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Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

Carbamic acid, ethyl ester

RTECS #

FA8400000

CAS #

51-79-6

Updated

July 2013

Molecular Weight

89.11

Molecular Formula

C3H7NO2

Synonyms

A 11032
Aethylcarbamat (German)
Aethylurethan (German)
Carbamidsaeure-aethylester (German)
Ethyl carbamate
Ethyl urethane
Ethylester kyseliny karbaminove (Czech)
Ethylurethan
Leucethane
Leucothane
NSC 746
O-Ethylurethane
Pracarbamin
Pracarbamine
RCRA waste number U238
U-Compound
Uretan
Uretan etylowy (Polish)
Urethan
Urethane
X 41

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
body fluid assayEscherichia coli/mouse1400 mg/kg/28DEMMUEG 41,43,2003
Cytogenetic Analysissubcutaneous/mouse0.3 mg/kg/7D- intermittentTPKVAL 13,86,1973
Cytogenetic Analysisunreported route/rat400 mg/kgEMMUEG 49,276,2008
Cytogenetic Analysisintravenous/rat800 mg/kgJJIND8 67,831,1981
Cytogenetic Analysisintraperitoneal/rat100 mg/kgMUREAV 371,259,1996
Cytogenetic Analysissubcutaneous/mouse20 mg/kgJJCREP 76,1141,1985
Cytogenetic Analysisintraperitoneal/mouse5 gm/kg/10D- intermittentIJCNAW 4,327,1969
Cytogenetic Analysisskin/mouse8 gm/kgMUREAV 271,223,1992
Cytogenetic Analysisinhalation/mouse1280 µg/L/48H-continuousMUREAV 369,59,1996
Cytogenetic Analysislung/hamster10 gm/LATSUDG 4,41,1980
Cytogenetic Analysisfibroblast/hamster8 gm/L/48HMUREAV 48,337,1977
DNA adductintraperitoneal/mouse400 mg/kgCBINA8 6,99,1973
DNA Damageparenteral/mouse1 gm/kgIJCAAR 10,403,1973
DNA Damageliver/rat100 mmol/LSinJF# 26OCT1982
DNA Damagefibroblast/human3 mmol/LENMUDM 7,267,1985
DNA Damage/Bacillus subtilis2 mg/discPMRSDJ 1,175,1981
DNA Damageoral/mouse1400 mg/kg/28DEMMUEG 41,43,2003
DNA inhibitionfibroblast/human200 mmol/LMUREAV 183,89,1987
DNA inhibitionintraperitoneal/rat1 gm/kgCNREA8 33,2149,1973
DNA inhibitionintraperitoneal/mouse500 mg/kgMUREAV 46,305,1977
DNA inhibitionskin/mouse13600 µmol/kgCNREA8 33,769,1973
DNA inhibitionsubcutaneous/mouse1200 mg/kgCBINA8 19,327,1977
gene conversion and mitotic recombination/Saccharomyes cerevisiae150 mg/LPMRSDJ 1,491,1981
heritable translocation testoral/Drosophila melanogaster11 ppbEMMUEG 23,51,1994
heritable translocation testoral/Drosophila melanogaster10 mmol/L/48HFCTOD7 41,41,2003
heritable translocation testmultiple/Drosophila melanogaster0.005 mole/L/48HEMMUEG 45,90,2005
host-mediated assayEscherichia coli/mouse670 mg/kgMUREAV 272,161,1992
micronucleus testintraperitoneal/mouse30 mg/kg/2D- intermittentPMRSDJ 1,705,1981
micronucleus testparenteral/mouse40 mg/kgTUMOAB 69,387,1983
micronucleus testskin/mouse2 mg/kgEMMUEG 17,163,1991
micronucleus testintraperitoneal/rat15 gm/kg/10W- intermittentMUREAV 127,169,1984
micronucleus testoral/rat600 mg/kgMUREAV 262,247,1991
micronucleus testunreported route/rat8400 mg/kg/28DMUREAV 680,31,2009
micronucleus testunreported route/rat1200 mg/kg/4DMUREAV 680,31,2009
micronucleus testovary/hamster3500 mg/L/24HMUREAV 607,61,2006
micronucleus testfibroblast/hamster800 mg/L/24HMUREAV 607,88,2006
micronucleus testovary/hamster56123 µmol/L/24H (-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 630,1,2007
micronucleus testoral/mouse300 mg/kgEMMUEG 41,43,2003
micronucleus testintraperitoneal/rat750 mg/kgMUTAEX 17,15,2002
micronucleus testunreported route/mouse30 mg/kg/6W- intermittentTOXID9 44,366,2005
micronucleus testintraperitoneal/mouse500 mg/kgEMMUEG 49,335,2008
morphological transformintraperitoneal/rat800 mg/kgCNREA8 40,1157,1980
morphological transformoral/rat5040 mg/kg/6WCRNGDP 9,387,1988
morphological transformembryo/mouse1100 µmol/LMUREAV 152,113,1985
morphological transformfibroblast/mouse500 µg/LCRNGDP 3,1235,1982
morphological transformintraperitoneal/hamster1 gm/kgARPAAQ 95,380,1973
morphological transformkidney/hamster80 µg/LBJCAAI 37,873,1978
morphological transformfibroblast/mouse0.5 mg/L/21D (-enzymatic activation step)EMMUEG 35,300,2000
mutation in mammalian somatic cellsintraperitoneal/mouse3000 gm/L/1WCALEDQ 153,199,2000
