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Cadmium chloride

RTECS #: EV0175000

CAS #: 10108-64-2


UPDATE: May 2009 MW: 183.30 MF: CdCl2


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. MUTATION DATA:
  3. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA:
  4. TUMORIGENIC DATA:
  5. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  6. OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA:
  7. REVIEWS:
  8. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:
  9. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  10. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  11. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. Anhydrous cadmium chloride
  2. Caddy
  3. Cadmium dichloride
  1. Dichlorocadmium
  2. Kadmiumchlorid (German)
  3. VI - Cad


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
cytogenetic analysis hamster ovary 250 g/L BECTA6 36,342,1986
cytogenetic analysis hamster lung 1 mol/L MUREAV 85,288,1981
cytogenetic analysis subcutaneous
hamster
2 mg/kg MUREAV 67,349,1979
cytogenetic analysis human lymphocyte 50 mol/L/24 hour TXCYAC 10,67,1978
cytogenetic analysis human leukocyte 1 mol/L TKIZAM 82,232,1974
cytogenetic analysis human lung 1 mol/L/30 hour EMMUEG 40,200,2002
cytogenetic analysis subcutaneous
mouse
3 mg/kg ENMUDM 4,563,1982
cytogenetic analysis intraperitoneal
mouse
420 g/kg MUREAV 206,285,1988
cytogenetic analysis mouse other cell types 15 mg/L/24 hour JJATDK 20,231,2000
cytogenetic analysis multiple
other fish
630 g/L/4 week- continuous BECTA6 36,199,1986
cytogenetic analysis rat embryo 3,500 nmol/L DANKAS 224,1189,1975
dominant lethal test intraperitoneal
mouse
2 mg/kg MUREAV 30,365,1975
dominant lethal test oral
mouse
15 mg/kg AXVMAW 34,399,1980
DNA damage chicken other cell types 100 mol/L TECSDY 12,173,1986
DNA damage hamster ovary 2 mol/L BIOJAU 25,229a,1979
DNA damage hamster lung 20 mol/L MUREAV 111,69,1983
DNA damage hamster ovary 25 mol/L/5 hour MUREAV 529,109,2003
DNA damage human fibroblast 1 mmol/L MUREAV 193,237,1988
DNA damage human fibroblast 4 mol/L/2 hour MUREAV 498,47,2001
DNA damage human Ascites tumor 100 mol/L/12 hour FCTOD7 40,1069,2001
DNA damage human other cell types 100 mol/L/24 hour TXCYAC 243,193,2008
DNA damage human other cell types 30 mol/l/24 hour MUREAV 654,13,2008
DNA damage human other cell types 65 mol/l/24 hour MUREAV 654,13,2008
DNA damage mammal (species unspecified) lymphocyte 350 mol/L SCIEAS 198,513,1977
DNA damage mouse liver 0.1 mol/L/10 minute MUTAEX 16,265,2001
DNA damage mouse kidney 0.1 mol/L/10 minute MUTAEX 16,265,2001
DNA damage inhalation
mouse
4.8 mg/L/60 minute MUTAEX 16,265,2001
DNA damage oral
mouse
1 mg/kg TCMUD8 21,325,2001
DNA damage mouse lymphocyte 0.1 mol/L/30 minute TXAPA9 197,281,2004
DNA damage multiple
other fish
4 mol/L/40 hour- continuous (-enzymatic activation step) EMMUEG 44,56,2004
DNA damage other microorganisms 350 mol/L SCIEAS 198,513,1977
DNA inhibition hamster lung 10 mol/L MUREAV 137,103,1984
DNA inhibition human HeLa cell 15 mol/L CRNGDP 13,2389,1992
DNA inhibition mammal (species unspecified) kidney 2 mol/L TXCYAC 34,189,1985
DNA inhibition intraperitoneal
mouse
4 mg/kg TXCYAC 40,13,1986
DNA inhibition mouse other cell types 10 mol/L TXAPA9 84,379,1986
DNA inhibition intraperitoneal
rat
6 mg/kg/3 day- continuous TXAPA9 38,145,1976
DNA inhibition rat other cell types 10 nmol/L TXAPA9 74,337,1984
DNA repair Bacillus subtilis 5 mmol/L MUREAV 77,109,1980
DNA repair Escherichia coli 40 g/well MUREAV 133,161,1984
DNA repair intraperitoneal
mouse
0.25 mg/kg EVHPAZ 109,71,2001
DNA repair mouse lymphocyte 20 mol/L/60 minute TXAPA9 197,281,2004
unscheduled DNA synthesis hamster embryo 10 mol/L MUREAV 131,173,1984
unscheduled DNA synthesis inhalation
mouse
4,900 g/m3/1 hour- continuous TXAPA9 80,215,1985
unscheduled DNA synthesis intraperitoneal
rat
10 mg/kg/5 day- continuous TXAPA9 38,145,1976
unscheduled DNA synthesis subcutaneous
rat
12 mg/kg/3 day- intermittent TXAPA9 74,337,1984
host-mediated assay mouse
Salmonella typhimurium
6 mg/kg SOGEBZ 13,737,1977
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 500 mol/L (+enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 138,9,1984
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 500 mg/L (-enzymatic activation step) SOGEBZ 13,737,1977
mutation in microorganisms Saccharomyes cerevisiae 1 mol/L (-enzymatic activation step) CPBTAL 33,1571,1985
micronucleus test hamster ovary 500 g/L BECTA6 36,342,1986
micronucleus test hamster lung 625 g/L MUREAV 287,71,1993
micronucleus test human fibroblast 2 mol/L/24 hour MUREAV 490,99,2001
micronucleus test human fibroblast 1 mol/L/25 hour EMMUEG 40,200,2002
micronucleus test human lung 1 mol/L/30 hour EMMUEG 40,200,2002
micronucleus test human liver 1 mol/L/24 hour TXCYAC 198,315,2004
micronucleus test human lymphocyte 5 mol/L/72 hour MUREAV 649,7,2008
micronucleus test intraperitoneal
mouse
50 g/kg MUREAV 306,85,1994
micronucleus test intraperitoneal
other fish
1,000 ppm NULSAK 28,176,1985
micronucleus test oral
rat
4.5 mg/kg/9 day- intermittent JJATDK 22,271,2002
micronucleus test subcutaneous
rat
0.5 mg/kg/1 day- intermittent JJATDK 22,271,2002
mutation in mammalian somatic cells hamster lung 1 mol/L MUREAV 111,69,1983
mutation in mammalian somatic cells mouse lymphocyte 140 g/L EMMUEG 12,85,1988
morphological transform hamster embryo 2 mol/L CNREA8 39,193,1979
morphological transform mouse fibroblast 9 mol/L MUREAV 448,23,2000
morphological transform mouse fibroblast 0.1 mol/L/21 day (-enzymatic activation step) EMMUEG 35,300,2000
morphological transform rat other cell types 300 nmol/L MUREAV 198,115,1988
other mutation test systems hamster ovary 500 g/L BECTA6 36,342,1986
other mutation test systems hamster embryo 1,100 g/L MUREAV 287,47,1993
other mutation test systems subcutaneous
mouse
3 mg/kg NEZAAQ 32,472,1977
other mutation test systems subcutaneous
rat
12 mg/kg/3 day- intermittent TXAPA9 74,337,1984
sister chromatid exchange human lymphocyte 5 mol/L FCTOD7 30,521,1992
sister chromatid exchange intraperitoneal
mouse
840 g/kg MUREAV 206,285,1988
sister chromatid exchange mouse other cell types 10 mg/L/24 hour JJATDK 20,231,2000
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction oral
Drosophila melanogaster
20 ppm MUREAV 259,147,1991
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction hamster embryo 600 g/L MUREAV 287,47,1993
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction human lymphocyte 1 mg/L MUREAV 287,57,1993
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction human lung 1 mol/L MUREAV 469,35,2000
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction human fibroblast 4 mol/L/30 hour EMMUEG 40,200,2002
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction intraperitoneal
mouse
10 mol/kg BECTA6 29,412,1982
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction Saccharomyes cerevisiae 4 mol/L MUTAEX 1,21,1986
sperm morphology subcutaneous
guinea pig
40 mol/kg JRPFA4 1,294,1960
sperm morphology subcutaneous
hamster
40 mol/kg JRPFA4 1,294,1960
sperm morphology intraperitoneal
mouse
1 mg/kg JPETAB 187,641,1973
sperm morphology subcutaneous
mouse
20,250 g/kg BJEPA5 40,503,1959
sperm morphology unreported route
mouse
1 mg/kg GNKAA5 16,1397,1980
sperm morphology subcutaneous
rat
1,824 g/kg JOENAK 24,453,1962
sperm morphology subcutaneous
rabbit
40 mol/kg JRPFA4 1,294,1960


