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Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

Chloral hydrate

RTECS #

FM8750000

CAS #

302-17-0

Updated

December 2013

Molecular Weight

165.40

Molecular Formula

C2H3Cl3O2

Synonyms

1,1,1-Trichloro-2,2-dihydroxyethane
1,1,1-Trichloro-2,2-ethanediol
1,1-Ethanediol, 2,2,2-trichloro- (9CI)
2,2,2-Trichloro-1,1-ethanediol
Aquachloral
Bi 3411
Chloraldurat
Dormal
Felsules
Hydral
Hydrate de chloral
Kessodrate
Lorinal
Noctec
Nycoton
Nycton
Phaldrone
Rectules
SK-Chloral hydrate
Somni SED
Somnos
Sontec
Tosyl
Trawotox
Trichloracetaldehyd-hydrat (German)
Trichloroacetaldehyde hydrate
Trichloroacetaldehyde monohydrate

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
Cytogenetic Analysisother cell types/non-mammalian species100 mmol/LCHROAU 45,215,1974
Cytogenetic Analysislymphocyte/mouse1250 mg/LMUREAV 413,265,1998
DNA adductintraperitoneal/mouse2000 nmol/L/1W- intermittentCALEDQ 185,13,2002
DNA Damageovary/hamster5000 mg/L/3HMUREAV 537,151,2003
DNA Damageliver/human3 mmol/L/48HFCTOD7 41,621,2003
DNA Damagelymphocyte/human0.5 mmol/L/48HFCTOD7 41,621,2003
DNA Damagelymphocyte/human5.67 mg/L/48HMUREAV 607,160,2006
gene conversion and mitotic recombination/Saccharomyes cerevisiae15 mmol/LMUREAV 141,19,1984
host-mediated assaySaccharomyes cerevisiae/mouse500 mg/kgMUREAV 141,19,1984
micronucleus testlung/hamster80 mg/LMUREAV 287,71,1993
micronucleus testmultiple/non-mammalian species200 ppmMUREAV 292,83,1993
micronucleus testintraperitoneal/mouse41 mg/kgMUREAV 323,81,1994
micronucleus testlymphocyte/human500 µmol/LCRNGDP 18,1687,1997
micronucleus testother cell types/mouse500 mg/L/24H (-enzymatic activation step)MUTAEX 14,403,1999
micronucleus testoral/human50 mg/kgMUREAV 564,159,2004
morphological transformembryo/hamster5 mg/L/7DMUREAV 654,108,2008
morphological transformembryo/hamster1 mg/LMUREAV 343,7,1995
mutation in mammalian somatic cellslymphocyte/mouse1 gm/LMUREAV 413,265,1998
mutation in microorganisms/Aspergillus nidulans5 mg/plate (-enzymatic activation step)CBINA8 30,9,1980
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium1 mg/plate (+/-enzymatic activation step)ENMUDM 5(Suppl 1),3,1983
mutation in microorganisms/Other microorganisms2 mg/plate (-enzymatic activation step)CBINA8 30,9,1980
other mutation test systemslymphocyte/human100 mg/LMUREAV 334,1,1995
other mutation test systemsembryo/hamster165 mg/LMUREAV 287,47,1993
other mutation test systemsother cell types/non-mammalian species100 mmol/LCHROAU 45,215,1974
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctionlymphocyte/human50 mg/LMUREAV 287,57,1993
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctionembryo/hamster100 mg/LMUREAV 287,47,1993
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctionlung/hamster500 mg/LMUREAV 287,29,1993
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction/Aspergillus nidulans5 mmol/LMUREAV 155,105,1985
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctionintraperitoneal/mouse82700 µg/kgENMUDM 6,695,1984
sister chromatid exchangeoral/human50 mg/kgMUREAV 564,159,2004
sister chromatid exchangelymphocyte/human54 mg/LAGTQAH 24,105,1981
specific locus testoral/Drosophila melanogaster5 mmol/LMUREAV 322,111,1994
specific locus testother cell types/mouse3400 µmol/l/24H (-enzymatic activation step)MUTAEX 26,771,2011

Reproductive Effects Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
oral/mouse 13 gm/kg (3W pre-3W after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: BehavioralNTOTDY 6,137,1984

Tumorigenic Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 10 mg/kgTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
CDPRD4 9,279,1986
skin/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 960 mg/kg/1W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
BJCAAI 9,177,1955