mutation in mammalian somatic cellsintraperitoneal/mouse1000 mg/kgTOXID9 90,384,2006
mutation in microorganisms/Saccharomyes cerevisiae12500 mg/L/18H (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 653,63,2008
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium500 mg/L/72H (-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 558,181,2004
mutation in microorganisms/Saccharomyes cerevisiae10 mg/L/16HMUTAEX 20,317,2005
mutation in microorganisms/Saccharomyes cerevisiae71200 µmol/L (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 45,309,1977
mutation in microorganisms/Other microorganisms1000 ppm (-enzymatic activation step)APMBAY 6,45,1958
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium50 µg/plate (-enzymatic activation step)PMRSDJ 1,351,1981
mutation in microorganisms/Escherichia coli50 gm/L/1H (-enzymatic activation step)CRSUBM 3,69,1955
mutation in microorganisms/Escherichia coli50 µg/plate (+enzymatic activation step)PMRSDJ 1,351,1981
other mutation test systemsintraperitoneal/rat100 mg/kgMUREAV 371,259,1996
other mutation test systemsintraperitoneal/mouse741 mg/kgCBINA8 4,329,1971/1972
other mutation test systemsparenteral/mouse750 mg/kgZKKOBW 76,69,1971
phage inhibition capacity/Escherichia coli100 mmol/LMDMIAZ 31,11,1979
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction/Saccharomyes cerevisiae150 mg/LPMRSDJ 1,468,1981
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction/Aspergillus nidulans169 mmol/LMUREAV 172,139,1986
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctionmultiple/Drosophila melanogaster40 mmol/LCRNGDP 17,1083,1996
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctioninhalation/Drosophila melanogaster55000 ppm/6HCNREA8 39,4224,1979
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctionoral/Drosophila melanogaster100 mmol/L/3D- intermittentCRNGDP 5,571,1984
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctionparenteral/Drosophila melanogaster56200 µmol/LCNREA8 30,195,1970
sister chromatid exchangeintraperitoneal/rat400 mg/kgMUREAV 126,159,1984
sister chromatid exchangeunreported route/rat400 mg/kgBANRDU 13,293,1982
sister chromatid exchangeliver/rat5 mmol/LMUREAV 93,409,1982
sister chromatid exchangelymphocyte/human10 mmol/LMUREAV 89,75,1981
sister chromatid exchangeintraperitoneal/mouse3300 µmol/kgCRNGDP 5,399,1984
sister chromatid exchangeinhalation/mouse220 µg/LMUREAV 88,223,1981
sister chromatid exchangeintravenous/mouse1100 µmol/kgTCMUD8 10,1,1990
sister chromatid exchangeunreported route/mouse400 mg/kgBANRDU 13,293,1982
sister chromatid exchangeunreported route/hamster400 mg/kgBANRDU 13,293,1982
sister chromatid exchangefibroblast/hamster10 mmol/LJNCIAM 58,1635,1977
sister chromatid exchangeintraperitoneal/hamster400 mg/kgMUREAV 126,159,1984
specific locus test/Drosophila melanogaster5 mmol/L/7DMUREAV 513,61,2002
specific locus testsubcutaneous/mouse1 gm/kgCNREA8 43,1342,1983
specific locus testoral/Drosophila melanogaster500 µmol/LCNJGA8 17,55,1975
specific locus testmultiple/Drosophila melanogaster10 mmol/LCRNGDP 17,1083,1996
specific locus testmultiple/Drosophila melanogaster891 mg/L/48HEMMUEG 45,56,2005
specific locus testoral/Drosophila melanogaster0.005 pph/48H-continuousEMMUEG 45,90,2005
specific locus testintraperitoneal/hamster44.56 mg/kgMUREAV 657,160,2008
specific locus testoral/Drosophila melanogaster10 mmol/L/48H-continuousMUREAV 653,70,2008
sperm morphologyinhalation/Drosophila melanogaster55000 ppm/6HCNREA8 39,4224,1979
sperm morphologyintraperitoneal/mouse25 gm/kg/5D- intermittentCMMUAO 5,257,1978
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisintraperitoneal/mouse750 mg/kgEMMUEG 24,68,1994
Unscheduled DNA SynthesisHeLa cell/human10 µmol/LCNREA8 38,2621,1978
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisfibroblast/human20 mg/LTXCYAC 21,151,1981
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisliver/rat100 µmol/LCNREA8 42,3010,1982
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisother cell types/rat1 mole/LSHKKAN 22,300,1980

