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Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

Cadmium chloride

RTECS #

EV0175000

CAS #

10108-64-2

Updated

December 2013

Molecular Weight

183.30

Molecular Formula

CdCl2

Synonyms

Anhydrous cadmium chloride
Caddy
Cadmium dichloride
Dichlorocadmium
Kadmiumchlorid (German)
VI-Cad

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
Cytogenetic Analysismultiple/other fish630 µg/L/4W-continuousBECTA6 36,199,1986
Cytogenetic Analysislymphocyte/human50 µmol/L/24HTXCYAC 10,67,1978
Cytogenetic Analysisleukocyte/human1 µmol/LTKIZAM 82,232,1974
Cytogenetic Analysisembryo/rat3500 nmol/LDANKAS 224,1189,1975
Cytogenetic Analysissubcutaneous/mouse3 mg/kgENMUDM 4,563,1982
Cytogenetic Analysisintraperitoneal/mouse420 µg/kgMUREAV 206,285,1988
Cytogenetic Analysisovary/hamster250 µg/LBECTA6 36,342,1986
Cytogenetic Analysislung/hamster1 µmol/LMUREAV 85,288,1981
Cytogenetic Analysisother cell types/mouse15 mg/L/24HJJATDK 20,231,2000
Cytogenetic Analysissubcutaneous/hamster2 mg/kgMUREAV 67,349,1979
Cytogenetic Analysislung/human1 µmol/L/30HEMMUEG 40,200,2002
DNA DamageAscites tumor/human100 µmol/L/12HFCTOD7 40,1069,2001
DNA Damageovary/hamster25 µmol/L/5HMUREAV 529,109,2003
DNA Damageoral/mouse1 mg/kgTCMUD8 21,325,2001
DNA Damagefibroblast/human4 µmol/L/2HMUREAV 498,47,2001
DNA Damageliver/mouse0.01 µmol/L/10MMUTAEX 16,265,2001
DNA Damagekidney/mouse0.01 µmol/L/10MMUTAEX 16,265,2001
DNA Damageinhalation/mouse4.8 mg/L/60MMUTAEX 16,265,2001
DNA Damageother cell types/chicken100 µmol/LTECSDY 12,173,1986
DNA Damagelymphocyte/mammal (species unspecified)350 µmol/LSCIEAS 198,513,1977
DNA Damageovary/hamster2 µmol/LBIOJAU 25,229a,1979
DNA Damagelung/hamster20 µmol/LMUREAV 111,69,1983
DNA Damagefibroblast/human1 mmol/LMUREAV 193,237,1988
DNA Damage/Other microorganisms350 µmol/LSCIEAS 198,513,1977
DNA Damagelymphocyte/mouse0.1 µmol/L/30MTXAPA9 197,281,2004
DNA Damagemultiple/other fish4 µmol/L/40H-continuous (-enzymatic activation step)EMMUEG 44,56,2004
DNA Damageother cell types/human30 µmol/l/24HMUREAV 654,13,2008
DNA Damageother cell types/human65 µmol/l/24HMUREAV 654,13,2008
DNA Damageother cell types/human2 µmol/L/24HTOLED5 179,43,2008
DNA Damageliver/human25 µmol/LFCTOD7 47,592,2009
DNA Damageliver/human10 µmol/l/48HMUREAV 696,21,2010
DNA Damageliver/human3.16 µmol/l/48HMUREAV 696,21,2010
DNA Damageoral/mouse24 mg/kg/6D- intermittentREPTED 26,282,2008
DNA Damagemultiple/non-mammalian species10 µg/L/11D-continuousMUREAV 723,26,2011
DNA Damagemultiple/non-mammalian species10 µg/L/3D-continuousMUREAV 723,26,2011
DNA Damageoral/Drosophila melanogaster50 µmol/L/24H- intermittentMUREAV 726,222,2011
DNA Damagefibroblast/other fish50 µmol/L/24HMUREAV 750,19,2013
DNA Damagesubcutaneous/rat14 mg/kg/5W- intermittentFCTOD7 50,3243,2012
DNA Damageother cell types/human1 µmol/L/12HMUTAEX 28,515,2013
DNA inhibitionHeLa cell/human15 µmol/LCRNGDP 13,2389,1992
DNA inhibitionintraperitoneal/rat6 mg/kg/3D-continuousTXAPA9 38,145,1976
DNA inhibitionother cell types/rat10 nmol/LTXAPA9 74,337,1984
DNA inhibitionintraperitoneal/mouse4 mg/kgTXCYAC 40,13,1986
DNA inhibitionother cell types/mouse10 µmol/LTXAPA9 84,379,1986
DNA inhibitionlung/hamster10 µmol/LMUREAV 137,103,1984
DNA inhibitionkidney/mammal (species unspecified)2 µmol/LTXCYAC 34,189,1985
DNA repair/Escherichia coli40 µg/wellMUREAV 133,161,1984
DNA repair/Bacillus subtilis5 mmol/LMUREAV 77,109,1980
DNA repairother cell types/human10 µmol/L/12HMUTAEX 28,515,2013
DNA repairintraperitoneal/mouse0.25 mg/kgEVHPAZ 109,71,2001
DNA repairtestis/mouse1 ng/L/24HCALEDQ 279,84,2009
DNA repairlymphocyte/mouse20 µmol/L/60MTXAPA9 197,281,2004
Dominant Lethal Testintraperitoneal/mouse2 mg/kgMUREAV 30,365,1975
Dominant Lethal Testoral/mouse15 mg/kgAXVMAW 34,399,1980
host-mediated assaySalmonella typhimurium/mouse6 mg/kgSOGEBZ 13,737,1977
micronucleus testintraperitoneal/mouse50 µg/kgMUREAV 306,85,1994
micronucleus testovary/hamster500 µg/LBECTA6 36,342,1986
micronucleus testlung/hamster625 µg/LMUREAV 287,71,1993
micronucleus testfibroblast/human2 µmol/L/24HMUREAV 490,99,2001
micronucleus testintraperitoneal/other fish1000 ppmNULSAK 28,176,1985
micronucleus testfibroblast/human1 µmol/L/25HEMMUEG 40,200,2002
micronucleus testoral/rat4.5 mg/kg/9D- intermittentJJATDK 22,271,2002
micronucleus testsubcutaneous/rat0.5 mg/kg/1D- intermittentJJATDK 22,271,2002
micronucleus testlung/human1 µmol/L/30HEMMUEG 40,200,2002
micronucleus testliver/human1 µmol/L/24HTXCYAC 198,315,2004
micronucleus testlymphocyte/human5 µmol/L/72HMUREAV 649,7,2008
micronucleus testliver/human5 µmol/L/3HFCTOD7 47,592,2009
micronucleus testovary/hamster1 µmol/L/3HMUREAV 724,7,2011
micronucleus testintraperitoneal/rat5.6 mg/kg/8W-continuousMUREAV 743,67,2012
micronucleus testother cell types/human4 mg/L/3H (-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 702,171,2010
micronucleus testother cell types/mouse0.21 mg/L/3H (-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 702,163,2010
micronucleus testovary/hamster0.26 mg/L/3H (-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 702,237,2010
micronucleus testovary/hamster0.25 mg/L/28H (-enzymatic activation step)MUTAEX 25,33,2010
micronucleus testfibroblast/other fish2 µmol/L/24HMUREAV 750,19,2013
morphological transformother cell types/mouse0.3 mg/L/10DMUREAV 725,57,2011
morphological transformembryo/mouse0.2 mg/L/10DMUREAV 702,100,2010
morphological transformfibroblast/mouse0.1 µmol/L/21D (-enzymatic activation step)EMMUEG 35,300,2000
morphological transformembryo/hamster2 µmol/LCNREA8 39,193,1979
morphological transformfibroblast/mouse9 µmol/LMUREAV 448,23,2000
morphological transformother cell types/rat300 nmol/LMUREAV 198,115,1988
mutation in mammalian somatic cellslymphocyte/mouse140 µg/LEMMUEG 12,85,1988
mutation in mammalian somatic cellslung/hamster1 µmol/LMUREAV 111,69,1983
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium500 µmol/L (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 138,9,1984
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium500 mg/L (-enzymatic activation step)SOGEBZ 13,737,1977
mutation in microorganisms/Saccharomyes cerevisiae1 µmol/L (-enzymatic activation step)CPBTAL 33,1571,1985
other mutation test systemssubcutaneous/mouse3 mg/kgNEZAAQ 32,472,1977
other mutation test systemssubcutaneous/rat12 mg/kg/3D- intermittentTXAPA9 74,337,1984
other mutation test systemsovary/hamster500 µg/LBECTA6 36,342,1986
other mutation test systemsembryo/hamster1100 µg/LMUREAV 287,47,1993
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctionembryo/hamster600 µg/LMUREAV 287,47,1993
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctionfibroblast/human4 µmol/L/30HEMMUEG 40,200,2002
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctionintraperitoneal/mouse10 µmol/kgBECTA6 29,412,1982
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction/Saccharomyes cerevisiae4 µmol/LMUTAEX 1,21,1986
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctionoral/Drosophila melanogaster20 ppmMUREAV 259,147,1991
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctionlymphocyte/human1 mg/LMUREAV 287,57,1993
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctionlung/human1 µmol/LMUREAV 469,35,2000
sister chromatid exchangelymphocyte/human5 µmol/LFCTOD7 30,521,1992
sister chromatid exchangeintraperitoneal/mouse840 µg/kgMUREAV 206,285,1988
sister chromatid exchangeother cell types/mouse10 mg/L/24HJJATDK 20,231,2000
specific locus testintraperitoneal/rat28 mg/kg/8W-continuousMUREAV 743,67,2012
specific locus testfibroblast/other fish2 µmol/L/24HMUREAV 750,19,2013
sperm morphologysubcutaneous/hamster40 µmol/kgJRPFA4 1,294,1960
sperm morphologysubcutaneous/guinea pig40 µmol/kgJRPFA4 1,294,1960
sperm morphologysubcutaneous/rabbit40 µmol/kgJRPFA4 1,294,1960
sperm morphologyintraperitoneal/mouse1 mg/kgJPETAB 187,641,1973
sperm morphologysubcutaneous/mouse20250 µg/kgBJEPA5 40,503,1959
sperm morphologyunreported route/mouse1 mg/kgGNKAA5 16,1397,1980
sperm morphologysubcutaneous/rat1824 µg/kgJOENAK 24,453,1962
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisinhalation/mouse4900 µg/m3/1H-continuousTXAPA9 80,215,1985
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisintraperitoneal/rat10 mg/kg/5D-continuousTXAPA9 38,145,1976
Unscheduled DNA Synthesissubcutaneous/rat12 mg/kg/3D- intermittentTXAPA9 74,337,1984
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisembryo/hamster10 µmol/LMUREAV 131,173,1984

