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Benzo (a) pyrene

RTECS #: DJ3675000

CAS #: 50-32-8


UPDATE: May 2009 MW: 252.32 MF: C20H12


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA:
  3. MUTATION DATA:
  4. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA:
  5. TUMORIGENIC DATA:
  6. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  7. OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA:
  8. REVIEWS:
  9. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:
  10. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  11. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  12. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. 3,4 - BP
  2. 3,4 - Benz (a) pyrene
  3. 3,4 - Benzopirene (Italian)
  4. 3,4 - Benzopyrene
  5. 3,4 - Benzpyren (German)
  6. 3,4 - Benzpyrene
  7. 3,4 - Benzypyrene
  8. 6,7 - Benzopyrene
  1. B (a) P
  2. BP
  3. BaP
  4. Benz (a) pyrene
  5. Benzo (d,e,f) chrysene
  6. Coal tar pitch volatiles: benzo (a) pyrene (OSHA)
  7. RCRA waste number U022


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
skin
mouse
14 µg mild CALEDQ 4,333,1978


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
body fluid assay mouse
Salmonella typhimurium
100 mg/kg CNREA8 38,4478,1978
body fluid assay rat
Salmonella typhimurium
10 mg/kg ENMUDM 1,155,1979
body fluid assay rat
ovary
2 mg/kg MUREAV 143,263,1985
cytogenetic analysis parenteral
chicken
31 µg/kg 47JMAE -,137,1982
cytogenetic analysis hamster ovary 3,970 nmol/L MOTOEX 1,217,1987
cytogenetic analysis inhalation
hamster
100 µg/L/5 day- intermittent TOXID9 1,139,1981
cytogenetic analysis intraperitoneal
hamster
200 mg/kg TOLED5 2,277,1978
cytogenetic analysis hamster lung 100 mg/L ATSUDG 4,41,1980
cytogenetic analysis hamster fibroblast 1 mg/L BJCAAI 30,103,1974
cytogenetic analysis hamster ovary 1 mmol/L MUREAV 111,209,1983
cytogenetic analysis hamster fibroblast 0.1 gm/L/48 hour (+enzymatic activation step) MUTAEX 16,183,2001
cytogenetic analysis hamster ovary 20 mg/L/24 hour (+enzymatic activation step) JTEHF8 68,1841,2005
cytogenetic analysis hamster lung 20 mg/L/6 hour (+enzymatic activation step) FCTOD7 46,2190,2008
cytogenetic analysis human fibroblast 40 µmol/L/24 hour MUREAV 46,297,1977
cytogenetic analysis human leukocyte 1 mg/L BJCAAI 30,103,1974
cytogenetic analysis human lymphocyte 2,400 µg/L MUREAV 113,239,1983
cytogenetic analysis human sperm 200 mg/L/120 minute (+enzymatic activation step) MUTAEX 504,183,2002
cytogenetic analysis human mammary gland 5 µmol/L/24 hour EMMUEG 39,235,2002
cytogenetic analysis human embryo 0.1 µmol/L/24 hour MUREAV 604,8,2006
cytogenetic analysis human lymphocyte 5 mg/L/2 hour EMMUEG 47,150,2006
cytogenetic analysis intraperitoneal
mouse
50 mg/kg EMMUEG 19,259,1992
cytogenetic analysis oral
mouse
25 mg/kg TCMUD8 3,321,1983
cytogenetic analysis mouse leukocyte 100 µg/L/17 hour- continuous IJCNAW 9,435,1972
cytogenetic analysis mouse fibroblast 5 µmol/L CNREA8 42,1866,1982
cytogenetic analysis mouse lymphocyte 2,500 µg/L ENMUDM 8(Suppl 6),24,1986
cytogenetic analysis mouse other cell types 2.1 µmol/L TOXID9 66,368,2002
cytogenetic analysis subcutaneous
mouse
20 mg/kg BPBLEO 28,2063,2005
cytogenetic analysis multiple