Reproductive Effects Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
intraperitoneal/mouse 1500 mg/kg (1D male)Reproductive: Other reproductive system tumorsTXAPA9 158,161,1999
intraperitoneal/mouse 3750 mg/kg (5D prior to copulation)Reproductive: Maternal effects: Menstrual cycle changes or disordersJRPFA4 51,159,1977
intraperitoneal/mouse 3 gm/kg (6D prior to copulation)Reproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubes

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Other measures of fertility
JRPFA4 51,159,1977
intraperitoneal/mouse 1200 mg/kg (7-9D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
POASAD 56,10,1976
intraperitoneal/mouse 1 gm/kg (18D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolicTXCYAC 24,251,1982
intraperitoneal/mouse 1200 mg/kg (9D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
KAIZAN 43,378,1968
intraperitoneal/mouse 1250 mg/kg (9D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Hepatobiliary system
IJEBA6 8,167,1970
intraperitoneal/mouse 1250 mg/kg (11D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Respiratory systemIJEBA6 8,167,1970
intraperitoneal/rat 1200 mg/kg (1D prior to copulation)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Other measures of fertilityENDOAO 90,1594,1972
intraperitoneal/rat 10 gm/kg (20D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)HIKYAJ 12,1339,1966
intraperitoneal/hamster 499 mg/kg (8D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Eye, ear

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Skin and skin appendages
CNREA8 27,1696,1967
intraperitoneal/hamster 499 mg/kg (8D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)CNREA8 27,1696,1967
intraperitoneal/hamster 400 mg/kg (8D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Cardiovascular (circulatory) system
ARPAAQ 81,174,1966
intrauterine/mouse 10000 mg/kg (7-16D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Immune and reticuloendothelial systemHBPTO* 1,776,2001
intravenous/hamster 400 mg/kg (8D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal deathARPAAQ 81,174,1966
intravenous/hamster 200 mg/kg (8D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Cardiovascular (circulatory) system
ARPAAQ 81,174,1966
intravenous/rat 1300 mg/kg (1D prior to copulation)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Other measures of fertilityENDOAO 91,87,1972
intravenous/mouse 490 mg/kg (13-17D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Cytological changes (including somatic cell genetic material)EMMUEG 14,90,1989
intravenous/Dog 1 gm/kg (20D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal deathJZKEDZ 6,37,1980
oral/mouse 1600 mg/kg (4-7D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)APTOA6 8,82,1952
oral/mouse 4 gm/kg (8-12D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Live birth index (Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured after birth)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Viability index (e.g., # alive at day 4 per # born alive)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
TCMUD8 6,361,1986
oral/rat 7 gm/kg (6-12D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)JJPAAZ 16,63,1966
oral/rat 2 gm/kg (8-9D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal systemJJPAAZ 16,63,1966
oral/rat 2 gm/kg (6-7D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)JJPAAZ 16,63,1966
subcutaneous/rat 1200 mg/kg (1D prior to copulation)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Other measures of fertilityENDOAO 90,1594,1972
subcutaneous/mouse 1 gm/kg (15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: StillbirthGANNA2 63,731,1972
subcutaneous/mouse 45 mg/kg (6-14D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Eye, earNTIS** PB223-160
subcutaneous/mouse 550 mg/kg (7-17D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Blood and lymphatic systems (including spleen and marrow)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Immune and reticuloendothelial system
JOIMD6 8,243,1986
subcutaneous/mouse 418 mg/kg (6-14D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
NTIS** PB223-160
subcutaneous/mouse 30 mg/kg (1-18D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Respiratory system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system
TPKVAL 15,36,1979
subcutaneous/mouse 3060 mg/kg (1-18D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Cardiovascular (circulatory) system
TPKVAL 15,36,1979
subcutaneous/mouse 306 mg/kg (1-18D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Cardiovascular (circulatory) system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Respiratory system
TPKVAL 15,36,1979
subcutaneous/mouse 306 mg/kg (1-18D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital systemTPKVAL 15,36,1979