Reproductive Effects Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
implant/mouse 20530 µg/kg (5-18D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system

Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalities
TOLED5 76,195,1995
inhalation/guinea pig 50 µg/m3 (50D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Maternal- fetal exchangeTOLED5 129,189,2002
inhalation/rat 200 µg/m3/24H (1-21D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects to embryo or fetus

Reproductive: Other effects on female

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXCYAC 10,297,1978
inhalation/rat 600 µg/m3/24H (1-21D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)TXCYAC 10,297,1978
inhalation/rat 130 µg/m3 (1-19D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
GTPZAB 31(8),25,1987
intramuscular/rat 4 mg/kg (1D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glandsIJEBA6 15,594,1977
intraperitoneal/mouse 2 mg/kg (7D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
CPBTAL 30,2141,1982
intraperitoneal/mouse 4 mg/kg (10D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
TJADAB 21,79,1980
intraperitoneal/mouse 1833 µg/kg (7D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Eye, ear

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)
NTIS** CONF-771017
intraperitoneal/mouse 1 mg/kg (1D male)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Male fertility index (e.g., # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile nonpregnant females)JPETAB 187,641,1973
intraperitoneal/rat 2 mg/kg (1D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm ductSCYYDZ 19,290,1999
intraperitoneal/rat 2933 µg/kg (10D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Body wall

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Gastrointestinal system
TJADAB 7,237,1973
intraperitoneal/rat 2933 µg/kg (10D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)
TJADAB 7,237,1973
intraperitoneal/rat 2 mg/kg (10D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
ARTODN 59,443,1987
intraperitoneal/rat 2 mg/kg (10D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system
ARTODN 59,443,1987
intraperitoneal/hamster 3666 µg/kg (1D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm ductARANDR 15,91,1985
intraperitoneal/mouse 1 mg/kg (9D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)BDERE* 76,19,2006
intraperitoneal/mouse 2 mg/kg (9D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects to embryo or fetusBDERE* 76,19,2006
intraperitoneal/mouse 3.5 mg/kg (9D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)BDERE* 76,19,2006
intraperitoneal/mouse 3.5 mg/kg (9D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal systemTERM1* -,325,2006
intraperitoneal/mouse 4 mg/kg (8D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)TERPM* -,392,2006
intraperitoneal/mouse 4 mg/kg (8D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects to embryo or fetusREPTED 22,636,2006
intraperitoneal/rat 0.00005 mg/kg (1D prior to copulation)Reproductive: Maternal effects: Uterus, cervix, vaginaTOLED5 191,123,2009
intraperitoneal/mouse 0.5 mg/kg (8D pregnant)Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalitiesTXAPA9 250,117,2011
intratesticular/Dog 7330 µg/kg (1D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm ductIJEBA6 14,613,1976
intratesticular/rabbit 1520 µg/kg (1D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Male fertility index (e.g., # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile nonpregnant females)
JOANAY 99,907,1965
intratesticular/mammal (species unspecified) 500 µg/kg (1D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands
AEFTAA 7,75,1976
intravenous/hamster 2 mg/kg (8D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)TJADAB 19,50A,1979
intravenous/hamster 2 mg/kg (8D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects to embryo or fetus

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Eye, ear
TJADAB 25,101,1982
intravenous/rabbit 2 mg/kg (8D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)
BMMBES 48,159,1992
intravenous/mouse 73 mg/kg (1D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm ductTOXID9 4,164,1984
intravenous/rat 2 mg/kg (8D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
NYKZAU 70,84P,1974
intravenous/rat 4500 µg/kg (10D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Eye, ear
TJADAB 44,259,1991
intravenous/rat 2 mg/kg (12D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system
ARTODN 59,443,1987
intravenous/rat 2 mg/kg (14D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
ARTODN 59,443,1987
oral/mouse 6197 µg/kg (1-19D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects
AEHLAU 33,36,1978
oral/mouse 248 gm/kg (1-19D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Blood and lymphatic systems (including spleen and marrow)
JONUAI 109,1640,1979
oral/mouse 6 mg/kg (15-19D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Endocrine system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
JEPTDQ 1(3),187,1978
oral/mouse 33 mg/kg (7-9D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
CIZAAZ 61,335,1985
oral/rat 55 mg/kg (1-22D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Live birth index (Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured after birth)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
NETEEC 19,213,1997
oral/rat 652 mg/kg (7-16D pregnant)Reproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubes

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)
JJATDK 2,255,1982
oral/rat 326 mg/kg (1-20D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
GISAAA 54(4),86,1989
oral/rat 48 mg/kg (90D prior to copulation/1-22D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effectsNTIS** CONF-771017
oral/rat 14677 µg/kg (6-14D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system
TXAPA9 23,222,1972
oral/rat 17 mg/kg (6W male/6W pre-20D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal systemEESADV 4,51,1980
oral/rat 210 mg/kg (1-21D preg/21D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects
AHRTAN 47,245,1996
oral/rat 280 mg/kg (6-19D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Cardiovascular (circulatory) systemNATUAS 239,231,1972
oral/Dog 52.5 mg/kg (21D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: BehavioralTOLED5 135,S52,2002
oral/rat 180 mg/kg (6-14D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Cardiovascular (circulatory) system
NETEEC 26,673,2004
oral/rat 180 mg/kg (6-14D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Respiratory system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system

Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalities
NETEEC 26,673,2004
oral/rat 180 mg/kg (6-14D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
NETEEC 26,673,2004
oral/rat 81.6 mg/kg (17D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: BehavioralETOPFR 17,35,2004
oral/rat 110 mg/kg (9-19D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolicTOLED5 156,369,2005
oral/mouse 64 mg/kg (1-21D preg/10D after birth)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
TOLED5 159,38,2005
oral/mouse 62 mg/kg (1D preg-10D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Physical

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
TOLED5 159,38,2005
oral/rabbit 990 mg/kg (1-6D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Other measures of fertilityJRPFA4 70,323,1984
oral/mouse 62 mg/kg (1D preg-10D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolicNRTXDN 28,790,2007
oral/mouse 112 mg/kg (2W prior to copulation)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Female fertility index (e.g., # females pregnant per # sperm positive females; # females pregnant per # females mated)TOXID9 -,325,2009
oral/mouse 172 mg/kg (2W pre-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
TOXID9 -,325,2009
oral/mouse 42 mg/kg (1-21D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Immune and reticuloendothelial systemTXAPA9 242,136,2010
oral/rat 560 mg/kg (8W male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm ductFCLPH* 23(Suppl 1),9,2009
oral/rat 84.71 mg/kg (1-21D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Endocrine system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other neonatal measures or effects
TOLED5 188,186,2009
parenteral/guinea pig 2500 µg/kg (1D prior to copulation)Reproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubesIJEBA6 3,50,1965
subcutaneous/monkey 12 mg/kg (1D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands
AEFTAA 7,339,1976
subcutaneous/rabbit 815 µg/kg (29D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Hepatobiliary system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system
TXAPA9 62,211,1982
subcutaneous/rabbit 1 mg/kg (20D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal deathTOXID9 1,16,1981
subcutaneous/rabbit 4583 ng/kg (1D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
JRPFA4 14,348,1967
subcutaneous/rabbit 2500 µg/kg (1D prior to copulation)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Other measures of fertilityCCPTAY 26,181,1982
subcutaneous/rabbit 5 mg/kg (1D prior to copulation)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)CCPTAY 26,181,1982
subcutaneous/rabbit 204 µg/kg (29D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects to embryo or fetusTXAPA9 62,211,1982
subcutaneous/gerbil 5600 µg/kg (1D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands
JRMSAS 85,297,1965
subcutaneous/squirrel 7332 mg/kg (1D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands
AEFTAA 7,257,1976
subcutaneous/mammal (species unspecified) 7332 µg/kg (1D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm ductIJEBA6 12,200,1974
subcutaneous/rat 2.5 mg/kg (1D male)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Male fertility index (e.g., # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile nonpregnant females)BIREBV 16,609,1977
subcutaneous/rat 12.5 mg/kg (1D male)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Mating performance (e.g., # sperm positive females per # females mated; # copulations per # estrus cycles)BIREBV 16,609,1977
subcutaneous/rat 10 mg/kg (1D prior to copulation)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)IJVSA* 32,210,1962
subcutaneous/rat 10 mg/kg (1D prior to copulation)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
IJVSA* 32,210,1962
subcutaneous/rat 10 mg/kg (1D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
IJVSA* 32,210,1962
subcutaneous/mouse 6000 µg/kg (8-10D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)TOLED5 164,207,2006
subcutaneous/hamster 5 mg/kg (1D prior to copulation)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Female fertility index (e.g., # females pregnant per # sperm positive females; # females pregnant per # females mated)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Other measures of fertility
BIREBV 29,249,1983
subcutaneous/hamster 8 mg/kg (1D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm ductBIREBV 19,886,1978
subcutaneous/mouse 12 mg/kg (7-9D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
REPTED 23,92,2007
subcutaneous/rat 7 mg/kg (12D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Maternal- fetal exchangeTJADAB 35,74A,1987
subcutaneous/rat 4892 µg/kg (19D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
TXCYAC 18,103,1980
subcutaneous/rat 32 mg/kg (12-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Respiratory systemTJADAB 23,75,1981
subcutaneous/rat 1250 µg/kg (1D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands
ABMGAJ 5,153,1960
subcutaneous/mouse 4 mg/kg (7D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
ZMAFA2 100,419,1986
subcutaneous/mouse 3 mg/kg (1D prior to copulation)Reproductive: Maternal effects: OogenesisTJADAB 16,127,1977
subcutaneous/mouse 5700 µg/kg (8-10D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)
EXPADD 36,75,1989
subcutaneous/mouse 3666 µg/kg (13D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal deathTJADAB 10,243,1974
subcutaneous/mouse 2500 µg/kg (7D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Eye, ear

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
INHEAO 11,127,1973
unreported route/mammal (species unspecified) 2400 µg/kg (1D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm ductIJEBA6 18,1398,1980

Tumorigenic Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/rat toxic concentration (other than lowest): 41 µg/m3/23H/78W- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
JJIND8 70,367,1983
inhalation/rat toxic concentration (other than lowest): 82 µg/m3/23H/78W- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
JJIND8 70,367,1983
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 20 µg/m3/23H/78W- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
JJIND8 70,367,1983
intramuscular/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4500 µg/kgTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Facilitates action of known carcinogens
ARPAAQ 83,493,1967
parenteral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1700 µg/kgTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Facilitates action of known carcinogens
ARPAAQ 83,493,1967
parenteral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 6163 µg/kgTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Endocrine: Tumors
JCROD7 114,273,1988
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 5499 µg/kgTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Testicular tumors
JNCIAM 31,745,1963
subcutaneous/rat toxic dose: 4500 µg/kgTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
ARPAAQ 83,493,1967
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3666 µg/kgTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Testicular tumors

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
PAACA3 24,84,1983
subcutaneous/rat toxic dose: 7332 µg/kgTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Testicular tumors

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
PAACA3 24,84,1983
subcutaneous/rat toxic dose: 5499 µg/kgTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Testicular tumors

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
PSEBAA 115,653,1964
subcutaneous/rat toxic dose: 3666 mg/kgTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Gastrointestinal: Tumors

Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Testicular tumors
CNREA8 43,4575,1983
subcutaneous/rat toxic dose: 7332 mg/kgTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Gastrointestinal: Tumors

Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Testicular tumors
CNREA8 43,4575,1983
subcutaneous/rat toxic dose: 40770 ng/kg/2D- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
CNREA8 48,4656,1988
subcutaneous/rat toxic dose: 9 mg/kgTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Testicular tumors

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
CNREA8 49,4282,1989
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 32.99 mg/kg/18W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Musculoskeletal: Tumors
TOSCF2 54,110,2000
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 66 mg/kg/18W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Musculoskeletal: Tumors
TOSCF2 54,110,2000
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 32.99 mg/kg/18W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Testicular tumors
TOSCF2 54,110,2000
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 66 mg/kg/18W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Testicular tumors
TOSCF2 54,110,2000

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
In Vitro/Hamster, kidney Inhibitor Concentration (20 percent kill): 11 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 7,149,1993
In Vitro/Hamster, kidney Inhibitor Concentration (20 percent kill): 12 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.TIVIEQ 7,149,1993
In Vitro/Hamster, kidney Inhibitor Concentration (20 percent kill): 8 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell protein synthesisTIVIEQ 7,149,1993
In Vitro/Hamster, kidney Inhibitor Concentration (20 percent kill): 15 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell proliferation: DNA incorporation, mitotic index etc.TIVIEQ 7,149,1993
In Vitro/Hamster, kidney Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 31 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 7,149,1993
In Vitro/Hamster, kidney Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 33 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.TIVIEQ 7,149,1993
In Vitro/Hamster, kidney Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 34 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell protein synthesisTIVIEQ 7,149,1993
In Vitro/Hamster, kidney Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 29 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell proliferation: DNA incorporation, mitotic index etc.TIVIEQ 7,149,1993
In Vitro/Hamster, kidney Inhibitor Concentration (80 percent kill): 56 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 7,149,1993
In Vitro/Hamster, kidney Inhibitor Concentration (80 percent kill): 45 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.TIVIEQ 7,149,1993
In Vitro/Hamster, kidney Inhibitor Concentration (80 percent kill): 58 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell protein synthesisTIVIEQ 7,149,1993
In Vitro/Hamster, kidney Inhibitor Concentration (80 percent kill): 46 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell proliferation: DNA incorporation, mitotic index etc.TIVIEQ 7,149,1993
In Vitro/Human, lung tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 50 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assays

