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Cadmium oxide

RTECS #: EV1925000

CAS #: 1306-19-0


UPDATE: May 2009 MW: 128.40 MF: CdO


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA:
  3. TUMORIGENIC DATA:
  4. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  5. OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA:
  6. REVIEWS:
  7. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:
  8. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  9. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  10. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. Cadmium monoxide
  2. Cadmium oxide (ACGIH)
  3. Cadmium oxide fume
  1. Kadmu tlenek (Polish)
  2. NCI - C02551


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
N/R N/R N/R N/R


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 2 mg/m3/6 hour (4-17 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
NTPTR* NIH-95-3388
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 500 g/m3/6 hour (4-17 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Mating performance (e.g., # sperm positive females per # females mated; # copulations per # estrus cycles)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
NTPTR* NIH-95-3388
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 183 g/m3/5 hour (21 week prior to copulation/1-20 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Viability index (e.g., # alive at day 4 per # born alive)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
TOLED5 22,53,1984
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 23 g/m3/5 hour (21 week prior to copulation/1-20 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral TOLED5 22,53,1984
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 91 g/m3 (1-19 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) GTPZAB 31(8),25,1987
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 2 mg/m3/6 hour (4-19 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
NTPTR* NIH-95-3388
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 16 g/m3/24 hour (1-21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count) GISAAA 46(10),13,1981
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 21,640 g/kg (1-19 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Maternal- fetal exchange

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
GISAAA 50(8),11,1985
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 21,640 g/kg (1-19 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Cardiovascular (circulatory) system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Weaning or lactation index (e.g., # alive at weaning per # alive at day 4)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
GISAAA 50(8),11,1985


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 90 mg/kg Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
BJCAAI 20,190,1966


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
dog
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 4 gm/m3/10 minute N/R 85PDAD -,67,1978
inhalation
guinea pig
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 3,500 mg/m3/10 minute N/R 85PDAD -,67,1978
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 8,630 g/m3/5 hour N/R YAKUD5 22,455,1980
inhalation
human
lowest published lethal concentration: 5 mg/m3/8 hour N/R HBTME* -,445,2007
inhalation
man
lowest published toxic concentration: 500 g/m3/5 year- intermittent Olfaction: Change in sensation of smell

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Proteinuria
QJMEA7 38,425,1969
inhalation
man
lowest published toxic concentration: 40 g/m3 Cardiac: Change in rate

Vascular: BP elevation not characterized in autonomic section

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
GISAAA 45(10),22,1980
inhalation
monkey
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 1,500 mg/m3/10 minute N/R 85PDAD -,67,1978
inhalation
mouse
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 250 mg/m3/2 hour N/R 85PDAD -,67,1978
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 45 mg/m3/1 hour N/R VCVN1* -,164,1988
inhalation
rat
lowest published lethal concentration: 60 g/m3/1 hour Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosing alveolitis

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema
TOLED5 2,323,1978
inhalation
rabbit
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 2,500 mg/m3/10 minute N/R 85PDAD -,67,1978
intraperitoneal
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 12 mg/kg N/R ZDKAA8 38(9),18,1978
intravenous
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 25 mg/kg N/R 85PDAD -,67,1978
oral
mammal (species unspecified)
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 72 mg/kg N/R HYSAAV 33(7-9),187,1968
oral
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 67 mg/kg N/R VCVN1* -,164,1988
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 72 mg/kg N/R YAKUD5 22,455,1980
subcutaneous
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 94 mg/kg N/R 85PDAD -,67,1978


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 300 g/m3/6 hour/2 week- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis, focal (pneumoconiosis)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight
NTPTR* NIH-95-3388
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 50 g/m3/6 hour/13 week- continuous Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight
NTPTR* NIH-95-3388
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 23 g/m3/24 hour/20 week- continuous Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Proteinuria

Musculoskeletal: Osteoporosis

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Ca
GISAAA 52(5),85,1987
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 57 g/m3/90 day- continuous Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight