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
guinea pig
lowest published toxic concentration: 50 g/m3 (50 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Maternal- fetal exchange TOLED5 129,189,2002
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 200 g/m3/24 hour (1-21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Other effects to embryo or fetus

Reproductive: Other effects on female

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXCYAC 10,297,1978
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 600 g/m3/24 hour (1-21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) TXCYAC 10,297,1978
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 130 g/m3 (1-19 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
GTPZAB 31(8),25,1987
implant
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 20,530 g/kg (5-18 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system

Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalities
TOLED5 76,195,1995
intramuscular
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4 mg/kg (1 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands IJEBA6 15,594,1977
intraperitoneal
hamster
lowest published toxic dose: 3,666 g/kg (1 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct ARANDR 15,91,1985
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 2 mg/kg (7 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
CPBTAL 30,2141,1982
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 4 mg/kg (10 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
TJADAB 21,79,1980
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1,833 g/kg (7 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Eye, ear

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)
NTIS** CONF-771017
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1 mg/kg (1 day male) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Male fertility index (e.g., # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile nonpregnant females) JPETAB 187,641,1973
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 4 mg/kg (8 day pregnant) Reproductive: Other effects to embryo or fetus REPTED 22,636,2006
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1 mg/kg (9 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) BDERE* 76,19,2006
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 2 mg/kg (9 day pregnant) Reproductive: Other effects to embryo or fetus BDERE* 76,19,2006
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 3.5 mg/kg (9 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants) BDERE* 76,19,2006
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 3.5 mg/kg (9 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system TERM1* -,325,2006
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 4 mg/kg (8 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) TERPM* -,392,2006
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2 mg/kg (1 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct SCYYDZ 19,290,1999
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2,933 g/kg (10 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Body wall

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Gastrointestinal system
TJADAB 7,237,1973
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2,933 g/kg (10 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)
TJADAB 7,237,1973
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2 mg/kg (10 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
ARTODN 59,443,1987
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2 mg/kg (10 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system
ARTODN 59,443,1987
intratesticular
dog
lowest published toxic dose: 7,330 g/kg (1 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct IJEBA6 14,613,1976
intratesticular
mammal (species unspecified)
lowest published toxic dose: 500 g/kg (1 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands
AEFTAA 7,75,1976
intratesticular
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 1,520 g/kg (1 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Male fertility index (e.g., # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile nonpregnant females)
JOANAY 99,907,1965
intravenous
hamster
lowest published toxic dose: 2 mg/kg (8 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue) TJADAB 19,50A,1979
intravenous
hamster
lowest published toxic dose: 2 mg/kg (8 day pregnant) Reproductive: Other effects to embryo or fetus

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Eye, ear
TJADAB 25,101,1982
intravenous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 73 mg/kg (1 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct TOXID9 4,164,1984
intravenous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2 mg/kg (8 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
NYKZAU 70,84P,1974
intravenous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4,500 g/kg (10 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Eye, ear
TJADAB 44,259,1991
intravenous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2 mg/kg (12 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system
ARTODN 59,443,1987
intravenous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2 mg/kg (14 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
ARTODN 59,443,1987
intravenous
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 2 mg/kg (8 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)
BMMBES 48,159,1992
oral
dog
lowest published toxic dose: 52.5 mg/kg (21 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral TOLED5 135,S52,2002
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 6,197 g/kg (1-19 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects
AEHLAU 33,36,1978
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 248 gm/kg (1-19 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Blood and lymphatic systems (including spleen and marrow)
JONUAI 109,1640,1979
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 6 mg/kg (15-19 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Endocrine system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
JEPTDQ 1(3),187,1978
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 33 mg/kg (7-9 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
CIZAAZ 61,335,1985
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 64 mg/kg (1-21 day pregnant/10 day after birth) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
TOLED5 159,38,2005
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 62 mg/kg (1 day pregnant-10 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Physical

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
TOLED5 159,38,2005
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 62 mg/kg (1 day pregnant-10 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic NRTXDN 28,790,2007
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 652 mg/kg (7-16 day pregnant) Reproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubes

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)
JJATDK 2,255,1982
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 326 mg/kg (1-20 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
GISAAA 54(4),86,1989
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 48 mg/kg (90 day prior to copulation/1-22 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects NTIS** CONF-771017
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 14,677 g/kg (6-14 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system
TXAPA9 23,222,1972
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 17 mg/kg (6 week male/6 week prior to copulation-20 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system EESADV 4,51,1980
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 210 mg/kg (1-21 day pregnant/21 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects
AHRTAN 47,245,1996
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 280 mg/kg (6-19 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Cardiovascular (circulatory) system NATUAS 239,231,1972
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 55 mg/kg (1-22 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Live birth index (Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured after birth)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
NETEEC 19,213,1997
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 180 mg/kg (6-14 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Cardiovascular (circulatory) system
NETEEC 26,673,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 180 mg/kg (6-14 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Respiratory system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system

Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalities
NETEEC 26,673,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 180 mg/kg (6-14 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
NETEEC 26,673,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 81.6 mg/kg (17 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral ETOPFR 17,35,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 110 mg/kg (9-19 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic TOLED5 156,369,2005
oral
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 990 mg/kg (1-6 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Other measures of fertility JRPFA4 70,323,1984
parenteral
guinea pig
lowest published toxic dose: 2,500 g/kg (1 day prior to copulation) Reproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubes IJEBA6 3,50,1965
subcutaneous
gerbil
lowest published toxic dose: 5,600 g/kg (1 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands
JRMSAS 85,297,1965
subcutaneous
hamster
lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kg (1 day prior to copulation) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Female fertility index (e.g., # females pregnant per # sperm positive females; # females pregnant per # females mated)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Other measures of fertility
BIREBV 29,249,1983
subcutaneous
hamster
lowest published toxic dose: 8 mg/kg (1 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct BIREBV 19,886,1978
subcutaneous
mammal (species unspecified)
lowest published toxic dose: 7,332 g/kg (1 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct IJEBA6 12,200,1974
subcutaneous
monkey
lowest published toxic dose: 12 mg/kg (1 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands
AEFTAA 7,339,1976
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 4 mg/kg (7 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
ZMAFA2 100,419,1986
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 3 mg/kg (1 day prior to copulation) Reproductive: Maternal effects: Oogenesis TJADAB 16,127,1977
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 5,700 g/kg (8-10 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)
EXPADD 36,75,1989
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 3,666 g/kg (13 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death TJADAB 10,243,1974
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 2,500 g/kg (7 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Eye, ear