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXAPA9 245,361,2010
In Vitro/Human, lung tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 100 µmol/L/8HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTXAPA9 245,361,2010
In Vitro/Human, lung tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 119.8 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TXAPA9 245,361,2010
In Vitro/Human, lung tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 200 µmol/L/4HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTXAPA9 245,361,2010
In Vitro/Human, neuroblastoma Inhibitor Concentration Low: 200 µmol/L/4MIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Membrane currentsTXAPA9 245,191,2010
In Vitro/jrdInhibitor Concentration Low: 500 nmol/L/2.5MIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assays

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphokinase

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on cyclic nucleotides
TXAPA9 245,83,2010
In Vitro/jrdInhibitor Concentration Low: 500 nmol/L/2.5MIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assays

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphokinase
TXAPA9 245,83,2010
In Vitro/jtiInhibitor Concentration Low: 5 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTXAPA9 244,254,2010
In Vitro/jvxInhibitor Concentration Low: 2.5 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.FCTOD7 50,198,2012
In Vitro/jvxInhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 7 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.FCTOD7 50,198,2012
In Vitro/jvxInhibitor Concentration Low: 50 µmol/L/3HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.FCTOD7 50,198,2012
In Vitro/jvxInhibitor Concentration Low: 10 µmol/L/3HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysFCTOD7 50,198,2012
In Vitro/jvxInhibitor Concentration Low: 10 µmol/L/48HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Apoptosis in vitroFCTOD7 50,198,2012
In Vitro/Mouse, liver Inhibitor Concentration Low: 10 µmol/L/3HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Apoptosis in vitroTXCYAC 283,129,2011
In Vitro/Mouse, liver Inhibitor Concentration Low: 30 µmol/L/2HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Apoptosis in vitro

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Catalases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TXCYAC 283,129,2011
In Vitro/Mouse, liver Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 0.45 mmol/L/2HBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TIVIEQ 4,783,1990
In Vitro/Non-mammalian species, fibroblast Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 0.1 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell countingTIVIEQ 7,537,1993
In Vitro/Rat, intestinal Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 5 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.TIVIEQ 6,509,1992
In Vitro/Rat, intestinal Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 10 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)TIVIEQ 6,509,1992
In Vitro/Rat, kidney Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 10 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.TIVIEQ 6,509,1992
In Vitro/Rat, kidney Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 10 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)TIVIEQ 6,509,1992
In Vitro/Rat, liver Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 1 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)TIVIEQ 6,509,1992
In Vitro/Rat, liver Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 1 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.TIVIEQ 6,509,1992
In Vitro/Rat, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 15 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.TIVIEQ 6,509,1992
In Vitro/Rat, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 20 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)TIVIEQ 6,509,1992
In Vitro/Rat, lung Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 0.057 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell countingTIVIEQ 18,79,2004
inhalation/Dog lethal concentration (90 percent kill): 420 mg/m3/30MCardiac: Pulse rate decreased with fall in BP

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
JIHTAB 29,302,1947
inhalation/guinea pig lowest published toxic concentration: 50 µg/m3Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changesTOLED5 129,189,2002
inhalation/rat Lowest published lethal concentration: 20.44 mg/m3/24HVHTODE 43,176,2001
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.1 pph/1HLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory stimulation

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXCYAC 211,36,2005
intramuscular/frog lethal dose (50 percent kill): 10 mg/kgBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases
CBPCEE 85,249,1986
intramuscular/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 25 mg/kg85PDAD -,67,1978
intraperitoneal/guinea pig lowest published lethal dose: 233 mg/kgAEHLAU 11,201,1965
intraperitoneal/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 9300 µg/kgBlood: HemorrhageNEZAAQ 32,472,1977
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1833 µg/kgLiver: Other changes

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TOXID9 60,259,2001
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 3.7 mg/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Liver: Liver function tests impaired
JPETAB 310,18,2004
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Other metals

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TOXID9 1,108,2001
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1.4 mg/kgBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning
NETEEC 27,575,2005
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2.8 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TXAPA9 179,155,2002
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2.9 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)
TXAPA9 197,268,2004
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 3.7 mg/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
TXAPA9 200,219,2004
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2933 µg/kgLiver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)
TOLED5 148,199,2004
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1 mg/kgLiver: Other changesTOLED5 177,20,2008
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 6.5 mg/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
FCTOD7 47,2863,2009
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1.8 mg/kgEndocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight

Blood: Changes in spleen
TOLED5 169,95,2007
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
FCTOD7 47,769,2009
intraperitoneal/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2.5 mg/kgFCTOD7 47,769,2009
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2.5 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TXCYAC 237,24,2007
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3.5 mg/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Liver: Other changes
AJPHT* 1,21,2006
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.5 mg/kgRelated to Chronic Data: Changes in uterine weightTOLED5 191,123,2009
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3.21 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
TOLED5 180S,S49,2008
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published lethal dose: 8.3 mg/kgTXAPA9 73,250,1984
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 6.5 mg/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
ARTODN 78,321,2004
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1 mg/kgLiver: Other changesTOXID9 66,116,2002
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2 mg/kgBlood: Hemorrhage

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
ARTODN 76,8,2002
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2.5 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TXCYAC 200,29,2004
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2.5 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TXCYAC 179,37,2002
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1.5 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases
TXCYAC 217,240,2006
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2.5 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
TXCYAC 217,240,2006
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.25 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
JAPTO* 26,47,2006
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2 mg/kgKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Catalases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
JAPTO* 26,47,2006
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1 mg/kgCardiac: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
JAPTO* 26,47,2006
intraperitoneal/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1800 µg/kgEVHPAZ 28,89,1979
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3.66 mg/kgNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainTXAPA9 73,250,1984
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1.8 mg/kgReproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
TXAPA9 73,250,1984
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.83 mg/kgReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)TXAPA9 73,250,1984
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.18 mg/kgEndocrine: Androgenic

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
TXAPA9 73,250,1984
intraperitoneal/squirrel lowest published toxic dose: 0.32 mg/kgBiochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Catecholamine levels in CNS

Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Dopamine at other sites
TOLED5 41,93,1988
intratesticular/domestic animal lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kgReproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
ACEDAB 40,321,1962
intratesticular/monkey lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kgReproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
ACEDAB 40,321,1962
intratesticular/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 200 µg/kgReproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm ductACEDAB 40,321,1962
intratesticular/rat lowest published toxic dose: 50 µg/kgReproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
ACEDAB 40,321,1962
intratracheal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 433 µg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
LIFSAK 72,1303,2003
intratracheal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 866 µg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
LIFSAK 72,1303,2003
intratracheal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 476.6 µg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight
TOXID9 66,203,2002
intratracheal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2.5 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosing alveolitis

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
JKMSEH 18,655,2003
intratracheal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2.5 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changesTXCYAC 218,197,2006
intratracheal/rat lowest published lethal dose: 241 µg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
ESKGA2 33,360,1987
intrauterine/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2 mg/kgEndocrine: Other changes

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TXCYAC 257,153,2009
intravenous/cat lowest published lethal dose: 5 mg/kgHBAMAK 4,1289,1935
intravenous/Dog lowest published lethal dose: 5 mg/kgEQSSDX 1,1,1975
intravenous/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3500 µg/kgTXAPA9 53,510,1980
intravenous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2.5 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TXAPA9 180,178,2002
intravenous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TXCYAC 175,83,2002
intravenous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 4 mg/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TXCYAC 175,83,2002
intravenous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2750 µg/kgPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Sensory change involving trigeminal nerve

Blood: Hemorrhage
TOXID9 1,108,2001
intravenous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2750 µg/kgPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Sensory change involving trigeminal nerveTOXID9 1,108,2001
intravenous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 4 mg/kgCardiac: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
TOXID9 1,108,2001
intravenous/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2500 µg/kg85PDAD -,67,1978
intravenous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3 mg/kgBehavioral: Change in psychophysiological testsTOSCF2 65,151,2002
intravenous/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 5463 µg/kgTXAPA9 41,667,1977
intravenous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1 mg/kgReproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Male fertility index (e.g., # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile nonpregnant females)