Blood: Pigmented or nucleated red blood cells

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
ARTODN 40,231,1978
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 300 g/m3/6 hour/2 week- intermittent Cardiac: Changes in heart weight

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight
NTPTR* NIH-95-3388
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 2,800 ng/kg/5 hour/1 week- intermittent Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune response TOXID9 72,293,2003
oral
dog
lowest published toxic dose: 0.5 mg/kg/2 day- continuous Behavioral: Anorexia (human)

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
TOLED5 135,S124,2002
oral
dog
lowest published toxic dose: 7 mg/kg/28 day- continuous Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in both tubules and glomeruli

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TOLED5 135,S124,2002
oral
dog
lowest published toxic dose: 0.75 mg/kg/3 day- continuous Behavioral: Anorexia (human)

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count
TOLED5 135,S124,2002
oral
dog
lowest published toxic dose: 1.75 mg/kg/7 day- continuous Behavioral: Anorexia (human)

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Dehydration
TOLED5 135,S124,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 156 g/kg/26 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Proteinuria

Blood: Other changes

Musculoskeletal: Other changes
GISAAA 52(6),70,1987


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value time-weighted average 0.002 mg(Cd)/m3 (respirable) DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value Suspected human carcinogen DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Sufficient Evidence IMEMDT 2,74,1973
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Sufficient Evidence IMEMDT 11,39,1976
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Sufficient Evidence IMEMDT 58,119,1993
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human Limited Evidence IMEMDT 11,39,1976
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human Sufficient Evidence IMEMDT 58,119,1993
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Group 1 IMEMDT 58,119,1993
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 566,21,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
PEXTAR 12,102,1969
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
AMPMAR 34,127,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 140-141,53,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ENTOX* -,375,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HBTME* ,445,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HUTOX* -,515,1996


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRALIA time-weighted average 0.01 mg(Cd)/m3, Carcinogen, JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRALIA time-weighted average 0.01 mg(Cd)/m3, JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRIA TRK 0.015 mg(Cd)/m3 (inhalable), JAN 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRIA TRK 0.03 mg(Cd)/m3 (inhalable), JAN 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM time-weighted average 0.002 mg(Cd)/m3 (resp. dust), Carcinogen, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM time-weighted average 0.01 mg(Cd)/m3 (inhal. dust), Carcinogen, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - DENMARK time-weighted average 0.005 mg(Cd)/m3 (fume, dust), OCT 2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - FINLAND time-weighted average 0.01 mg/m3, Carcinogen (fume), JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - FINLAND Carcinogen, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - FRANCE VLE 0.05 mg(Cd)/m3, continuous2 Carcinogen, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - HUNGARY ceiling concentration 0.05 mg/m3, Carcinogen, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit - HUNGARY time-weighted average 0.015 mg(Cd)/m3, short term exposure limit 0.06 mg(Cd)/m3, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit - JAPAN Occupational Exposure Limit 0.05 mg(Cd)/m3, group 1 carcinogen, APR2007
Occupational Exposure Limit - KOREA ceiling concentration 0.05 mg(Cd)/m3 (fume), 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - KOREA time-weighted average 0.05 mg(Cd)/m3, 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - KOREA time-weighted average 0.05 mg/m3 (production), 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - MEXICO peak 0.05 mg(Cd)/m3 (fume), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit - MEXICO time-weighted average 0.002 mg(Cd)/m3 (inhalable), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit - MEXICO time-weighted average 0.01 mg(Cd)/m3 (total dust), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE NETHERLANDS MAC-TGG 0.005 mg(Cd)/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - NEW ZEALAND time-weighted average 0.002 mg(Cd)/m3 (respirable dust), JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - NEW ZEALAND time-weighted average 0.01 mg(Cd)/m3 (inspirable dust), JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - NORWAY time-weighted average 0.05 mg(Cd)/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE PHILIPPINES time-weighted average 0.1 mg/m3 (fume), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - POLAND MAC(time-weighted average) fume 0.02 mg(Cd)/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) fume 0.05 mg(Cd)/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - POLAND MAC(time-weighted average) dust 0.04 mg(Cd)/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) dust 0.2 mg(Cd)/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - RUSSIA time-weighted average 0.01 mg(Cd)/m3, short term exposure limit 0.05 mg(Cd)/m3, Carcinogen, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWEDEN time-weighted average 0.02 mg(Cd)/m3 (total dust), Carcinogen, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWEDEN time-weighted average 0.005 mg(Cd)/m3 (resp. dust), JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWITZERLAND MAK- week 0.002 mg/m3, DEC2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - THAILAND time-weighted average 0.1 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 0.3 mg/m3 (fume), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - TURKEY time-weighted average 0.1 mg/m3 (fume), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - UNITED KINGDOM time-weighted average 0.025 mg(Cd)/m3, 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - UNITED KINGDOM time-weighted average 0.025 mg(Cd)/m3;
short term exposure limit 0.05 mg/m3 (fume), 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value
Suspected human carcinogen