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
INHEAO 11,127,1973
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 6,000 g/kg (8-10 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain) TOLED5 164,207,2006
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 12 mg/kg (7-9 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
REPTED 23,92,2007
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 7 mg/kg (12 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Maternal- fetal exchange TJADAB 35,74A,1987
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4,892 g/kg (19 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
TXCYAC 18,103,1980
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 32 mg/kg (12-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Respiratory system TJADAB 23,75,1981
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,250 g/kg (1 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands
ABMGAJ 5,153,1960
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2.5 mg/kg (1 day male) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Male fertility index (e.g., # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile nonpregnant females) BIREBV 16,609,1977
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 12.5 mg/kg (1 day male) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Mating performance (e.g., # sperm positive females per # females mated; # copulations per # estrus cycles) BIREBV 16,609,1977
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 10 mg/kg (1 day prior to copulation) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea) IJVSA* 32,210,1962
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 10 mg/kg (1 day prior to copulation) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
IJVSA* 32,210,1962
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 10 mg/kg (1 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
IJVSA* 32,210,1962
subcutaneous
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 815 g/kg (29 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Hepatobiliary system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system
TXAPA9 62,211,1982
subcutaneous
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 1 mg/kg (20 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death TOXID9 1,16,1981
subcutaneous
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 4,583 ng/kg (1 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
JRPFA4 14,348,1967
subcutaneous
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 2,500 g/kg (1 day prior to copulation) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Other measures of fertility CCPTAY 26,181,1982
subcutaneous
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kg (1 day prior to copulation) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea) CCPTAY 26,181,1982
subcutaneous
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 204 g/kg (29 day pregnant) Reproductive: Other effects to embryo or fetus TXAPA9 62,211,1982
subcutaneous
squirrel
lowest published toxic dose: 7,332 mg/kg (1 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands
AEFTAA 7,257,1976
unreported route
mammal (species unspecified)
lowest published toxic dose: 2,400 g/kg (1 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct IJEBA6 18,1398,1980


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 20 g/m3/23 hour/78 week- continuous Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
JJIND8 70,367,1983
inhalation
rat
toxic concentration (other than lowest) : 41 g/m3/23 hour/78 week- continuous Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
JJIND8 70,367,1983
inhalation
rat
toxic concentration (other than lowest) : 82 g/m3/23 hour/78 week- continuous Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
JJIND8 70,367,1983
intramuscular
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4,500 g/kg Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Facilitates action of known carcinogens
ARPAAQ 83,493,1967
parenteral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,700 g/kg Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Facilitates action of known carcinogens
ARPAAQ 83,493,1967
parenteral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 6,163 g/kg Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Endocrine: Tumors
JCROD7 114,273,1988
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 5,499 g/kg Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Testicular tumors
JNCIAM 31,745,1963
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3,666 g/kg Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Testicular tumors

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
PAACA3 24,84,1983
subcutaneous
rat
toxic dose : 4,500 g/kg Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
ARPAAQ 83,493,1967
subcutaneous
rat
toxic dose : 7,332 g/kg Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Testicular tumors

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
PAACA3 24,84,1983
subcutaneous
rat
toxic dose : 5,499 g/kg Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Testicular tumors

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
PSEBAA 115,653,1964
subcutaneous
rat
toxic dose : 3,666 mg/kg Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Gastrointestinal: Tumors

Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Testicular tumors
CNREA8 43,4575,1983
subcutaneous
rat
toxic dose : 7,332 mg/kg Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Gastrointestinal: Tumors

Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Testicular tumors
CNREA8 43,4575,1983
subcutaneous
rat
toxic dose : 40,770 ng/kg/2 day- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
CNREA8 48,4656,1988
subcutaneous
rat
toxic dose : 9 mg/kg Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Testicular tumors

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
CNREA8 49,4282,1989
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 32.99 mg/kg/18 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Musculoskeletal: Tumors
TOSCF2 54,110,2000
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 66 mg/kg/18 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Musculoskeletal: Tumors
TOSCF2 54,110,2000
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 32.99 mg/kg/18 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Testicular tumors
TOSCF2 54,110,2000
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 66 mg/kg/18 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Testicular tumors
TOSCF2 54,110,2000


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
dog
lethal concentration (90 percent kill): 420 mg/m3/30 minute Cardiac: Pulse rate decreased with fall in BP

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
JIHTAB 29,302,1947
inhalation
guinea pig
lowest published toxic concentration: 50 g/m3 Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes TOLED5 129,189,2002
inhalation
rat
lowest published lethal concentration: 20.44 mg/m3/24 hour N/R VHTODE 43,176,2001
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.1 pph/1 hour Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory stimulation

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXCYAC 211,36,2005
intramuscular
frog
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 10 mg/kg Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases
CBPCEE 85,249,1986
intramuscular
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 25 mg/kg N/R 85PDAD -,67,1978
intraperitoneal
guinea pig
lowest published lethal dose: 233 mg/kg N/R AEHLAU 11,201,1965
intraperitoneal
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 9,300 g/kg Blood: Hemorrhage NEZAAQ 32,472,1977
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 2.8 mg/kg Liver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TXAPA9 179,155,2002
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 2.9 mg/kg Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)
TXAPA9 197,268,2004
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 3.7 mg/kg Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
TXAPA9 200,219,2004
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 2,933 g/kg Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)
TOLED5 148,199,2004
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 2 mg/kg Liver: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Other metals

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TOXID9 1,108,2001
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1.4 mg/kg Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning
NETEEC 27,575,2005
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1,833 g/kg Liver: Other changes

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TOXID9 60,259,2001
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 3.7 mg/kg Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Liver: Liver function tests impaired
JPETAB 310,18,2004
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1.8 mg/kg Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight

Blood: Changes in spleen
TOLED5 169,95,2007
intraperitoneal
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,800 g/kg N/R EVHPAZ 28,89,1979
intraperitoneal
rat
lethal dose : 8.3 mg/kg N/R TXAPA9 73,250,1984
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3.66 mg/kg Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain TXAPA9 73,250,1984
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1.8 mg/kg Reproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
TXAPA9 73,250,1984
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.83 mg/kg Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count) TXAPA9 73,250,1984
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.18 mg/kg Endocrine: Androgenic

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
TXAPA9 73,250,1984
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2.5 mg/kg Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TXCYAC 179,37,2002
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2.5 mg/kg Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TXCYAC 200,29,2004
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 6.5 mg/kg Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
ARTODN 78,321,2004
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1 mg/kg Liver: Other changes TOXID9 66,116,2002
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2 mg/kg Blood: Hemorrhage

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
ARTODN 76,8,2002
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1.5 mg/kg Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases
TXCYAC 217,240,2006
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2.5 mg/kg Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
TXCYAC 217,240,2006
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.25 mg/kg Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
JAPTO* 26,47,2006
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2 mg/kg Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Catalases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
JAPTO* 26,47,2006
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1 mg/kg Cardiac: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
JAPTO* 26,47,2006
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2.5 mg/kg Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TXCYAC 237,24,2007
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3.5 mg/kg Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Liver: Other changes
AJPHT* 1,21,2006
intraperitoneal
squirrel
lowest published toxic dose: 0.32 mg/kg Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Catecholamine levels in CNS

Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Dopamine at other sites
TOLED5 41,93,1988
intratracheal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 433 g/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
LIFSAK 72,1303,2003
intratracheal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 866 g/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
LIFSAK 72,1303,2003
intratracheal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 476.6 g/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight
TOXID9 66,203,2002
intratracheal
rat
lowest published lethal dose: 241 g/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
ESKGA2 33,360,1987
intratracheal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2.5 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosing alveolitis

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
JKMSEH 18,655,2003
intratracheal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2.5 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes TXCYAC 218,197,2006
intratesticular
domestic animal
lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kg Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
ACEDAB 40,321,1962
intratesticular
monkey
lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kg Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
ACEDAB 40,321,1962
intratesticular
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 50 g/kg Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
ACEDAB 40,321,1962
intratesticular
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 200 g/kg Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct ACEDAB 40,321,1962
intravenous
cat
lowest published lethal dose: 5 mg/kg N/R HBAMAK 4,1289,1935
intravenous
dog
lowest published lethal dose: 5 mg/kg N/R EQSSDX 1,1,1975
intravenous
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3,500 g/kg N/R TXAPA9 53,510,1980
intravenous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 2.5 mg/kg Liver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TXAPA9 180,178,2002
intravenous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 2 mg/kg Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TXCYAC 175,83,2002
intravenous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 4 mg/kg Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TXCYAC 175,83,2002
intravenous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 4 mg/kg Cardiac: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
TOXID9 1,108,2001
intravenous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 2,750 g/kg Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Sensory change involving trigeminal nerve

Blood: Hemorrhage
TOXID9 1,108,2001
intravenous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 2,750 g/kg Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Sensory change involving trigeminal nerve TOXID9 1,108,2001
intravenous
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 5,463 g/kg N/R TXAPA9 41,667,1977
intravenous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3 mg/kg Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests TOSCF2 65,151,2002
intravenous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1 mg/kg Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Male fertility index (e.g., # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile nonpregnant females)

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
TXAPA9 55,456,1980
intravenous
rat
lowest published lethal dose: 4.5 mg/kg N/R TOSCF2 65,151,2002
intravenous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3 mg/kg Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TOSCF2 65,151,2002
intravenous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2 mg/kg Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TOXID9 1,109,2001
intravenous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2 mg/kg Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other TOXID9 1,109,2001
intravenous
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2,500 g/kg N/R 85PDAD -,67,1978
multiple
non-mammalian species
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 560 mg/m3 N/R AECTCV 40,230,2001
oral
chicken
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 165 mg/kg N/R 41PDA9 -,160,1979
oral
guinea pig
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 63 mg/kg N/R FOREAE 7,313,1942
oral
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 60 mg/kg Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain APTOA6 48,108,1981
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 2.8 mg/kg Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Other metals FCTOD7 39,571,2001
oral
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3.3 mg/kg N/R ETOPFR 5,43,1998
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 8 mg/kg Gastrointestinal: Other changes

Musculoskeletal: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Ca
TXAPA9 191,272,2003
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 25 mg/kg Gastrointestinal: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOLED5 164,144,2006
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kg Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases TOLED5 164,144,2006
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 88 mg/kg Gastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of salivary glands

Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
AFDOAQ 15,122,1951
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 88 mg/kg N/R USXXAM #6365129
oral
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 70 mg/kg N/R EQSSDX 1,1,1975
oral
woman
lowest published lethal dose: 3 gm/kg Vascular: BP lowering not characterized in autonomic section

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea
BMJOAE 292,1559,1986
parenteral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 6 mg/kg Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
TOXID9 44,281,2005
subcutaneous
cat
lowest published lethal dose: 25 mg/kg N/R EQSSDX 1,1,1975
subcutaneous
frog
lowest published lethal dose: 30 mg/kg N/R HBAMAK 4,1289,1935
subcutaneous
gerbil
lowest published lethal dose: 7,500 g/kg N/R JRMSAS 85,297,1965
subcutaneous
gerbil
lowest published toxic dose: 7.5 mg/kg Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct BIREBV 13,240,1975
subcutaneous
hamster
lowest published toxic dose: 1 mg/kg Reproductive: Maternal effects: Oogenesis

Reproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubes
MUREAV 67,349,1979
subcutaneous
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3,200 g/kg Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain APTOA6 48,108,1981
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1 mg/kg N/R TOSCF2 53,474,2000
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 2.2 mg/kg Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct PSEBAA 122,1036,1966
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 5,499 g/kg Liver: Other changes

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
TXCYAC 42,121,1986
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1 mg/kg Gastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of exocrine pancreas

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Other metals
TOSCF2 53,474,2000
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 5.5 mg/kg Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Liver: Other changes
TXAPA9 197,272,2004
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 916.5 g/kg Liver: Tumors TOXID9 44,141,2005
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 916.5 g/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors TOXID9 44,141,2005
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 4.5825 mg/kg Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TOLED5 151,79,2004
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 7 mg/kg Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
TXCYAC 225,150,2006
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 2 mg/kg Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
REPTED 22,529,2006
subcutaneous
pigeon
lowest published lethal dose: 30 mg/kg N/R HBAMAK 4,1289,1935
subcutaneous
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 15,166 g/kg N/R TXAPA9 41,667,1977
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.45 mg/kg mg/kg Endocrine: Androgenic

Endocrine: Changes in adrenal weight

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
REPTED 15,699,2001
subcutaneous
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 5,490 g/kg Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TOSCF2 54,110,2000
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5.5 mg/kg Vascular: Measurement of regional blood flow

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
CBPAB5 41A,451,1972
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kg Endocrine: Effect on menstrual cycle APHHDU 76,245,1990
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5.5 mg/kg Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands
ARPAAQ 71,52,1961
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 20 mg/kg Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight ENDKAC 74,6,1979
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4 mg/kg Reproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Male fertility index (e.g., # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile nonpregnant females)

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in prostate weight
ENDKAC 74,6,1979
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5.5 mg/kg Liver: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Other metals

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
TOLED5 50,203,1990
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3.66 mg/kg Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in prostate weight
JOENAK 92,123,1982
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 22 mg/kg Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
NATUAS 177,1036,1956
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 12.5 mg/kg Reproductive: Paternal effects: Impotence BIREBV 16,609,1977
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1 mg/kg Reproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands JTEHD6 19,393,1986
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2.1 mg/kg Endocrine: Change in gonadotropins

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
JTEHD6 19,393,1986
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.85 mg/kg Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct ANREAK 149,135,1964
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 7.332 mg/kg Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
JRPFA4 21,221,1970
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 10 mg/kg Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Male fertility index (e.g., # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile nonpregnant females)
IJVSA* 32,210,1962
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 10 mg/kg Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Female fertility index (e.g., # females pregnant per # sperm positive females; # females pregnant per # females mated) IJVSA* 32,210,1962
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4.58 mg/kg Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TOLED5 151,79,2004
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1 mg/kg Liver: Other changes TOLED5 158,108,2005
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2.5 mg/kg Endocrine: Other changes

Reproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubes
TXCYAC 239,204,2007
subcutaneous
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 18 mg/kg N/R JOANAY 97,269,1963
skin
guinea pig
lowest published lethal dose: 233 mg/kg N/R AEHLAU 11,201,1965
unreported route
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 3.7 mg/kg Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins TOXID9 72,81,2003
unreported route
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 6 mg/kg Cardiac: Pulse rate decreased with fall in BP TOXID9 66,287,2002
unreported route
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1.23 mg/kg Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
TOXID9 1,109,2001


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
guinea pig
lowest published toxic concentration: 50 g/m3/5 day- intermittent Liver: Other changes TOLED5 129,189,2002
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.1 mg/m3/2 week- continuous Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field HBPTO* 2,1367,2001
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 128 g/kg/2 week- intermittent Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on mitochondrial function
REPTED 17,561,2003
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 33 g/m3/24 hour/20 week- continuous Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Proteinuria

Musculoskeletal: Osteoporosis

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Ca
GISAAA 52(5),85,1987
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 327 g/m3/24 hour/66 day- continuous Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain BECTA6 17,585,1977
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 81 mg/m3/4 hour/15 day- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
INHTE5 3,419,1991
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.1 mg/m3/2 week- continuous Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field HBPTO* 2,1367,2001
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 5.11 mg/m3/2 day- continuous Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field VHTODE 43,176,2001
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 5.11 mg/m3/7 day- continuous Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests
VHTODE 43,176,2001
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 20.44 mg/m3/2 day- continuous Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests
VHTODE 43,176,2001
inhalation
rat
: 0.1 pph/5 week- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain TXCYAC 211,36,2005
inhalation
rat
: 0.1 pph/3 week- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Emphysema TXCYAC 211,36,2005
intramuscular
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 14 mg/kg/70 day- intermittent Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning

Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerve

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)
RCOCB8 14,689,1976
intramuscular
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 15 mg/kg/15 day- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain RCOCB8 14,689,1976
intramuscular
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 70 mg/kg/70 day- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight

Endocrine: Changes in adrenal weight
RCOCB8 14,689,1976
intramuscular
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 11.67 mg/kg/70 day- intermittent Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Skin and Appendages: Other: Hair

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
RCOCB8 14,689,1976
intramuscular
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 58.33 mg/kg/70 day- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
RCOCB8 14,689,1976
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 14 mg/kg/14 day- intermittent Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Blood: Changes in spleen

Immunological Including Allergic: Increase in cellular immune response
TOLED5 86,39,1996
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 5,499 g/kg/3 day- intermittent Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes TOXID9 66,116,2002
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 49 mg/kg/15 day- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes primarily in glomeruli

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
CHYCDW 32,318,1998
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 7 mg/kg/4 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TOLED5 12,27,1982
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 49 mg/kg/7 week- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Endocrine: Other changes
TOLED5 12,131,1982
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 74 mg/kg/13 week- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
VHTODE 41,65,1999
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 14 mg/kg/7 day- intermittent Endocrine: Aldosteronism

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXCYAC 70,185,1991
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1.4 mg/kg/7 day- intermittent Endocrine: Other changes TXCYAC 70,185,1991
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.14 mg/kg/7 day- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Urine volume decreased or anuria TXCYAC 70,185,1991
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 18 mg/kg/18 week- intermittent Endocrine: Changes in adrenal weight APHHDU 78,221,1991
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kg/5 day- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes TOLED5 144,151,2003
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 56.5 gm/kg/4 week- intermittent Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
TXAPA9 197,275,2004
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 110 gm/kg/40 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)
TXCYAC 203,145,2004
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 20 mg/kg/10 day- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
TXCYAC 235,185,2007
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 20 mg/kg/10 day- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
TXCYAC 242,23,2007
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3.6 mg/kg/3 day- intermittent Related to Chronic Data: Changes in uterine weight TXCYAC 241,84,2007
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.36 mg/kg/3 day- intermittent Reproductive: Maternal effects: Uterus, cervix, vagina TXCYAC 241,84,2007
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 70 mg/kg/5 week- intermittent Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct JKMSEH 21,445,2006
intravenous
monkey
lowest published toxic dose: 195 mg/kg/65 week- intermittent Blood: Changes in bone marrow not included in above

Musculoskeletal: Osteomalacia
JTSCDR 24,344,1999
intravenous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 65 mg/kg/13 week- intermittent Musculoskeletal: Changes in teeth and supporting structures

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Fe
TOPADD 24,451,1996
intravenous
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 2,250 g/kg/3 week- intermittent Eye: Other eye effects

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
KOAOAE 93,1,1991
oral
chicken
lowest published toxic dose: 1,375 mg/kg/3 week- continuous Behavioral: Food intake (animal)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
41PDA9 -,160,1979
oral
chicken
lowest published toxic dose: 3,179 mg/kg/26 week- continuous Behavioral: Food intake (animal)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
41PDA9 -,160,1979
oral
duck
lowest published toxic dose: 1,803 mg/kg/90 day- continuous Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Interstitial nephritis

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
JTEHD6 4,551,1978
oral
duck
lowest published toxic dose: 630 mg/kg/42 day- continuous Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight

Endocrine: Changes in adrenal weight
AECTCV 13,765,1984
oral
monkey
lowest published toxic dose: 1,369 mg/kg/24 week- intermittent Endocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunction

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
TOLED5 34,85,1986
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 2,235 g/kg/85 day- continuous Liver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
JTSCDR 9,29,1984
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 185 mg/kg/22 week- continuous Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Behavioral: Fluid intake

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXCYAC 55,193,1989
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 275 mg/kg/10 week- continuous Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune response AEHLAU 30,598,1975
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 6,825 mg/kg/65 week- continuous Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Blood: Normocytic anemia

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NYKZAU 70,85P,1974
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 566 mg/kg/14 day- continuous Blood: Changes in spleen

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response
TOLED5 86,39,1996
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 13.6 mg/kg/5 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
JTPAE7 29,630,2001
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 27.2 mg/kg/10 week- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
JTPAE7 29,630,2001
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1.83 mg/kg/61 day- continuous Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
TXCYAC 172,1,2002
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 183.6 mg/kg/8 week- intermittent Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
TXCYAC 172,1,2002
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 12.6 g/kg/3 week- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain TXCYAC 188,233,2003
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 168 g/kg/4 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Proteinuria TXCYAC 188,233,2003
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1,302 g/kg/31 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Proteinuria

Immunological Including Allergic: Autoimmune (multiple organ involvement)
TXCYAC 188,233,2003
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1,680 g/kg/4 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Proteinuria

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Immunological Including Allergic: Autoimmune (multiple organ involvement)
TXCYAC 188,233,2003
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 2,469.6 mg/kg/3 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Na
CBCPAI 132,53,2002
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 4,942 mg/kg/3 week- intermittent Cardiac: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Ca
CBCPAI 132,53,2002
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 322 mg/kg/23 week- continuous Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis) TXCYAC 238,200,2007
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 3,220 mg/kg/23 week- continuous Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in both tubules and glomeruli

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on mitochondrial function
TXCYAC 238,200,2007
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 2,240 mg/kg/16 week- continuous Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes TXCYAC 238,200,2007
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 5,600 mg/kg/16 week- continuous Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on mitochondrial function
TXCYAC 238,200,2007
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 14 mg/kg/1 week- continuous Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes TXCYAC 236,29,2007
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1,120 mg/kg/8 week- continuous Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes TXCYAC 236,29,2007
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 3,220 mg/kg/23 week- continuous Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects TXCYAC 236,29,2007
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 840 mg/kg/3 week- continuous Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response TXAPA9 223,257,2007
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 270 mg/kg/90 day- intermittent Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count) ETOPFR 23,96,2007
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 540 mg/kg/180 day- intermittent Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
ETOPFR 23,96,2007
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 40,040 mg/kg/65 week- continuous Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
BCTKAG 14,205,1981
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 42,770 g/kg/6 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
BECTA6 40,273,1988
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 7,162 mg/kg/47 week- continuous Liver: Other changes