Tumorigenic Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 2500 mg/m3/10D- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
JJCREP 81,742,1990
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 138 ppm/130D- intermittentTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
AEHLAU 22,663,1971
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2500 mg/kg (7-11D pregnant)Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Transplacental tumorigenesis

Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Ovarian tumors
IARCCD 4,14,1973
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kg (19D pregnant)Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Transplacental tumorigenesis

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
CNREA8 38,137,1978
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 7 mg/kg/39W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
SCIEAS 147,1443,1965
intraperitoneal/mouse toxic dose: 880 mg/kg/7W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Ear: Tumors

Liver: Tumors
CNREA8 40,1194,1980
intraperitoneal/mouse toxic dose: 4990 µg/kgTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
CNREA8 43,1124,1983
intraperitoneal/mouse toxic dose: 800 mg/kgTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
CNREA8 36,1744,1976
intraperitoneal/mouse toxic dose: 10 mg/kgTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
CNREA8 33,3069,1973
intraperitoneal/mouse toxic dose: 400 mg/kgTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
CNREA8 35,1411,1975
intraperitoneal/mouse toxic dose: 500 mg/kgTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
CNREA8 44,107,1984
intraperitoneal/mouse toxic dose: 1000 mg/kg (18D pregnant)Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Transplacental tumorigenesis

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
JNCIAM 8,63,1947
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1500 mg/kgTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
VHTODE 42,129,2000
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1000 mg/kg/15D- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Facilitates action of known carcinogens

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
VOONC* -,704,1992
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 250 mg/kgTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
JTSCDR 26,129,2001
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1000 mg/kgTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
TOLED5 142,111,2003
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 5000 mg/kg/15D- intermittentTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Increased incidence of tumors in susceptible strains
TXCYAC 217,129,2006
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 250 mg/kgTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
JTPAE7 15,215,2002
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 250 mg/kgTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
CALEDQ 145,101,1999
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 125 mg/kgTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
CALEDQ 145,101,1999
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 400 mg/kgTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Increased incidence of tumors in susceptible strains
CNREA8 67,9248,2007
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1000 mg/kgTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
CCPHDZ 62,605,2008
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2000 mg/kg/16W- intermittentTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Blood: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Increased incidence of tumors in susceptible strains
ARTODN 82,771,2008
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kg (19D pregnant)Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Transplacental tumorigenesis

Liver: Tumors
CNREA8 30,2552,1970
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kgTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
RRCRBU 52,29,1975
intravenous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1000 mg/kg (18D pregnant)Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Transplacental tumorigenesis

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
JNCIAM 8,63,1947
intravenous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1 gm/kgTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
CNREA8 22,299,1962
oral/hamster lowest published toxic dose: 55 gm/kg/64W- continuousTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Gastrointestinal: Tumors

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
EJCAAH 5,165,1969
oral/monkey lowest published toxic dose: 325 gm/kg/5Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Liver: Tumors
PAACA3 21,78,1980
oral/mouse toxic dose: 1200 mg/kg/4W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Blood: Lymphoma including Hodgkin's disease
BJCAAI 15,322,1961
oral/mouse toxic dose: 1280 mg/kg/4W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Blood: Lymphoma including Hodgkin's disease
BJCAAI 15,322,1961
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 22.68 gm/kg/27W- continuousTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Facilitates action of known carcinogens
JTPAE7 16,85,2003
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 12 gm/kg/15D- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
TUMOAB 53,81,1967
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 18 gm/kg/103W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Vascular: Tumors
EVHPAZ 108,61,2000
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 30 gm/kg/52W- continuousTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Liver: Tumors
CNREA8 7,107,1947
skin/hamster lowest published toxic dose: 1000 mg/kg/1W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
CRSBAW 158,440,1964
skin/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 90 gm/kg/56W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
CRNGDP 5,911,1984
subcutaneous/hamster lowest published toxic dose: 1 gm/kgTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Gastrointestinal: Tumors