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
TXAPA9 55,456,1980
intravenous/rat lowest published lethal dose: 4.5 mg/kgTOSCF2 65,151,2002
intravenous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3 mg/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TOSCF2 65,151,2002
intravenous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TOXID9 1,109,2001
intravenous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2 mg/kgBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): OtherTOXID9 1,109,2001
multiple/non-mammalian species lethal dose (50 percent kill): 560 mg/m3AECTCV 40,230,2001
oral/chicken lethal dose (50 percent kill): 165 mg/kg41PDA9 -,160,1979
oral/guinea pig lethal dose (50 percent kill): 63 mg/kgFOREAE 7,313,1942
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2.8 mg/kgNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Other metalsFCTOD7 39,571,2001
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3.3 mg/kgETOPFR 5,43,1998
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 60 mg/kgNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainAPTOA6 48,108,1981
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 8 mg/kgGastrointestinal: Other changes

Musculoskeletal: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Ca
TXAPA9 191,272,2003
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 25 mg/kgGastrointestinal: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOLED5 164,144,2006
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kgBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductasesTOLED5 164,144,2006
oral/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 70 mg/kgEQSSDX 1,1,1975
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 88 mg/kgGastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of salivary glands

Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
AFDOAQ 15,122,1951
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 88 mg/kgUSXXAM #6365129
oral/woman lowest published lethal dose: 3 gm/kgVascular: BP lowering not characterized in autonomic section

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea
BMJOAE 292,1559,1986
parenteral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 6 mg/kgReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
TOXID9 44,281,2005
skin/guinea pig lowest published lethal dose: 233 mg/kgAEHLAU 11,201,1965
subcutaneous/cat lowest published lethal dose: 25 mg/kgEQSSDX 1,1,1975
subcutaneous/frog lowest published lethal dose: 30 mg/kgHBAMAK 4,1289,1935
subcutaneous/gerbil lowest published lethal dose: 7500 µg/kgJRMSAS 85,297,1965
subcutaneous/gerbil lowest published toxic dose: 7.5 mg/kgReproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm ductBIREBV 13,240,1975
subcutaneous/hamster lowest published toxic dose: 1 mg/kgReproductive: Maternal effects: Oogenesis

Reproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubes
MUREAV 67,349,1979
subcutaneous/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3200 µg/kgNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainAPTOA6 48,108,1981
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1 mg/kgTOSCF2 53,474,2000
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1 mg/kgGastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of exocrine pancreas

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Other metals
TOSCF2 53,474,2000
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 5499 µg/kgLiver: Other changes

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
TXCYAC 42,121,1986
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2.2 mg/kgReproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm ductPSEBAA 122,1036,1966
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 4.5825 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TOLED5 151,79,2004
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 916.5 µg/kgLiver: TumorsTOXID9 44,141,2005
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 916.5 µg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: TumorsTOXID9 44,141,2005
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 5.5 mg/kgLiver: Liver function tests impaired

Liver: Other changes
TXAPA9 197,272,2004
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 7 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
TXCYAC 225,150,2006
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2 mg/kgReproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
REPTED 22,529,2006
subcutaneous/pigeon lowest published lethal dose: 30 mg/kgHBAMAK 4,1289,1935
subcutaneous/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 18 mg/kgJOANAY 97,269,1963
subcutaneous/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 5490 µg/kgLiver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TOSCF2 54,110,2000
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.45 mg/kgEndocrine: Androgenic

Endocrine: Changes in adrenal weight

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
REPTED 15,699,2001
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 20 mg/kgRelated to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weightENDKAC 74,6,1979
subcutaneous/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 15166 µg/kgTXAPA9 41,667,1977
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5.5 mg/kgVascular: Measurement of regional blood flow

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
CBPAB5 41A,451,1972
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kgEndocrine: Effect on menstrual cycleAPHHDU 76,245,1990
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5.5 mg/kgReproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands
ARPAAQ 71,52,1961
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 12.5 mg/kgReproductive: Paternal effects: ImpotenceBIREBV 16,609,1977
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5.5 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Other metals

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
TOLED5 50,203,1990
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3.66 mg/kgReproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in prostate weight
JOENAK 92,123,1982
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 22 mg/kgBlood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
NATUAS 177,1036,1956
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4 mg/kgReproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Male fertility index (e.g., # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile nonpregnant females)

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in prostate weight
ENDKAC 74,6,1979
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 7.332 mg/kgReproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
JRPFA4 21,221,1970
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 10 mg/kgReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Male fertility index (e.g., # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile nonpregnant females)
IJVSA* 32,210,1962
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 10 mg/kgReproductive: Effects on fertility: Female fertility index (e.g., # females pregnant per # sperm positive females; # females pregnant per # females mated)IJVSA* 32,210,1962
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1 mg/kgReproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glandsJTEHD6 19,393,1986
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2.1 mg/kgEndocrine: Change in gonadotropins

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
JTEHD6 19,393,1986
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.85 mg/kgReproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm ductANREAK 149,135,1964
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1 mg/kgBlood: Hemorrhage

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
ARTODN 83,647,2009
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1 mg/kgLiver: Other changesTOLED5 158,108,2005
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2.5 mg/kgEndocrine: Other changes

Reproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubes
TXCYAC 239,204,2007
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4.58 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TOLED5 151,79,2004
Tank with water/Crab lowest published toxic concentration: 0.4 mg/L/48HEndocrine: HyperglycemiaEESADV 74,279,2011
Tank with water/Other invertebrate lowest published toxic concentration: 15 µg/L/1DBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
FCTOD7 49,3407,2011
unreported route/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1.6 mg/kgOlfaction: Change in sensation of smellNRTXDN 32,441,2011
unreported route/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 6 mg/kgCardiac: Pulse rate decreased with fall in BPTOXID9 66,287,2002
unreported route/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 3.7 mg/kgBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteinsTOXID9 72,81,2003
unreported route/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1.23 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
TOXID9 1,109,2001

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/guinea pig lowest published toxic concentration: 50 µg/m3/5D- intermittentLiver: Other changesTOLED5 129,189,2002
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 128 µg/kg/2W- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on mitochondrial function
REPTED 17,561,2003
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 0.1 mg/m3/2W- continuousRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldHBPTO* 2,1367,2001
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.1 mg/m3/2W- continuousRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldHBPTO* 2,1367,2001
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 33 µg/m3/24H/20W- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Proteinuria

Musculoskeletal: Osteoporosis

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Ca
GISAAA 52(5),85,1987
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 327 µg/m3/24H/66D- continuousNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainBECTA6 17,585,1977
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 81 mg/m3/4H/15D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
INHTE5 3,419,1991
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 5.11 mg/m3/2D- continuousRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldVHTODE 43,176,2001
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 5.11 mg/m3/7D- continuousBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests
VHTODE 43,176,2001
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 20.44 mg/m3/2D- continuousBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests
VHTODE 43,176,2001
inhalation/rat : 0.1 pph/5W- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainTXCYAC 211,36,2005
inhalation/rat : 0.1 pph/3W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: EmphysemaTXCYAC 211,36,2005
intramuscular/rat lowest published toxic dose: 14 mg/kg/70D- intermittentBehavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning

Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerve

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)
RCOCB8 14,689,1976
intramuscular/rat lowest published toxic dose: 15 mg/kg/15D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainRCOCB8 14,689,1976
intramuscular/rat lowest published toxic dose: 70 mg/kg/70D- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight

Endocrine: Changes in adrenal weight
RCOCB8 14,689,1976
intramuscular/rat lowest published toxic dose: 11.67 mg/kg/70D- intermittentBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Skin and Appendages: Other: Hair

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
RCOCB8 14,689,1976
intramuscular/rat lowest published toxic dose: 58.33 mg/kg/70D- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
RCOCB8 14,689,1976
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 14 mg/kg/14D- intermittentEndocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Blood: Changes in spleen

Immunological Including Allergic: Increase in cellular immune response
TOLED5 86,39,1996
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 5499 µg/kg/3D- intermittentBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymesTOXID9 66,116,2002
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 6 mg/kg/6D- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TXCYAC 251,35,2008
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 3666 µg/kg/28D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Blood: Changes in spleen