non-mammalian species
10 µg/L MUREAV 319,223,1993
cytogenetic analysis skin
other fish
100 ng/L EESADV 5,261,1981
cytogenetic analysis other fish other cell types 100 µg/L/48 hour ENMUDM 4,181,1982
cytogenetic analysis intravenous
rat
50 mg/kg GANNA2 64,637,1973
cytogenetic analysis intraperitoneal
rat
800 mg/kg MUREAV 182,309,1987
cytogenetic analysis unreported route
rat
423 mg/kg MUREAV 113,239,1983
cytogenetic analysis rat other cell types 100 µg/L MUREAV 169,141,1986
dominant lethal test intraperitoneal
mouse
750 mg/kg NATUAS 219,385,1968
DNA adduct cattle other cell types 10 mmol/L/60 minute CBINA8 139,129,2002
DNA adduct oral
Drosophila melanogaster
1 mmol/L EMMUEG 23,171,1994
DNA adduct dog other cell types 1 µmol/L CNREA8 43,4723,1983
DNA adduct dog lung 1 µmol/L CNREA8 43,4723,1983
DNA adduct hamster embryo 500 µg/L PAACA3 25,86,1984
DNA adduct hamster other cell types 800 nmol/L CNREA8 33,2837,1973
DNA adduct hamster other cell types 1 µmol/L CNREA8 43,4723,1983
DNA adduct hamster other cell types 5 mg/L CRNGDP 15,661,1994
DNA adduct hamster embryo 1 mg/L/6 hour CRNGDP 22,1505,2001
DNA adduct hamster lung 0.5 µmol/L/6 hour MUTAEX 17,45,2002
DNA adduct human liver 100 nmol/L PAACA3 25,117,1984
DNA adduct human lymphocyte 1 µmol/L/72 hour CNREA8 49,6503,1989
DNA adduct human other cell types 1,500 nmol/L TCMUD8 1,3,1980
DNA adduct human other cell types 400 nmol/L PNASA6 78,6251,1981
DNA adduct human other cell types 4 µmol/L CALEDQ 18,11,1983
DNA adduct human fibroblast 50 µmol/L/2 hour (+enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 484,3,2001
DNA adduct oral
human
0.1 µg/kg MUREAV 472,119,2000
DNA adduct human fibroblast 0.1 mmol/L/24 hour MUREAV 471,57,2000
DNA adduct human mammary gland 0.8 µmol/L/12 hour CALEDQ 155,47,2000
DNA adduct human mammary gland 1 µmol/L/24 hour CRTOEC 13,10,2000
DNA adduct human lymphocyte 1 µmol/L/1 hour MUREAV 582,155,2005
DNA adduct human fibroblast 100 nmol/L TOXID9 44,465,2005
DNA adduct human other cell types 1 nmol/L/24 hour BJCAAI 91,333,2004
DNA adduct human lung 1 µmol/L/24 hour BJCAAI 91,333,2004
DNA adduct human mammary gland 0.25 µmol/L/6 hour MUTAEX 20,469,2005
DNA adduct human liver 0.25 µmol/L/6 hour MUTAEX 20,469,2005
DNA adduct human lung 1 µmol/L/18 hour EMMUEG 48,14,2007
DNA adduct human mammary gland 4 µmol/L EMS37* -,426,2006
DNA adduct human lung 1 µmol/L EMMUEG 48,14,2007
DNA adduct mammal (species unspecified) lymphocyte 30 µmol/L CBINA8 47,87,1983
DNA adduct oral
mammal (species unspecified)
87.5 mg/kg/7 day- intermittent TOXID9 44,195,2005
DNA adduct monkey lung 25 µmol/L 50NNAZ 7,845,1983
DNA adduct monkey other cell types 1 µmol/L CNREA8 43,4723,1983
DNA adduct monkey other cell types 25 µmol/L 50NNAZ 7,845,1983
DNA adduct mouse liver 6 µmol/L JJIND8 62,947,1979
DNA adduct mouse embryo 1,200 nmol/L IJCNAW 4,813,1969
DNA adduct skin
mouse
40 µmol/kg IJCNAW 23,201,1979
DNA adduct intraperitoneal
mouse
13.200 mg/kg CRNGDP 21,629,2000
DNA adduct oral
mouse
7,840 mg/kg/2 week- continuous CRNGDP 21,1601,2000
DNA adduct oral
mouse
273 mg/kg/7 week MUTAEX 16,333,2001
DNA adduct oral
mouse
6.3 mg/kg/9 week- intermittent JJATDK 15,59,1995