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
IJCNAW 6,63,1970
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1 gm/kg (11D pregnant)Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Transplacental tumorigenesis

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
CALEDQ 18,131,1983
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1000 mg/kg (15D pregnant)Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Transplacental tumorigenesis

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
CNREA8 30,2552,1970
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kgTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Ovarian tumors
CNREA8 34,2217,1974
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1.5 gm/kg/14D- intermittentTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Liver: Tumors
EJCAAH 40,275,2004
subcutaneous/mouse toxic dose: 500 mg/kgTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Bronchogenic carcinoma

Tumorigenic: Tumor types after systemic administration not seen spontaneously
CNREA8 33,1677,1973
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 8 gm/kg/8W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Eye: Tumors
JNCIAM 43,749,1969
unreported route/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1 gm/kg (17D pregnant)Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Transplacental tumorigenesis

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
BCSTB5 2,710,1974
unreported route/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1000 mg/kg (17D pregnant)Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Transplacental tumorigenesis

Liver: Tumors
BCSTB5 2,710,1974

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
In Vitro/Human, blood (whole or unspecified cells) Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): >10000 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell Viability (cell death), unspecified assayTXCYAC 229,11,2007
In Vitro/Mouse, blood (whole or unspecified cells) Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): >10000 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell Viability (cell death), unspecified assayTXCYAC 229,11,2007
In Vitro/Rat, blood (whole or unspecified cells) Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): >10000 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell Viability (cell death), unspecified assayTXCYAC 229,11,2007
intraarterial/guinea pig lowest published lethal dose: 800 mg/kgAEPPAE 131,171,1928
intramuscular/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1400 mg/kgZKKOBW 84,227,1975
intraperitoneal/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1539 mg/kgPMRSDJ 1,682,1981
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 250 mg/kgBehavioral: Food intake (animal)JTSCDR 26,129,2001
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published lethal dose: 250 mg/kgJTSCDR 26,129,2001
intraperitoneal/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1500 mg/kgCNREA8 26,1448,1966
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1300 mg/kgBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Endocrine: Hyperglycemia

Endocrine: Other changes
AJBSAM 40,91,1987
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 150 mg/kgBehavioral: SleepENDOAO 106,343,1980
intravenous/guinea pig lowest published lethal dose: 800 mg/kgAEPPAE 131,171,1928
intravenous/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 500 mg/kgAPJUA8 5,43,1955
intravenous/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 2 gm/kg27ZIAQ -,272,1973
multiple/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1.5 gm/kgEndocrine: HyperglycemiaCYLPDN 21,271,2000
oral/chicken lowest published lethal dose: 2188 mg/kgFDWU** -,-,1931
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2500 mg/kgARZNAD 9,595,1959
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 10 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Blood: Other changes
TOXID9 72,318,2003
oral/mouse lethal dose (16 percent kill): 1900 mg/kgBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Muscle weakness

Behavioral: Ataxia
TPKVAL 13,86,1973
oral/mouse lowest published lethal dose: 2500 mg/kgMUREAV 747,164,2012
oral/pigeon lowest published lethal dose: 800 mg/kgFDWU** -,-,1931
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1809 mg/kgCALEDQ 57,37,1991
parenteral/mouse lowest published lethal dose: 1 gm/kgGastrointestinal: PeritonitisNCISA* PH-43-62-483
subcutaneous/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1750 mg/kgGANNA2 63,731,1972
subcutaneous/rat lowest published lethal dose: 1800 mg/kgAEPPAE 182,348,1936
unreported route/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2 gm/kgBJCAAI 6,160,1952
unreported route/rat lowest published toxic dose: 800 mg/kgBehavioral: General anestheticFATOAO 49,107,1986

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 700 mg/kg/7D- intermittentEndocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight

Immunological Including Allergic: Decreased immune response
TOXID9 54,161,2000
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 5000 mg/kg/2D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: TumorsTOXID9 44,366,2005
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 3000 mg/kg/7D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Bronchogenic carcinoma

Endocrine: Tumors

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TOXID9 -,455,2009
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1800 mg/kg/180D- intermittentVascular: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Increased incidence of tumors in susceptible strains

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
EVHPAZ 108,61,2000
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 20 gm/kg/13W- continuousLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight
NTPTR* NIH-96-3937
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 18 gm/kg/180D- intermittentBlood: Lymphoma including Hodgkin's disease