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TOLED5 177,83,2008
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1833 µg/kg/28D- intermittentBlood: Changes in spleenTOLED5 177,83,2008
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 7.5 mg/kg/6W- intermittentEndocrine: Other changes

Reproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubes
TOLED5 182,18,2008
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 30 mg/kg/6W- intermittentEndocrine: Other changes

Reproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubes

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TOLED5 182,18,2008
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 70 mg/kg/5W- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm ductJKMSEH 21,445,2006
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 60.3 mg/kg/6W- intermittentLiver: Liver function tests impaired

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Renal function tests depressed

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Porphyrin including bile pigments
TOVEFN (3),26,2006
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 28 mg/kg/8W- intermittentBlood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) countMUREAV 743,67,2012
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 16 mg/kg/8D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
TIHEEC 23,393,2007
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 56.5 gm/kg/4W- intermittentLiver: Fatty liver degeneration

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
TXAPA9 197,275,2004
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 110 gm/kg/40W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)
TXCYAC 203,145,2004
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kg/5D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changesTOLED5 144,151,2003
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 20 mg/kg/10D- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
TXCYAC 235,185,2007
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 20 mg/kg/10D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
TXCYAC 242,23,2007
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3.6 mg/kg/3D- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Changes in uterine weightTXCYAC 241,84,2007
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.36 mg/kg/3D- intermittentReproductive: Maternal effects: Uterus, cervix, vaginaTXCYAC 241,84,2007
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 74 mg/kg/13W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
VHTODE 41,65,1999
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 49 mg/kg/15D- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes primarily in glomeruli

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
CHYCDW 32,318,1998
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 7 mg/kg/4W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TOLED5 12,27,1982
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 49 mg/kg/7W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Endocrine: Other changes
TOLED5 12,131,1982
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 18 mg/kg/18W- intermittentEndocrine: Changes in adrenal weightAPHHDU 78,221,1991
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 14 mg/kg/7D- intermittentEndocrine: Aldosteronism

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXCYAC 70,185,1991
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1.4 mg/kg/7D- intermittentEndocrine: Other changesTXCYAC 70,185,1991
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.14 mg/kg/7D- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Urine volume decreased or anuriaTXCYAC 70,185,1991
intravenous/monkey lowest published toxic dose: 195 mg/kg/65W- intermittentBlood: Changes in bone marrow not included in above

Musculoskeletal: Osteomalacia
JTSCDR 24,344,1999
intravenous/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 2250 µg/kg/3W- intermittentEye: Other eye effects

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
KOAOAE 93,1,1991
intravenous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 65 mg/kg/13W- intermittentMusculoskeletal: Changes in teeth and supporting structures

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Fe
TOPADD 24,451,1996
multiple/non-mammalian species lowest published toxic dose: 1 gm/m3/5D- continuousBlood: Other changes

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count
TOVEFN -,24,2009
multiple/non-mammalian species lowest published toxic dose: 1 gm/m3/15D- continuousBlood: Other changes

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
TOVEFN -,24,2009
oral/chicken lowest published toxic dose: 264 mg/kg/30D- continuousGastrointestinal: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
BCLPT* 101,29,2007
oral/chicken lowest published toxic dose: 1375 mg/kg/3W- continuousBehavioral: Food intake (animal)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
41PDA9 -,160,1979
oral/chicken lowest published toxic dose: 3179 mg/kg/26W- continuousBehavioral: Food intake (animal)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
41PDA9 -,160,1979
oral/duck lowest published toxic dose: 1803 mg/kg/90D- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Interstitial nephritis

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
JTEHD6 4,551,1978
oral/duck lowest published toxic dose: 630 mg/kg/42D- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight

Endocrine: Changes in adrenal weight
AECTCV 13,765,1984
oral/monkey lowest published toxic dose: 1369 mg/kg/24W- intermittentEndocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunction

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
TOLED5 34,85,1986
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1.83 mg/kg/61D- continuousBlood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
TXCYAC 172,1,2002
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 183.6 mg/kg/8W- intermittentBlood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
TXCYAC 172,1,2002
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 13.6 mg/kg/5W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
JTPAE7 29,630,2001
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 27.2 mg/kg/10W- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
JTPAE7 29,630,2001
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2235 µg/kg/85D- continuousLiver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
JTSCDR 9,29,1984
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 185 mg/kg/22W- continuousBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Behavioral: Fluid intake

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXCYAC 55,193,1989
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 275 mg/kg/10W- continuousImmunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune responseAEHLAU 30,598,1975
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 6825 mg/kg/65W- continuousEndocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Blood: Normocytic anemia

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NYKZAU 70,85P,1974
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 566 mg/kg/14D- continuousBlood: Changes in spleen

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response
TOLED5 86,39,1996
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 840 mg/kg/3W- continuousImmunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune responseTXAPA9 223,257,2007
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 14 mg/kg/1W- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changesTXCYAC 236,29,2007
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1120 mg/kg/8W- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changesTXCYAC 236,29,2007
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 3220 mg/kg/23W- continuousBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effectsTXCYAC 236,29,2007
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 322 mg/kg/23W- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)TXCYAC 238,200,2007
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 3220 mg/kg/23W- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in both tubules and glomeruli

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on mitochondrial function
TXCYAC 238,200,2007
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2240 mg/kg/16W- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changesTXCYAC 238,200,2007
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 5600 mg/kg/16W- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on mitochondrial function
TXCYAC 238,200,2007
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 12.6 µg/kg/3W- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainTXCYAC 188,233,2003
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 168 µg/kg/4W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: ProteinuriaTXCYAC 188,233,2003
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1302 µg/kg/31W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Proteinuria

Immunological Including Allergic: Autoimmune (multiple organ involvement)
TXCYAC 188,233,2003
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1680 µg/kg/4W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Proteinuria

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Immunological Including Allergic: Autoimmune (multiple organ involvement)
TXCYAC 188,233,2003
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2469.6 mg/kg/3W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Na
CBCPAI 132,53,2002
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 4942 mg/kg/3W- intermittentCardiac: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Ca
CBCPAI 132,53,2002
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 3 mg/kg/3D- continuousBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
JAPTO* 28,974,2008
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 12 mg/kg/3D- continuousBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Catalases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
JAPTO* 28,974,2008
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 270 mg/kg/90D- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)ETOPFR 23,96,2007
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 540 mg/kg/180D- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
ETOPFR 23,96,2007
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 16 mg/kg/2D- intermittentBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductasesREPTED 26,282,2008
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 8 mg/kg/4D- intermittentBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductasesREPTED 26,282,2008
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 6 mg/kg/6D- intermittentBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductasesREPTED 26,282,2008
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 4 mg/kg/8D- intermittentBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductasesREPTED 26,282,2008
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 24 mg/kg/6D- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands

Endocrine: Other changes
REPTED 26,282,2008
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 24 mg/kg/6D- intermittentBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
REPTED 26,282,2008
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 75 mg/kg/15D- intermittentEndocrine: Other changes

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
FCTOD7 50,3521,2012
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 125 mg/kg/25D- intermittentEndocrine: Other changes

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
FCTOD7 50,3521,2012
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 175 mg/kg/35D- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
FCTOD7 50,3521,2012
oral/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 5547 mg/kg/54W- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
TXAPA9 31,4,1975
oral/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 1522 mg/kg/43W- continuousCardiac: Cardiac output

Cardiac: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Other metals
ATSUDG 8,322,1985
oral/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 686 mg/kg/40W- continuousBlood: Pigmented or nucleated red blood cells

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Blood: Changes in platelet count
FCTOD7 34,611,1996
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 293 mg/kg/30D- continuousGastrointestinal: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
AECTCV 6,121,1977
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 40040 mg/kg/65W- continuousNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
BCTKAG 14,205,1981
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 42770 µg/kg/6W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
BECTA6 40,273,1988
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 7162 mg/kg/47W- continuousLiver: Other changes

Musculoskeletal: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Other metals
TOLED5 15,95,1983
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2808 mg/kg/83W- continuousNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Na

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Ca

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Other metals
TXAPA9 54,223,1980
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 412 mg/kg/4W- continuousLiver: Changes in liver weight