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
In Vitro/Human, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 7.9 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell protein synthesisTIVIEQ 3,189,1989
In Vitro/Human, neuroblastoma Inhibitor Concentration Low: 140 µmol/L/4MIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Membrane currentsTXAPA9 245,191,2010
intraarterial/guinea pig lowest published lethal dose: 400 mg/kgAEPPAE 131,171,1928
intraperitoneal/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 580 mg/kgBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)ARZNAD 10,665,1960
intraperitoneal/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 472 mg/kgBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
JAPMA8 41,100,1952
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 400 mg/kgNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decreaseFATOAO 47,21,1984
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kgBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transportFCTOD7 41,621,2003
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 350 mg/kgBehavioral: General anestheticACPSI* 25,1267,2004
intravenous/cattle lowest published lethal dose: 10 mg/kgHBAMAK 4,1289,1935
intravenous/child lowest published toxic dose: 39 mg/kgBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Skin: After systemic exposure: Dermatitis, other
JTCTDW 34,101,1996
intravenous/child lowest published toxic dose: 88 mg/kgBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cyanosis

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
JTCTDW 34,101,1996
intravenous/Dog lowest published lethal dose: 180 mg/kgBehavioral: General anestheticBDHU** -,-,1936
intravenous/guinea pig lowest published lethal dose: 400 mg/kgAEPPAE 131,171,1928
intravenous/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 530 mg/kgAPFRAD 38,65,1980
intravenous/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 400 mg/kgJPETAB 63,453,1938
oral/cat lowest published lethal dose: 400 mg/kgBehavioral: SleepJPETAB 78,340,1943
oral/cattle lowest published lethal dose: 30 mg/kgHBAMAK 4,1289,1935
oral/child lowest published toxic dose: 70 mg/kgEye: Miosis (pupilliary constriction)

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Cardiac: Pulse rate increased without fall in BP
JOPDAB 131,787,1997
oral/child lowest published toxic dose: 219 mg/kgCardiac: Arrythmias (indlucing changes in conduction)JTCTDW 34,101,1996
oral/Dog lowest published lethal dose: 1 gm/kgBehavioral: SleepJPETAB 78,340,1943
oral/frog lowest published lethal dose: 938 mg/kgAIPTAK 8,77,1901
oral/human lowest published lethal dose: 4 mg/kgEye: Miosis (pupilliary constriction)

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
PHBTH* 3,132,1967
oral/human lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kgBehavioral: General anesthetic

Cardiac: Arrythmias (indlucing changes in conduction)

Vascular: BP lowering not characterized in autonomic section
BMJOAE 2,994,1977
oral/man lowest published toxic dose: 1 gm/kgBehavioral: Coma

Cardiac: Pulse rate increased without fall in BP

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cyanosis
JTCTDW 34,97,1996
oral/man lowest published lethal dose: 143 mg/kgEye: Miosis (pupilliary constriction)

Behavioral: Coma

Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea
JFSCAS 46,1507,2001
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kgLiver: TumorsEVHPAZ 108,241,2000
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1100 mg/kgJPETAB 106,444,1952
oral/pigeon lowest published lethal dose: 300 mg/kgHBAMAK 4,1289,1935
oral/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 1200 mg/kgBehavioral: General anestheticAEPPAE 132,214,1928
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 479 mg/kgTXAPA9 18,185,1971
oral/woman lowest published toxic dose: 960 mg/kgBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Hallucinations, distorted perceptions

Cardiac: Pulse rate increased without fall in BP
JTCTDW 34,101,1996
oral/woman lowest published toxic dose: 465 mg/kgEye: Other eye effects

Behavioral: Coma

Vascular: BP lowering not characterized in autonomic section
AMSVAZ 223,269,1988
parenteral/frog lowest published lethal dose: 900 mg/kgAEPPAE 166,437,1932
parenteral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 710 mg/kgNIIRDN 6,784,1982
rectal/cattle lowest published lethal dose: 30 mg/kgHBAMAK 4,1289,1935
rectal/child lowest published toxic dose: 75 mg/kgBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Vascular: BP lowering not characterized in autonomic section

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
FCLPH* 18,347,2004
rectal/child lowest published toxic dose: 97 mg/kgCardiac: Pulse rate increased without fall in BPAACRAT 65,691,1986
rectal/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 1 gm/kgBehavioral: General anesthetic