DNA adduct mouse fibroblast 4 µmol/L/24 hour MUREAV 521,91,2002
DNA adduct subcutaneous
mouse
25 mg/kg/5 week- intermittent JAPTO* 23,255,2003
DNA adduct oral
mouse
37.5 mg/kg/30 day- intermittent TOXID9 78,347,2004
DNA adduct oral
mouse
5 mg/kg EMMUEG 42,243,2003
DNA adduct intraperitoneal
mouse
625 mg/kg/5 day- intermittent NSAPCC 375(Suppl 1),73,2007
DNA adduct oral
mouse
819 mg/kg/13 week- continuous CRNGDP 24,613,2003
DNA adduct skin
mouse
8 mg/kg/4 day- intermittent CRNGDP 25,493,2004
DNA adduct skin
mouse
404 µg/kg MUREAV 649,161,2008
DNA adduct non-mammalian species 1,700 nmol/L GANMAX 6,49,1968
DNA adduct oral
other fish
125 µmol/kg/5 day- intermittent MUREAV 427,135,1999
DNA adduct intraperitoneal
other fish
20 mg/kg CALEDQ 49,81,1990
DNA adduct multiple
other fish
5 ppm/24 hour EMS37* -,411,2006
DNA adduct multiple
other fish
10 ppm/4 hour EMS37* -,411,2006
DNA adduct multiple
other fish
5 ppm EMS37* -,411,2006
DNA adduct other microorganisms 3 µmol/L PNCCA2 5,39,1965
DNA adduct other microorganisms 11 ng/L CBINA8 39,205,1982
DNA adduct rat lung 2 µmol/L CRNGDP 3,267,1982
DNA adduct intravenous
rat
140 µg/kg CNREA8 38,4640,1978
DNA adduct skin
rat
800 nmol/kg IJCNAW 28,387,1981
DNA adduct intraperitoneal
rat
40 mg/kg CRNGDP 5,231,1984
DNA adduct rat other cell types 1,500 nmol/L TCMUD8 1,3,1980
DNA adduct rat other cell types 1 µmol/L CRNGDP 4,297,1983
DNA adduct rat embryo 500 µg/L PAACA3 25,86,1984
DNA adduct rat other cell types 5 mg/L CRNGDP 15,661,1994
DNA adduct rat liver 3 µmol/L MUREAV 419,91,1998
DNA adduct intratracheal
rat
10 mg/kg CRNGDP 1,87,2000
DNA adduct skin
rat
10 mg/kg CRNGDP 1,87,2000
DNA adduct rat liver 0.1 mg/L/1 hour BCPCA6 67,1711,2004
DNA adduct rat Ascites tumor 1 µmol/L/24 hour ETOPFR 12,15,2002
DNA adduct oral
rat
2,523 µg/kg TOXID9 44,305,2005
DNA adduct rat liver 30 µmol/L/24 hour MUTAEX 22,55,2007
DNA adduct intravenous
rabbit
1 mg/kg CBINA8 51,151,1984
DNA adduct intraperitoneal
rabbit
11 mg/kg CRNGDP 3,1405,1982
DNA adduct salmon testis 5 µg/1 hour- continuous BIJOAK 110,159,1968
DNA adduct Salmonella typhimurium 147 gm/L MUREAV 109,183,1983
DNA adduct Salmonella typhimurium 30 µg/plate/1 hour (+enzymatic activation step) EMMUEG 40,1,2002
DNA damage Bacillus subtilis 200 µg/disc PMRSDJ 1,175,1981
DNA damage Escherichia coli 500 mg/L BBACAQ 103,275,1965
DNA damage Escherichia coli 24.1 µg/L/3 hour (+enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 515,85,2002
DNA damage Escherichia coli 1,000 ng/plate/2 hour (+enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 520,161,2002
DNA damage intraperitoneal
frog
125 gm/kg STEVA8 32,13,1983
DNA damage hamster lung 30 µmol/L/2 hour BBRCA9 72,732,1976
DNA damage hamster ovary 100 µmol/L MUREAV 77,259,1980
DNA damage hamster other cell types 100 nmol/L CRNGDP 3,1283,1982
DNA damage hamster fibroblast 10 µmol/L LIFSAK 48,1255,1991
DNA damage hamster lung 0.1 µmol/L/1 hour MUTAEX 17,45,2002
DNA damage hamster embryo 1 mg/L/5 hour TOLED5 142,77,2003
DNA damage hamster fibroblast 50 µmol/L/2 hour (+enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 650,96,2008
DNA damage hamster fibroblast 10 µmol/L/2 hour (-enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 650,96,2008