Musculoskeletal: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Other metals
TOLED5 15,95,1983
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2,808 mg/kg/83 week- continuous Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Na

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Ca

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Other metals
TXAPA9 54,223,1980
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 412 mg/kg/4 week- continuous Liver: Changes in liver weight

Blood: Pigmented or nucleated red blood cells

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
FCTOD7 28,435,1990
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,505 mg/kg/43 week- continuous Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Proteinuria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight
TXAPA9 116,155,1992
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 216 mg/kg/14 week- continuous Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Blood: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Fe
JTEHD6 2,929,1977
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 270 mg/kg/26 week- continuous Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
JTEHD6 15,521,1985
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 27,397 g/kg/40 week- continuous Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on mitochondrial function
AEHLAU 24,215,1972
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 293 mg/kg/30 day- continuous Gastrointestinal: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
AECTCV 6,121,1977
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 512.4 mg/kg/12 week- continuous Behavioral: Fluid intake

Musculoskeletal: Osteomalacia
FCTOD7 39,729,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 42 mg/kg/182 day- continuous Blood: Other hemolysis with or without anemia ETOPFR 8,79,2000
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 54 mg/kg/8 day- continuous Behavioral: Fluid intake BECTA6 66,125,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 14 mg/kg/2 week- continuous Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field HBPTO* 2,1367,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 360.08 mg/kg/8 week- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Meningeal changes

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count
TXCYAC 178,161,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 152 mg/kg/19 day- continuous Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
CRTOEC 14,1428,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 60 mg/kg/30 day- continuous Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Endocrine: Change in LH

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Amino acids (including renal excretion)
NRTXDN 23,207,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 60 mg/kg/30 day- continuous Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Endocrine: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Amino acids (including renal excretion)
NRTXDN 23,207,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 364 mg/kg/1 year- continuous Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
JTSCDR 26,337,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,092 mg/kg/78 week- continuous Blood: Other changes JTSCDR 26,337,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 91 mg/kg/1 year- continuous Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
JTSCDR 26,337,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 167 mg/kg/668 day- continuous Liver: Other changes JTSCDR 26,337,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 180.04 mg/kg/4 week- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Changes in adrenal weight
TXCYAC 178,161,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 360.08 mg/kg/8 week- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Changes in adrenal weight

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight
TXCYAC 178,161,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 250 mg/kg/10 day- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TXCYAC 179,37,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 8.4 mg/kg/12 week- intermittent Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight TXCYAC 186,109,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 16.8 mg/kg/12 week- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Endocrine: Other changes

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in prostate weight
TXCYAC 186,109,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 33.6 mg/kg/24 week- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Endocrine: Change in gonadotropins

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in prostate weight
TXCYAC 186,109,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 90 g/kg/90 day- continuous Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
TOXID9 72,271,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 420 mg/kg/12 week- intermittent Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerve ETOPFR 13,181,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 840 mg/kg/12 week- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight ETOPFR 13,181,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 7.5 mg/kg/5 day- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Blood: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TOLED5 145,211,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 28 mg/kg/8 week- continuous Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis) FCTOD7 42,1203,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 227.5 mg/kg/13 week- continuous Liver: Other changes FCTOD7 42,1203,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 350 mg/kg/5 week- continuous Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain FCTOD7 42,1203,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 750 mg/kg/30 day- continuous Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct TXAPA9 197,273,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 9 mg/kg/30 day- continuous Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Dopamine at other sites
TXAPA9 197,319,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 42.5 mg/kg/17 day- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Skin and Appendages: Other: Breast

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
TOLED5 148,73,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 42 mg/kg/12 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other hydrolases
ARTODN 77,344,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 210 mg/kg/6 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
ARTODN 77,344,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 21 mg/kg/6 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in both tubules and glomeruli

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
ARTODN 78,226,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 84 mg(Cd)/kg/24 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
ARTODN 78,194,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 90 mg/kg/90 day- continuous Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Proteinuria TOXID9 66,203,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 30 mg/kg/30 day- continuous Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Urine volume decreased or anuria

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TOXID9 66,203,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 120 mg/kg/10 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Renal function tests depressed

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Musculoskeletal: Osteoporosis
TOXID9 1,109,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 450 mg/kg/90 day- intermittent Musculoskeletal: Osteomalacia

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Ca
TXAPA9 207,195,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 900 mg/kg/90 day- intermittent Musculoskeletal: Osteomalacia

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Ca

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TXAPA9 207,195,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 182.5 mg/kg/1 year- intermittent Musculoskeletal: Osteomalacia TOLED5 157,161,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 120 g/kg/30 day- intermittent Liver: Liver function tests impaired ABPLAF 50,543,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 91.25 mg/kg/26 week- continuous Musculoskeletal: Other changes ABPLAF 51,825,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 21 mg/kg/6 week- continuous Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other hydrolases ABPLAF 51,831,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 345.8 mg/kg/91 day- continuous Musculoskeletal: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Ca
TXAPA9 207,195,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 136.5 mg/kg/39 week- continuous Musculoskeletal: Other changes TXAPA9 207,195,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 182.5 mg/kg/1 year- continuous Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
TXAPA9 207,195,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 91.25 mg/kg/0.5 year- continuous Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Ca TXAPA9 207,195,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 45.5 mg/kg/91 day- continuous Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition TXAPA9 207,195,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 61.9 mg/kg/26 week- continuous Musculoskeletal: Osteoporosis

Musculoskeletal: Other changes
TXCYAC 237,89,2007
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 70 mg/kg/28 day- continuous Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight

Endocrine: Differential effect of sex or castration on observed toxicity

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response
TOSCF2 92,423,2006
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 14 mg/kg/28 day- continuous Endocrine: Differential effect of sex or castration on observed toxicity

Immunological Including Allergic: Increase in cellular immune response
TOSCF2 92,423,2006
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 128.6 mg/kg/2 year- continuous Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Renal function tests depressed

Endocrine: Hyperparathyroidism

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Ca
ARTODN 79,636,2006
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 91 mg/kg/91 day- continuous Vascular: Structural changes in vessels TOLED5 176,157,2008
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4.5 mg/kg/30 day- continuous Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes TOLED5 172,131,2007
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 103.6 mg/kg/8 week- continuous Liver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
FCTOD7 46,1786,2008
oral
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 5,547 mg/kg/54 week- continuous Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
TXAPA9 31,4,1975
oral
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 1,522 mg/kg/43 week- continuous Cardiac: Cardiac output

Cardiac: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Other metals
ATSUDG 8,322,1985
oral
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 686 mg/kg/40 week- continuous Blood: Pigmented or nucleated red blood cells

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Blood: Changes in platelet count
FCTOD7 34,611,1996
subcutaneous
domestic bird
lowest published toxic dose: 53 mg/kg/26 week- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
NEZAAQ 48,130,1993
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 35 mg/kg/7 week- intermittent Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Blood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified)

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count
ENVRAL 24,192,1981
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 8,154 g/kg/5 day- intermittent Blood: Changes in spleen

Blood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified)

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune response
TOLED5 19,29,1983
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 157 mg/kg/10 week- intermittent Gastrointestinal: Peritonitis

Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TOSCF2 55,223,2000
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 4.4 mg/kg/2 day- intermittent Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Male fertility index (e.g., # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile nonpregnant females)
JEPOEC 9,53,1989
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kg/5 day- intermittent Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight AECTCV 29,174,1995
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 4 mg/kg/2 day- intermittent Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases AECTCV 29,174,1995
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 3 mg/kg/3 day- intermittent Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct AECTCV 29,174,1995
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 6,000 g/kg/3 day- intermittent Skin and Appendages: Other: Breast TOLED5 164,207,2006
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 36,660 g/kg/4 week- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TOLED5 173,181,2007
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kg/4 week- intermittent Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct REPTED 22,546,2006
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 12.5 mg/kg/1 week- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
REPTED 22,546,2006
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 52 mg/kg/16 day- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Urine volume increased

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
PHTOEH 63,342,1988
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 63,700 g/kg/26 day- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TXAPA9 98,39,1969
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kg/10 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition JTEHD6 22,255,1987
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 7,338 g/kg/9 week- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Blood: Other changes
TOLED5 8,323,1981
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 127 mg/kg/28 week- intermittent Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Proteinuria

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TXAPA9 77,414,1985
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 9,780 g/kg/8 week- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Other metals
EESADV 18,268,1989
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 73,385 g/kg/15 week- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Autonomic Nervous System: Sympathomimetic

Behavioral: Aggression
TOLED5 7,457,1981
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kg/10 week- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Endocrine: Other changes
ENVRAL 42,400,1987
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 77 mg/kg/14 day- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in prostate weight

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
JTSCDR 18,111,1993
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 18 mg/kg/24 week- intermittent Endocrine: Aldosteronism

Blood: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
TXCYAC 55,117,1989
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 72 mg/kg/24 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Proteinuria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition
TXCYAC 55,117,1989
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kg/10 week- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Endocrine: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
ENVRAL 42,400,1987
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 6 mg/kg/2 week- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain TXAPA9 189,180,2003
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 15 mg/kg/2 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TXAPA9 189,180,2003
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 42 mg(Cd)/kg/3 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Renal function tests depressed

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on active transport
TXAPA9 204,91,2005
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 75.6 mg/kg/9 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Renal function tests depressed

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TXAPA9 210,128,2006
subcutaneous
rat
: 54 mg(Cd)/kg/9 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
FCTOD7 44,2092,2006
subcutaneous
rat
: 36 mg(Cd)/kg/6 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Proteinuria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
FCTOD7 44,2092,2006
subcutaneous
rat
: 18 mg(Cd)/kg/3 week- intermittent Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport FCTOD7 44,2092,2006
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 54 mg/kg/9 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Renal function tests depressed
TXAPA9 210,128,2006
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 18 mg/kg/3 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes TXAPA9 210,128,2006
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 28 mg/kg/14 day- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis) TXCYAC 218,149,2006
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 63 mg/kg/3 week- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesterase

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TXCYAC 234,44,2007
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 68 mg/kg/34 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Blood: Normocytic anemia
ARTODN 80,680,2006
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 45 mg/kg/18 week- intermittent Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
FCTOD7 46,494,2008
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 25.2 mg/kg/6 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TOXID9 -,94,2008
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 50.4 mg/kg/12 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TOXID9 -,94,2008
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 18 mg/kg/3 week- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
FCTOD7 46,2279,2008
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 36 mg/kg/6 week- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
FCTOD7 46,2279,2008
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 54 mg/kg/9 week- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
FCTOD7 46,2279,2008
subcutaneous
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 28,750 g/kg/23 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
AEHLAU 12,360,1966
subcutaneous
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 156 mg/kg/32 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Proteinuria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight
TOLED5 6,225,1980
subcutaneous
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 63,600 g/kg/13 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
ARTODN 61,105,1987


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value time-weighted average 0.002 mg(Cd)/m3 (respirable) DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value Suspected human carcinogen DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Sufficient Evidence IMEMDT 2,74,1973
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Sufficient Evidence IMEMDT 11,39,1976
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human Sufficient Evidence IMEMDT 58,119,1993
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Sufficient Evidence IMEMDT 58,119,1993
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Group 1 IMEMDT 58,119,1993
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TXCYAC 192,95,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TXAPA9 182,255,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 544,179,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 567,227,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 567,109,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
CRTXB2 33,215,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 613,17,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ENTOX* -,375,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 584,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HETOEA 25,67,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 533,183,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 533,227,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 659,202,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 659,202,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HBTME* ,445,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HBTME* ,177,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HBTME* ,213,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
REPTED 25,304,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HUTOX* -,515,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TXAPA9 233,92,2008


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1988 PESTICIDE SUBJECT TO REGISTRATION OR RE-REGISTRATION FEREAC 54,7740,1989
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1998 STATUS OF PESTICIDES: Cancelled RBREV* -,167,1998
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD - air time-weighted average 0.2 mg(Cd)/m3 DTLVS* 3,34,1971
Occupational Exposure Limit - ARAB Republic of Egypt time-weighted average 0.05 mg(Cd)/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRALIA time-weighted average 0.01 mg(Cd)/m3, JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRALIA time-weighted average 0.01 mg(Cd)/m3, JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRIA TRK 0.015 mg(Cd)/m3 (inhalable), JAN 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRIA TRK 0.03 mg(Cd)/m3 (inhalable), JAN 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM time-weighted average 0.002 mg(Cd)/m3 (resp. dust), Carcinogen, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM time-weighted average 0.01 mg(Cd)/m3 (inhal. dust), Carcinogen, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - DENMARK time-weighted average 0.005 mg(Cd)/m3 (fume, dust), OCT 2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - FINLAND time-weighted average 0.02 mg(Cd)/m3, Carcinogen, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - FRANCE VME 0.05 mg(Cd)/m3, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - HUNGARY ceiling concentration 0.05 mg/m3, Carcinogen, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit - HUNGARY time-weighted average 0.015 mg(Cd)/m3, short term exposure limit 0.06 mg(Cd)/m3, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit - JAPAN Occupational Exposure Limit 0.05 mg(Cd)/m3, group 1 carcinogen, APR2007
Occupational Exposure Limit - KOREA time-weighted average 0.05 mg(Cd)/m3, 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - MEXICO time-weighted average 0.002 mg(Cd)/m3 (inhalable), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit - MEXICO time-weighted average 0.01 mg(Cd)/m3 (total dust), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE NETHERLANDS MAC-TGG 0.005 mg(Cd)/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - NEW ZEALAND time-weighted average 0.01 mg(Cd)/m3 (inspirable dust), JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - NEW ZEALAND time-weighted average 0.002 mg(Cd)/m3 (respirable dust), JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - NORWAY time-weighted average 0.05 mg(Cd)/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE PHILIPPINES time-weighted average 0.2 mg(Cd)/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - POLAND MAC(time-weighted average) dust 0.04 mg(Cd)/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) dust 0.2 mg(Cd)/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - POLAND MAC(time-weighted average) fume 0.02 mg(Cd)/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) fume 0.05 mg(Cd)/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - RUSSIA time-weighted average 0.01 mg(Cd)/m3, short term exposure limit 0.05 mg(Cd)/m3, Carcinogen, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWEDEN Carcinogen, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWITZERLAND MAK- week 0.015 mg(Cd)/m3, Carcinogen, DEC2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - THAILAND time-weighted average 0.2 mg(Cd)/m3, short term exposure limit 0.5 mg(Cd)/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - TURKEY time-weighted average 0.2 mg(Cd)/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - UNITED KINGDOM time-weighted average 0.025 mg(Cd)/m3, 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value;