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
AEPPAE 132,214,1928
rectal/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 710 mg/kgNIIRDN -,1114,1990
skin/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3030 mg/kg85JFAN A065,1984
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published lethal dose: 800 mg/kgBehavioral: General anesthetic

Behavioral: Excitement

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
AEPPAE 166,437,1932
subcutaneous/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 1 gm/kgBehavioral: General anesthetic

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
ZEPTAT 18,61,1916
unreported route/child lowest published toxic dose: 48 mg/kg/6H- intermittentCardiac: Pulse rate increased without fall in BPAACRAT 65,691,1986
unreported route/guinea pig lethal dose (50 percent kill): 940 mg/kgBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Excitement

Behavioral: Ataxia
GISAAA 35(3),14,1970
unreported route/infant lowest published toxic dose: 160 mg/kg/3D- intermittentCardiac: Arrythmias (indlucing changes in conduction)AACRAT 65,691,1986
unreported route/man lowest published lethal dose: 103 mg/kg85DCAI 2,73,1970
unreported route/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 850 mg/kgBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Excitement

Behavioral: Ataxia
GISAAA 35(3),14,1970
unreported route/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1400 mg/kgBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Excitement

Behavioral: Ataxia
GISAAA 35(3),14,1970
unreported route/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 725 mg/kgBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Excitement

Behavioral: Ataxia
GISAAA 35(3),14,1970

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2016 mg/kg/14D- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
EVHPAZ 44,137,1982
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1440 mg/kg/90D- continuousLiver: Changes in liver weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
EVHPAZ 44,137,1982
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 4800 mg/kg/16D- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weightNTPTR* NIH-99-3944
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 120.85 gm/kg/104W- continuousLiver: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Tumor types after systemic administration not seen spontaneously
EVHPAZ 108,241,2000
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2016 mg/kg/14D- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weightEVHPAZ 108,241,2000
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3983 mg/kg/13W- continuousLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
JJATDK 22,227,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1.82 mg/kg/13W- continuousLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
JAPTO* 22,227,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 17.29 mg/kg/13W- continuousLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Catalases
JAPTO* 22,227,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1798 mg/kg/13W- continuousEye: Optic nerve neuropathy

Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
JAPTO* 22,227,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2144.87 mg/kg/13W- continuousLiver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Catalases
JAPTO* 22,227,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 230.23 mg/kg/13W- continuousLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
JAPTO* 22,227,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 17.5 mg/kg/7D- continuousLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
JJATDK 20,455,2000
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1750 mg/kg/7D- continuousLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases
JJATDK 20,455,2000
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 10800 mg/kg/90D- continuousLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuseEVHPAZ 108,241,2000
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 15120 mg/kg/90D- continuousLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
DCTODJ 15,217,1992
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 210 mg/kg/30W- intermittentBlood: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesterase
GISAAA 35(3),14,1970
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1413 mg/kg/90D- continuousNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decreaseNTOTDY 6,137,1984
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4800 mg/kg/17D- intermittentBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NTPTR* NIH-99-3944

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Limited EvidenceIMEMDT 63,245,1995
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 63,245,1995
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review: Group 3IMEMDT 84,349,2004
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Group 3IMEMDT 63,245,1995
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNEJMAG 342,186,2000
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWIMEMDT 84,317,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 628,31,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,535,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,546,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 627,10,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 584,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWBCLPT* 96,131,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 636,178,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 22,557,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 659,248,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWPSBUL* 36,91,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHUTOX* -,281,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWIMEMDT 84,317,
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 23,271,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 705,20,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNCLNA* 16,503,1998
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNBREV* 5,1,1981
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXCYAC 286,1,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 750,1,2012

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code 84490; Number of Industries 4; Total Number of Facilities 264; Number of Occupations 11; Total Number of Employees Exposed 11278; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 8131
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code 84490; Number of Industries 3; Total Number of Facilities 1191; Number of Occupations 10; Total Number of Employees Exposed 10916

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat; Mammalian micronucleus
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Aspergillus-recombination; N crassa-aneuploidy
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Sperm morphology-mouse
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Aspergillus-aneuploidy; Histidine reversion-Ames test
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
NCI Carcinogenesis Studies (gavage);equivocal evidence:mouse,rat
NTP Carcinogenesis studies; test completed (post peer review), October 2000
NTP Toxicity studies, RPT# TOX-59, October 2000
On EPA IRIS database
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