Tumorigenic: Increased incidence of tumors in susceptible strains

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
EVHPAZ 108,61,2000
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 18 gm/kg/180D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Liver: Tumors

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight
EVHPAZ 108,61,2000
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kg/5D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Blood: Other changes
TOXID9 72,318,2003
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 36400 mg/kg/26W- continuousLiver: TumorsTOXID9 60,203,2001
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 123.2 mg/kg/4W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Liver: Other changes
NTPTR* TR-510
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 89.6 mg/kg/4W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changesNTPTR* TR-510
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1040000 µg/kg/80W- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainNTPTR* TR-510
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 10512000 µg/kg/2Y- intermittentBehavioral: Fluid intake

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Liver: Angiosarcoma
NTPTR* TR-510
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 10512000 µg/kg/2Y- intermittentCardiac: Other changes

Cardiac: Tumors

Gastrointestinal: Tumors
NTPTR* TR-510
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 9490000 µg/kg/2Y- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Liver: Angiosarcoma

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
NTPTR* TR-510
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 9490000 µg/kg/2Y- intermittentCardiac: Other changes

Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Ovarian tumors

Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Uterine tumors
NTPTR* TR-510
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 9490000 µg/kg/2Y- intermittentSkin and Appendages: TumorsNTPTR* TR-510
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 3358000 µg/kg/2Y- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Liver: Tumors

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
NTPTR* TR-510
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1022000 µg/kg/2Y- intermittentEye: Tumors

Liver: Other changes

Liver: Tumors
NTPTR* TR-510
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1168000 µg/kg/2Y- intermittentEye: TumorsNTPTR* TR-510
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 3066000 µg/kg/2Y- intermittentBlood: Tumors

Reproductive: Maternal effects: Uterus, cervix, vagina
NTPTR* TR-510
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 7098 mg/kg/13W- continuousLiver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
NTPTR* NIH-96-3937
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 3000 mg/kg/3D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Increased incidence of tumors in susceptible strains
CRNGDP 25,1973,2004
unreported route/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2800 mg/kg/14D- intermittentEndocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight

Blood: Changes in spleen
HBPTO* 1,776,2001
unreported route/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1 mg/kg/10D- intermittentImmunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune responseHBPTO* 1,776,2001
unreported route/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 30 mg/kg/6W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Liver: Tumors
TOXID9 44,366,2005

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 7,111,1974
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human No Adequate DataIMEMDT 7,111,1974
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Group 2BIMSUDL 7,56,1987
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFEPRA7 35,89,1976
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJAMAAP 172,1765,1960
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW32XPAD -,49,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCLPTAT 5,480,1964
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWADVPA3 4,263,1966
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCNREA8 35,2895,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWONCOBS 33,66,1976
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWBLFSBY 24,129,1983
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTIHEEC 5,1045,1989
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 567,227,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 14,141,1999
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWDIMON* 39,678,1993
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 627,10,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,411,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 584,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOPADD 33,63,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 19,169,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWITODC* -,327,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 544,425,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 608,136,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 180,110,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 590,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 678,113,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 48,,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNBREV* 5,1,1981
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXAPA9 243,180,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 22,83,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 723,77,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 721,27,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 723,108,2011

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Occupational Exposure Limit-JAPAN2B carc, MAY2012
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWEDENGroup B Carcinogen, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWITZERLANDcarc 2, JAN2011

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code X3213; Number of Industries 8; Total Number of Facilities 1299; Number of Occupations 8; Total Number of Employees Exposed 9459; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 5050

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: E coli polA without S9; In vitro UDS-human fibroblast
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: D melanogaster-nondisjunction; Host-mediated assay
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: E coli polA with S9; Histidine reversion-Ames test
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: S cerevisiae-homozygosis
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Sperm morphology-mouse; TRP reversion
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive/dose response: In vitro SCE-nonhuman
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat; SHE-clonal assay
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Cell transform.-mouse embryo
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Cell transform.-RLV F344 rat embryo
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: D melanogaster Sex-linked lethal
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: D melanogaster-reciprocal translocation
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: D melanogaster-whole sex chrom. loss
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Mammalian micronucleus; N crassa-reversion
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: S cerevisiae gene conversion
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NTP 11th Report on Carcinogens,2004:Reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen
NTP Carcinogenesis studies; on test (two year studies), October 2000
NTP Toxicity studies, RPT# TOX-52, October 2000
On EPA IRIS database
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