Suspected human carcinogen
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value
Suspected human carcinogen


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO CADMIUM, dust and fume-air Carcinogen lowest feasible conc. NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974: Hazard Code: 84478;
Number of Industries 5;
Total Number of Facilities 68;
Number of Occupations 5;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 447
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: 84478;
Number of Industries 12;
Total Number of Facilities 753;
Number of Occupations 13;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 4,750;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 397


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat; Cell transform.-SA7/SHE
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: D melanogaster-whole sex chrom. loss; B subtilis rec assay
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Sperm morphology-rat; Sperm morphology-rabbit
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: S cerevisiae-homozygosis
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: In vitro cytogenetics-human lymphocyte
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Rodent dominant lethal; Host-mediated assay
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: Mammalian micronucleus; Histidine reversion-Ames test
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: Sperm morphology-mouse
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
Used as a pesticide and in non-pasture turf fungicides
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NTP 11th Report on Carcinogens,2004:Known to be human carcinogen


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

41PDA9 "Kadmium-Symposium, Jena, Ger. Dem. Rep., 1977," Bolck F., ed., Jena, Ger. Dem. Rep., Abteilung Wissenschaftliche Pub., 1979
85PDAD "Evaluation of the Impact of Cadmium on the Health of Man", Oxford, UK. Pergamon Press Ltd., 1978
ABMGAJ Acta Biologica et Medica Germanica. (Berlin, Ger. Dem. Rep.) V.1-41, 1958-82. For publisher information, see BBIADT.
ABPLAF Acta Biochimica Polonica. (Polish Biochemical Society, Posteura 3, 01-093 Warsaw, Poland) V.1- 1954-
ACEDAB Acta Endocrinologica, Supplementum (Copenhagen). (Periodica, Skolegade 12 E, DK-2500 Valby, Denmark) No.1- 1948-
AECTCV Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. (Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., Service Center, 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, NJ 070944) V.1- 1973-
AEFTAA Acta Europaea Fertilitatis. (COFESE Eds., Piazzale Ungheria 73, 90141 Palermo, Italy) V.1- 1969-
AEHLAU Archives of Environmental Health. (Heldref Pub., 4000 Albemarle St., NW, Washington, DC 20016) V.1- 1960-
AFDOAQ Quarterly Bulletin--Association of Food and Drug Officials of the United States. (Denver, CO) V.3-38, 1939-74.
AHRTAN Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju. Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. (Jugoslovenska Knjiga, POB 36, YU-11001 Belgrade, Yugoslavia) V.7- 1956-
AJPHT*
ANREAK Anatomical Record. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.1- 1906/08-
APHHDU Acta Physiologica Hungarica. (Kultura, POB 149, H-1389 Budapest, Hungary) V.61- 1983-
APTOA6 Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica. (Copenhagen, Denmark) V.1-59, 1945-86. For publisher information, see PHTOEH
ARANDR Archives of Andrology. (Elsevier Science Pub. Co., Inc., 52 Vanderbilt Ave., New York, NY 10017) V.1- 1978-
ARPAAQ Archives of Pathology. (Chicago, IL) V.5(3)-50(3), 1928-50; V.70-99, 1960-75. For publisher information, see APLMAS.
ARTODN Archives of Toxicology. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberger Pl. 3, D-1000 Berlin 33, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.32- 1974-
ATSUDG Archives of Toxicology, Supplement. (Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., Service Center, 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, NJ 07094) No.1- 1978-
AXVMAW Archiv fuer Experimentelle Veterinaermedizin. (S. Hirzel Verlag, Postfach 506, Leipzig DDR-7010, Ger. Dem. Rep.) V.6- 1952-
BCTKAG Bromatologia i Chemia Toksykologiczna. (Ars Polona, POB 1001, 00-068 Warsaw 1, Poland) V.4- 1971-
BDERE* Birth Defects Research Part A, Clinical and molecular teratology (Hoboken, N.J. : John Wiley & Sons) V.67- 2003-
BECTA6 Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. (Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., Service Center, 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, NJ 07094) V.1- 1966-
BIOJAU Biophysical Journal. (Rockefeller Univ. Press, 1230 York Ave., New York, NY 10021) V.1- 1960-
BIREBV Biology of Reproduction. (Soc. for the Study of Reproduction, 309 W. Clark St., Champaign, IL 61820) V.1- 1969-
BJEPA5 British Journal of Experimental Pathology. (Blackwell Scientific Pub. Ltd., POB 88, Oxford, UK) V.1- 1920-
BMJOAE British Medical Journal. (British Medical Assoc., BMA House, Tavistock Sq., London WC1H 9JR, UK) V.1- 1857-
BMMBES Biochemical Medicine and Metabolic Biology. (Academic Press, Inc., Journal Customer Service, POB 6250, Duluth, MN 55802-0250) V.35- 1986-
CBCPAI Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. (Elmsford, NY) V.1-37, 1960-70. For publisher information, see CBPBB8.
CBPAB5 Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, A: Comparative Physiology. (Elsevier Science, 660 White Plains Rd., Tarrytown, NY 10591) V.30- 1971-
CBPCEE Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, C: Pharmacology, Toxicology and Endocrinology. (Elsevier Science, 660 White Plains Rd., Tarrytown, NY 10591) V.74- 1983-
CCPTAY Contraception. (Geron-X, Inc., POB 1108, Los Altos, CA 94022) V.1- 1970-
CHYCDW Zhonghua Yufangyixue Zazhi. Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine. (China International Book Trading Corp., POB 2820, Beijing, Peop. Rep. China) Beginning history not known.
CIZAAZ Chiba Igaku Zasshi. Chiba Medical Journal. (Chiba Daigaku Igakkai, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chiba 280, Japan) V.50- 1974-
CNREA8 Cancer Research. (Public Ledger Building, Suit 816, 6th & Chestnut Sts., Philadelphia, PA 19106) V.1- 1941-
CPBTAL Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. (Japan Pub. Trading Co., USA, 1255 Howard St., San Francisco, CA 94103) V.6- 1958-
CRNGDP Carcinogenesis (London). (Oxford Univ. Press, Pinkhill House, Southfield Road, Eynsham, Oxford OX8 1JJ, UK) V.1- 1980-
CRTOEC Chemical Research in Toxicology. (American Chemical Soc., Distribution Office Dept. 223, POB 57/36, West End Station, Washington, DC 20037) V.1- 1988-
CRTXB2 CRC Critical Reviews in Toxicology. (CRC Press, Inc., 2000 Corporate Blvd., NW, Boca Raton, FL 33431) V.1- 1971-
DANKAS Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR. Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. For English translation, see DBIOAM and DKBSAS. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1- 1933-
DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996
EESADV Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1977-
EMMUEG Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 1987-
ENDKAC Endokrinologie. (Leipzig, Ger. Dem. Rep.) V.1-80, 1928-82. For publisher information, see EXCEDS.
ENMUDM Environmental Mutagenesis. (New York, NY) V.1-9, 1979-87. For publisher information, see EMMUEG.
ENTOX* Encyclopedia of Toxicology: Reference Book, Elsevier, 2005
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Used as a pesticide and in non-pasture turf fungicides

RTECS Compound Description:
   Agricultural Chemical
   Tumorigen
   Mutagen
   Reproductive Effector
   Human Data

Click Here for Additional Information about RTECS

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