Toxicology. (Marcel Dekker, 270 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10016) V.1- 1977/78-
ENMUDM Environmental Mutagenesis. (New York, NY) V.1-9, 1979-87. For publisher information, see EMMUEG.
ENTOX* Encyclopedia of Toxicology: Reference Book, Elsevier, 2005
EVHPAZ EHP, Environmental Health Perspectives. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) No.1- 1972-
FATOAO Farmakologiya i Toksikologiya (Moscow). For English translation, see PHTXA6 and RPTOAN. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.2- 1939-
FCLPH* Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology (Oxford : Blackwell Science) 2001-
FCTOD7 Food and Chemical Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.20- 1982-
GISAAA Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1- 1936-
HBAMAK "Abdernalden's Handbuch der Biologischen Arbeitsmethoden." (Leipzig, Ger. Dem. Rep.)
HUTOX*
IMEMDT IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) V.1- 1972-
JAPMA8 Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association, Scientific Edition. (Washington, DC) V.29-49, 1940-60. For publisher information, see JPMSAE.
JAPTO* Journal of Applied Toxicology (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Oldlands Way Bognor Regis West Sussex, PO22 9SA England) V.1- 1981-
JFSCAS Journal of Forensic Sciences. (American Soc. for Testing and Materials, 1916 Race St., Philadelphia, PA 19103) V.1- 1956-
JJATDK JAT, Journal of Applied Toxicology. (John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Baffins Lane, Chichester, W. Sussex PO19 1UD, UK) V.1- 1981-
JOPDAB Journal of Pediatrics. (C.V. Mosby Co., 11830 Westline Industrial Dr., St. Louis, MO 63141) V.1- 1932-
JPETAB Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. (Williams & Wilkins Co., 428 E. Preston St., Baltimore, MD 21202) V.1- 1909/10-
JTCTDW Journal of Toxicology, Clinical Toxicology. (Marcel Dekker, 270 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10016) V.19- 1982-
MUREAV Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1964-
NEJMAG New England Journal of Medicine. (Massachusetts Medical Soc., 10 Shattuck St., Boston, MA 02115) V.198- 1928-
NIIRDN Drugs in Japan (Ethical Drugs). (Yakugyo Jiho Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan)
NTOTDY Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology. (Fayetteville, NY) V.3-8, 1981-86. For publisher information, see NETEEC.
NTPTR* National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series. (Research Triangle Park, NC 27709) No.206-
PHBTH* "Pharmacology: Basis of Therapy," 3rd ed., Goodman, L.S., ed., New York, Macmillan Pub. Co., 1967
PSBUL*
REPTED Reproductive Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.1- 1987-
TXAPA9 Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1959-
ZEPTAT Zeitschrift fuer Experimentelle Pathologie und Therapie. (Berlin, Ger.) V.1-22, 1905-21. For publisher information, see REXMAS.

Used as a sedative, anesthetic, narcotic

RTECS Compound Description:
   Tumorigen
   Drug
   Mutagen
   Reproductive Effector
   Human Data

Click Here for Additional Information about RTECS

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