DNA damage human fibroblast 10 mg/L CNREA8 38,1638,1978
DNA damage human HeLa cell 1,500 nmol/L EMMUEG 17,20,1991
DNA damage human leukocyte 500 µmol/L MUREAV 346,49,1995
DNA damage human liver 5 mg/L/1 hour MUREAV 490,1,2001
DNA damage human mammary gland 1 µmol/L/4 hour CRTOEC 13,10,2000
DNA damage human mammary gland 1 µmol/L/24 hour CRTOEC 13,10,2000
DNA damage human liver 10 µmol/L/12 hour MUREAV 519,163,2002
DNA damage human liver 3.67 mmol/L/20 hour MUREAV 536,79,2003
DNA damage human other cell types 1 mg/L MAERE* 53,243,2002
DNA damage human lymphocyte 300 µmol/L/20 minute MUREAV 557,203,2004
DNA damage human liver 1 µmol/L/24 hour MUREAV 557,167,2004
DNA damage human other cell types 1 µmol/L/24 hour MUREAV 557,167,2004
DNA damage human Ascites tumor 25 µmol/L/24 hour FCTOD7 40,1077,2002
DNA damage human lymphocyte 0.5 mmol/L/3 hour (+enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 540,43,2003
DNA damage human other cell types 25 µmol/L/24 hour TCMUD8 23,273,2003
DNA damage human liver 25 µmol/L/24 hour TCMUD8 23(Suppl 1),273,2003
DNA damage human mammary gland 0.12 mg/L/24 hour (+enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 588,47,2005
DNA damage human other cell types 25 µmol/L /20 hour TXCYAC 213,138,2005
DNA damage human embryo 50 µmol/L MUREAV 604,8,2006
DNA damage human ovary 9 µmol/L MUREAV 575,17,2005
DNA damage human other cell types 5 µmol/L/4 hour EMMUEG 42,228,2003
DNA damage human fibroblast 1 µmol/L/24 hour MUREAV 547,109,2004
DNA damage human lung 2 µmol/L/2 hour TOLED5 174,10,2007
DNA damage human other cell types 5 µmol/L/30 minute EMMUEG 48,106,2007
DNA damage human other cell types 1 µmol/L MUTAEX 19,499,2004
DNA damage mammal (species unspecified) kidney 1 mmol/L JTEHD6 6,333,1980
DNA damage mouse lymphocyte 500 µmol/L MUREAV 203,155,1988
DNA damage mouse fibroblast 3 mg/L COINAV 256,389,1977
DNA damage intraperitoneal
mouse
150 mg/kg/3 day MUREAV 480-481,147,2001
DNA damage intraperitoneal
mouse
500 mg/kg MUREAV 493,39,2001
DNA damage mouse fibroblast 1 µmol/L/19 hour MUREAV 521,91,2002
DNA damage skin
mouse
2 gm/L/3 day- continuous TOXID9 44,448,2005
DNA damage mouse other cell types 1 µmol/L TOXID9 66,368,2002
DNA damage oral
mouse
125 mg/kg HETOEA 24,149,2005
DNA damage multiple
non-mammalian species
1,993 ng/L/168 hour- continuous MUREAV 649,135,2008
DNA damage multiple
non-mammalian species
1 mg/L/24 hour MUREAV 654,69,2008
DNA damage multiple
non-mammalian species
10 mg/L/3 day MUREAV 654,69,2008
DNA damage intraperitoneal
other fish
125 gm/kg STEVA8 32,13,1983
DNA damage other fish embryo 10 mg/L/16 hour MUREAV 513,83,2002
DNA damage other microorganisms 100 µmol/L MUREAV 368,235,1996
DNA damage pig other cell types 50 µmol/L/24 hour TXCYAC 207,255,2005
DNA damage rat other cell types 4 µg/tube BLFSBY 24,331,1983
DNA damage rat liver 80 µmol/L JBCHA3 252,6424,1977
DNA damage rat fibroblast 1,500 µmol/L CBINA8 18,337,1977
DNA damage rat other cell types 31 µmol/L CRNGDP 3,203,1982
DNA damage oral
rat
62,500 µg/kg CRNGDP 10,393,1989
DNA damage rat liver 5 µmol/L/12 hour MUREAV 519,163,2002
DNA damage intratracheal
rat
750 mg/L MUREAV 534,33,2003
DNA damage intratracheal
rat
3.75 mg/kg MUREAV 538,19,2003