Blood: Pigmented or nucleated red blood cells

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
FCTOD7 28,435,1990
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1505 mg/kg/43W- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Proteinuria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight
TXAPA9 116,155,1992
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 216 mg/kg/14W- continuousBlood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Blood: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Fe
JTEHD6 2,929,1977
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 270 mg/kg/26W- continuousBlood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
JTEHD6 15,521,1985
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 27397 µg/kg/40W- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on mitochondrial function
AEHLAU 24,215,1972
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 14 mg/kg/2W- continuousRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldHBPTO* 2,1367,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 512.4 mg/kg/12W- continuousBehavioral: Fluid intake

Musculoskeletal: Osteomalacia
FCTOD7 39,729,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 42 mg/kg/182D- continuousBlood: Other hemolysis with or without anemiaETOPFR 8,79,2000
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 54 mg/kg/8D- continuousBehavioral: Fluid intakeBECTA6 66,125,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 60 mg/kg/30D- continuousBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Endocrine: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Amino acids (including renal excretion)
NRTXDN 23,207,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 364 mg/kg/1Y- continuousLiver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
JTSCDR 26,337,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1092 mg/kg/78W- continuousBlood: Other changesJTSCDR 26,337,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 91 mg/kg/1Y- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
JTSCDR 26,337,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 167 mg/kg/668D- continuousLiver: Other changesJTSCDR 26,337,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 180.04 mg/kg/4W- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Changes in adrenal weight
TXCYAC 178,161,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 360.08 mg/kg/8W- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Changes in adrenal weight

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight
TXCYAC 178,161,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 250 mg/kg/10D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TXCYAC 179,37,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 8.4 mg/kg/12W- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weightTXCYAC 186,109,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 16.8 mg/kg/12W- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Endocrine: Other changes

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in prostate weight
TXCYAC 186,109,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 33.6 mg/kg/24W- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Endocrine: Change in gonadotropins

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in prostate weight
TXCYAC 186,109,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 60 mg/kg/30D- continuousBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Endocrine: Change in LH

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Amino acids (including renal excretion)
NRTXDN 23,207,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 360.08 mg/kg/8W- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Meningeal changes

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count
TXCYAC 178,161,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 152 mg/kg/19D- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
CRTOEC 14,1428,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 42.5 mg/kg/17D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Skin and Appendages: Other: Breast

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
TOLED5 148,73,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 42 mg/kg/12W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other hydrolases
ARTODN 77,344,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 210 mg/kg/6W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
ARTODN 77,344,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 9 mg/kg/30D- continuousBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Dopamine at other sites
TXAPA9 197,319,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 750 mg/kg/30D- continuousReproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm ductTXAPA9 197,273,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 21 mg/kg/6W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in both tubules and glomeruli

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
ARTODN 78,226,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 84 mg(Cd)/kg/24W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
ARTODN 78,194,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 90 mg/kg/90D- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: ProteinuriaTOXID9 66,203,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 30 mg/kg/30D- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Urine volume decreased or anuria

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TOXID9 66,203,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 120 mg/kg/10W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Renal function tests depressed

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Musculoskeletal: Osteoporosis
TOXID9 1,109,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 450 mg/kg/90D- intermittentMusculoskeletal: Osteomalacia

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Ca
TXAPA9 207,195,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 900 mg/kg/90D- intermittentMusculoskeletal: Osteomalacia

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Ca

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TXAPA9 207,195,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 90 µg/kg/90D- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
TOXID9 72,271,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 420 mg/kg/12W- intermittentPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerveETOPFR 13,181,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 840 mg/kg/12W- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weightETOPFR 13,181,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 7.5 mg/kg/5D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Blood: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TOLED5 145,211,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 28 mg/kg/8W- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)FCTOD7 42,1203,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 227.5 mg/kg/13W- continuousLiver: Other changesFCTOD7 42,1203,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 350 mg/kg/5W- continuousNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainFCTOD7 42,1203,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 61.9 mg/kg/26W- continuousMusculoskeletal: Osteoporosis

Musculoskeletal: Other changes
TXCYAC 237,89,2007
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 70 mg/kg/28D- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight

Endocrine: Differential effect of sex or castration on observed toxicity

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response
TOSCF2 92,423,2006
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 14 mg/kg/28D- continuousEndocrine: Differential effect of sex or castration on observed toxicity

Immunological Including Allergic: Increase in cellular immune response
TOSCF2 92,423,2006
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 128.6 mg/kg/2Y- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Renal function tests depressed

Endocrine: Hyperparathyroidism

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Ca
ARTODN 79,636,2006
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 91 mg/kg/91D- continuousVascular: Structural changes in vesselsTOLED5 176,157,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 182.5 mg/kg/1Y- intermittentMusculoskeletal: OsteomalaciaTOLED5 157,161,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 120 µg/kg/30D- intermittentLiver: Liver function tests impairedABPLAF 50,543,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 91.25 mg/kg/26W- continuousMusculoskeletal: Other changesABPLAF 51,825,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 21 mg/kg/6W- continuousBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other hydrolasesABPLAF 51,831,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 345.8 mg/kg/91D- continuousMusculoskeletal: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Ca
TXAPA9 207,195,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 136.5 mg/kg/39W- continuousMusculoskeletal: Other changesTXAPA9 207,195,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 182.5 mg/kg/1Y- continuousBlood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
TXAPA9 207,195,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 91.25 mg/kg/0.5Y- continuousNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: CaTXAPA9 207,195,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 45.5 mg/kg/91D- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine compositionTXAPA9 207,195,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.7 gm/kg/5W- continuousEndocrine: Androgenic

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
FCTOD7 48,2759,2010
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 786 mg/kg/60D- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Renal function tests depressed

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TIHEEC 24,161,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1920 mg/kg/120D- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Renal function tests depressed

Musculoskeletal: Osteomalacia

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TIHEEC 24,161,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1125 mg/kg/9D- continuousLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis (interstitial)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TIHEEC 24,677,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.84 gm/kg/6W- continuousNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainFCTOD7 50,222,2012
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 140 mg/kg/4W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TXCYAC 256,128,2009
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 677.25 mg/kg/35D- continuousLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in both tubules and glomeruli
FCTOD7 46,3522,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 75 mg/kg/30D- continuousBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Endocrine: Change in gonadotropins
TOLED5 185,175,2009
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 65.52 mg/kg/2W- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: ProteinuriaHETOEA 28,221,2009
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 262.08 mg/kg/8W- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Renal function tests depressed

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
HETOEA 28,221,2009
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 103.6 mg/kg/8W- continuousLiver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
FCTOD7 46,1786,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4.5 mg/kg/30D- continuousBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changesTOLED5 172,131,2007
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 560 mg/kg/8W- continuousRelated to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weightFCLPH* 23(Suppl 1),9,2009
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 560 mg/kg/8W- continuousBlood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
FCLPH* 23(Suppl 1),9,2009
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 84.71 mg/kg/21D- continuousBlood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Endocrine: Adrenal cortex hyperplasia
TOLED5 188,186,2009
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 252 mg/kg/4W- continuousLiver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight
TOLED5 191,123,2009
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1.5 mg/kg/3D- intermittentReproductive: Maternal effects: Uterus, cervix, vaginaTOLED5 191,123,2009
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 112 mg/kg/4W- intermittentReproductive: Maternal effects: Uterus, cervix, vaginaTOLED5 191,123,2009
subcutaneous/domestic bird lowest published toxic dose: 53 mg/kg/26W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
NEZAAQ 48,130,1993
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 35 mg/kg/7W- intermittentEndocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Blood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified)

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count
ENVRAL 24,192,1981
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 8154 µg/kg/5D- intermittentBlood: Changes in spleen

Blood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified)

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune response
TOLED5 19,29,1983
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 157 mg/kg/10W- intermittentGastrointestinal: Peritonitis

Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TOSCF2 55,223,2000
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 4.4 mg/kg/2D- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Male fertility index (e.g., # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile nonpregnant females)
JEPOEC 9,53,1989
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kg/5D- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weightAECTCV 29,174,1995
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 4 mg/kg/2D- intermittentBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: PhosphatasesAECTCV 29,174,1995
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 3 mg/kg/3D- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm ductAECTCV 29,174,1995
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 6000 µg/kg/3D- intermittentSkin and Appendages: Other: BreastTOLED5 164,207,2006
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 36660 µg/kg/4W- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TOLED5 173,181,2007
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kg/4W- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm ductREPTED 22,546,2006
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 12.5 mg/kg/1W- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
REPTED 22,546,2006
subcutaneous/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 28750 µg/kg/23W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
AEHLAU 12,360,1966
subcutaneous/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 156 mg/kg/32W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Proteinuria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight
TOLED5 6,225,1980
subcutaneous/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 63600 µg/kg/13W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
ARTODN 61,105,1987
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 7338 µg/kg/9W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Blood: Other changes
TOLED5 8,323,1981
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 127 mg/kg/28W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Proteinuria

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TXAPA9 77,414,1985
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 9780 µg/kg/8W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Other metals
EESADV 18,268,1989
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 73385 µg/kg/15W- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Autonomic Nervous System: Sympathomimetic

Behavioral: Aggression
TOLED5 7,457,1981
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 52 mg/kg/16D- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Urine volume increased

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
PHTOEH 63,342,1988
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 63700 µg/kg/26D- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TXAPA9 98,39,1969
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kg/10W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine compositionJTEHD6 22,255,1987
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 18 mg/kg/24W- intermittentEndocrine: Aldosteronism

Blood: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
TXCYAC 55,117,1989
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 72 mg/kg/24W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Proteinuria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition
TXCYAC 55,117,1989
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 77 mg/kg/14D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in prostate weight

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
JTSCDR 18,111,1993
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kg/10W- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Endocrine: Other changes
ENVRAL 42,400,1987
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 68 mg/kg/34W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Blood: Normocytic anemia
ARTODN 80,680,2006
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 63 mg/kg/3W- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesterase

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TXCYAC 234,44,2007
subcutaneous/rat : 54 mg(Cd)/kg/9W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
FCTOD7 44,2092,2006
subcutaneous/rat : 36 mg(Cd)/kg/6W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Proteinuria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
FCTOD7 44,2092,2006
subcutaneous/rat : 18 mg(Cd)/kg/3W- intermittentBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transportFCTOD7 44,2092,2006
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 54 mg/kg/9W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Renal function tests depressed
TXAPA9 210,128,2006
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 18 mg/kg/3W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changesTXAPA9 210,128,2006
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 28 mg/kg/14D- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)TXCYAC 218,149,2006
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kg/10W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Endocrine: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
ENVRAL 42,400,1987
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 6 mg/kg/2W- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainTXAPA9 189,180,2003
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 15 mg/kg/2W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TXAPA9 189,180,2003
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 75.6 mg/kg/9W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Renal function tests depressed

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TXAPA9 210,128,2006
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 42 mg(Cd)/kg/3W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Renal function tests depressed

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on active transport
TXAPA9 204,91,2005
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 25.2 mg/kg/6W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TOXID9 -,94,2008
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 50.4 mg/kg/12W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TOXID9 -,94,2008
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 18 mg/kg/3W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
FCTOD7 46,2279,2008
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 36 mg/kg/6W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
FCTOD7 46,2279,2008
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 54 mg/kg/9W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
FCTOD7 46,2279,2008
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 60 mg/kg/24W- intermittentLiver: Multiple effects

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
FCTOD7 47,871,2009
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 25.2 mg/kg/6W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changesTOXID9 -,326,2009
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 63 mg/kg/3W- continuousLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
HETOEA 26,527,2007
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 45 mg/kg/18W- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
FCTOD7 46,494,2008
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3.52 mg/kg/15D- intermittentCardiac: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): TCS cycle
FCTOD7 50,1340,2012
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 14 mg/kg/5W- intermittentEndocrine: Other changes

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
FCTOD7 50,3243,2012

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-time-weighted average 0.002 mg(Cd)/m3 (resp)DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-Suspected human carcinogenDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 2,74,1973
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 11,39,1976
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 58,119,1993
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 58,119,1993
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Group 1IMEMDT 58,119,1993
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXCYAC 192,95,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXAPA9 182,255,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 544,179,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 567,227,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 567,109,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCRTXB2 33,215,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 613,17,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,375,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 584,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHETOEA 25,67,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 533,183,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 533,227,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 659,202,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHBTME* ,445,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHBTME* ,177,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHBTME* ,213,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 25,304,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHUTOX* -,515,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXAPA9 233,92,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 23,271,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 26,223,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 31,392,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 723,77,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 723,101,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 653,99,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 49,2921,2011

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1988 PESTICIDE SUBJECT TO REGISTRATION OR RE-REGISTRATIONFEREAC 54,7740,1989
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1998 STATUS OF PESTICIDESCancelledRBREV* -,167,1998
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD-airtime-weighted average 0.2 mg(Cd)/m3DTLVS* 3,34,1971
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN check ACGIH TLV;
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV
Occupational Exposure Limit-ARAB Republic of Egypttime-weighted average 0.05 mg(Cd)/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRALIAtime-weighted average 0.01 mg(Cd)/m3, JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMtime-weighted average 0.002 mg(Cd)/m3 (resp. dust), Carcinogen, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMtime-weighted average 0.01 mg(Cd)/m3 (inhal. dust), Carcinogen, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-DENMARKtime-weighted average 0.005 mg(Cd)/m3 (fume, dust), MAY2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FINLANDtime-weighted average 0.02 mg(Cd)/m3, skin, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FRANCEVME 0.05 mg(Cd)/m3, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-HUNGARYceiling concentration 0.05 mg/m3, Carcinogen, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit-HUNGARYtime-weighted average 0.015 mg(Cd)/m3, short term exposure limit 0.06 mg(Cd)/m3, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit-JAPANOccupational Exposure Limit 0.05 mg(Cd)/m3, 1 carc, MAY2012
Occupational Exposure Limit-KOREAtime-weighted average 0.05 mg(Cd)/m3, 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-MEXICOtime-weighted average 0.002 mg(Cd)/m3 (inhalable), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit-MEXICOtime-weighted average 0.01 mg(Cd)/m3 (total dust), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit-NEW ZEALANDtime-weighted average 0.01 mg(Cd)/m3 (inspirable dust), JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-NEW ZEALANDtime-weighted average 0.002 mg(Cd)/m3 (respirable dust), JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-NORWAYtime-weighted average 0.05 mg(Cd)/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-POLANDMAC(time-weighted average) dust 0.04 mg(Cd)/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) dust 0.2 mg(Cd)/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-POLANDMAC(time-weighted average) fume 0.02 mg(Cd)/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) fume 0.05 mg(Cd)/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-RUSSIAtime-weighted average 0.01 mg(Cd)/m3, short term exposure limit 0.05 mg(Cd)/m3, Carcinogen, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWEDENCarcinogen, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWITZERLANDMAK-week 0.015 mg(Cd)/m3, carc 2, inhal, skin, JAN2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-THAILANDtime-weighted average 0.2 mg(Cd)/m3, short term exposure limit 0.5 mg(Cd)/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE NETHERLANDSMAC-TGG 0.005 mg(Cd)/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE PHILIPPINEStime-weighted average 0.2 mg(Cd)/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-TURKEYtime-weighted average 0.2 mg(Cd)/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-UNITED KINGDOMtime-weighted average 0.025 mg(Cd)/m3, carc, OCT2007

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO CADMIUM, dust and fume-airCarcinogen lowest feasible conc.NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code 84478; Number of Industries 12; Total Number of Facilities 753; Number of Occupations 13; Total Number of Employees Exposed 4750; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 397
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code 84478; Number of Industries 5; Total Number of Facilities 68; Number of Occupations 5; Total Number of Employees Exposed 447

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: Mammalian micronucleus; Histidine reversion-Ames test
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: Sperm morphology-mouse
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: In vitro cytogenetics-human lymphocyte
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Rodent dominant lethal; Host-mediated assay
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat; Cell transform.-SA7/SHE
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: D melanogaster-whole sex chrom. loss; B subtilis rec assay
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: S cerevisiae-homozygosis
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Sperm morphology-rat; Sperm morphology-rabbit
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NTP 11th Report on Carcinogens,2004:Known to be human carcinogen
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