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO CADMIUM, dust and fume-air Carcinogen lowest feasible conc. NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974: Hazard Code: M1554;
Number of Industries 37;
Total Number of Facilities 1,127;
Number of Occupations 28;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 10,110
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: M1554;
Number of Industries 27;
Total Number of Facilities 556;
Number of Occupations 31;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 15,727;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 4,850


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
Used in electroplating, manufacturing electrodes and synthesis of other cadmium salts
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Cadmium and compounds, as Cd, 7048
NTP 11th Report on Carcinogens,2004:Known to be human carcinogen
NTP Toxicity studies, RPT# TOX-39, October 2000


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

85PDAD "Evaluation of the Impact of Cadmium on the Health of Man", Oxford, UK. Pergamon Press Ltd., 1978
AMPMAR Archives des Maladies Professionnelles de Medecine du Travail et de Securite Sociale. (SPPIF, B.P.22, F-41353 Vineuil, France) V.7- 1946-
ARTODN Archives of Toxicology. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberger Pl. 3, D-1000 Berlin 33, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.32- 1974-
BJCAAI British Journal of Cancer. (Macmillan Press Ltd., Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hants. RG21 2XS, UK) V.1- 1947-
DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996
ENTOX* Encyclopedia of Toxicology: Reference Book, Elsevier, 2005
GISAAA Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1- 1936-
GTPZAB Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya. Labor Hygiene and Occupational Diseases. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1-36, 1957-1992. For publisher information, see MTPEEI
HBTME*
HUTOX*
HYSAAV Hygiene and Sanitation (USSR). English translation of GISAAA. (Springfield, VA) 1964-71. Discontinued.
IMEMDT IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) V.1- 1972-
MUREAV Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1964-
NIOSH* National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda.
NTPTR* National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series. (Research Triangle Park, NC 27709) No.206-
PEXTAR Progress in Experimental Tumor Research. (S. Karger AG, Postfach CH-4009 Basel, Switzerland) V.1- 1960-
QJMEA7 Quarterly Journal of Medicine. (Oxford Univ. Press, Walton St., Oxford OX2 6DP, UK) V.1- 1932-
TOLED5 Toxicology Letters. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1977-
TOXID9 Toxicologist. (Soc. of Toxicology, Inc., 475 Wolf Ledge Parkway, Akron, OH 44311) V.1- 1981-
VCVN1* "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva. Neorganicheskie soedinenia elementov I-IV groopp" (Hazardous substances. Inornanic substances containing I-IV group elements), Filov V.A., Chimia, 1988.
YAKUD5 Gekkan Yakuji. Pharmaceuticals Monthly. (Yakugyo Jihosha, Inaoka Bldg., 2-36 Jinbo-cho, Kanda, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101, Japan) V.1- 1959-
ZDKAA8 Zdravookhranenie Kazakhstana. Public Health of Kazakhstan. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1- 1941-

Used in electroplating, manufacturing electrodes and synthesis of other cadmium salts

RTECS Compound Description:
   Tumorigen
   Mutagen
   Reproductive Effector
   Human Data

Click Here for Additional Information about RTECS

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