DNA damage rat liver 5 µmol/L/2 hour TOLED5 164,54,2006
DNA damage rat lung 1 µmol/L/2 hour TOLED5 164,54,2006
DNA damage rat lung 10 mg/L MUREAV 563,117,2004
DNA damage rat lymphocyte 10 mg/L MUREAV 563,117,2004
DNA damage rat liver 10 mg/L MUREAV 563,117,2004
DNA damage salmon other cell types 80 µmol/L EVHPAZ 23,51,1978
DNA damage Salmonella typhimurium 4 µmol/L/2 hour (+enzymatic activation step) EMMUEG 46,126,2005
DNA damage Salmonella typhimurium 1.25 µmol/L/125 minute (+enzymatic activation step) EMMUEG 43,10,2004
DNA inhibition hamster other cell types 150 µmol/L CALEDQ 53,163,1990
DNA inhibition human HeLa cell 1,500 nmol/L EMMUEG 17,20,1991
DNA inhibition human fibroblast 1 mg/L NEOLA4 33,699,1986
DNA inhibition mouse fibroblast 7 µmol/L JOUOD4 5,147,1983
DNA inhibition mouse other cell types 100 µmol/L JJIND8 65,1321,1980
DNA inhibition intraperitoneal
mouse
100 mg/kg MUREAV 46,305,1977
DNA inhibition other microorganisms 200 µg/L PNASA6 74,1378,1977
DNA inhibition other microorganisms 100 µg/L PNASA6 74,1378,1977
DNA inhibition rat liver 10 µmol/L CNREA8 45,337,1985
DNA inhibition intraperitoneal
rat
40 mg/kg BCPCA6 34,755,1985
DNA repair oral
Drosophila melanogaster
100 mg/L MUREAV 290,175,1993
DNA repair Escherichia coli 70 µg/well MUREAV 46,53,1977
DNA repair hamster other cell types 1 µmol/L TIVIEQ 5,511,1991
DNA repair human mammary gland 5 µmol/L/48 hour EMMUEG 39,235,2002
DNA repair intraperitoneal
mouse
10 mg/kg EVHPAZ 109,71,2001
DNA repair other microorganisms 1 mmol/L (-enzymatic activation step) TOXID9 72,227,2003
DNA repair intratracheal
rat
3.75 mg/kg MUTAEX 18,449,2003
unscheduled DNA synthesis hamster embryo 300 µg/L MUREAV 129,111,1984
unscheduled DNA synthesis hamster liver 10 µmol/L ENMUDM 5,1,1983
unscheduled DNA synthesis hamster other cell types 100 µg/L EVSRBT 27,277,1983
unscheduled DNA synthesis hamster lung 6 mg/L MUREAV 230,111,1990
unscheduled DNA synthesis human other cell types 1 µmol/L TIVIEQ 5,377,1991
unscheduled DNA synthesis human HeLa cell 1 mmol/L CNREA8 38,2621,1978
unscheduled DNA synthesis human liver 1 µmol/L BANRDU 13,101,1982
unscheduled DNA synthesis human other cell types 10 µmol/L MUREAV 122,377,1983
unscheduled DNA synthesis human other cell types 3 mg/L MUREAV 140,43,1984
unscheduled DNA synthesis human other cell types 5 µmol/L TXAPA9 79,28,1985
unscheduled DNA synthesis human mammary gland 10 µmol/L EMMUEG 20,148,1992
unscheduled DNA synthesis human other cell types 0.1 µmol/L /20 hour TXCYAC 213,138,2005
unscheduled DNA synthesis human liver 0.1 µmol/L/44 hour MUREAV 559,211,2004
unscheduled DNA synthesis monkey liver 10 mg/L MUREAV 206,91,1988
unscheduled DNA synthesis skin
mouse
8 mg/kg PHMGBN 18,281,1979
unscheduled DNA synthesis oral
mouse
12 mg/kg CNREA8 44,1547,1984
unscheduled DNA synthesis mouse liver 1 µmol/L TOPADD 12,119,1984
unscheduled DNA synthesis oral
mouse
6.3 mg/kg/9 week- intermittent JJATDK 15,59,1995
unscheduled DNA synthesis other fish liver 10 µmol/L NCIMAV 65,163,1984
unscheduled DNA synthesis other fish liver 20 nmol/L HKXUDL 4,368,1984
unscheduled DNA synthesis other fish liver 1 µmol/L AECTCV 14,555,1985
unscheduled DNA synthesis other fish other cell types 10 µmol/L CBPCEE 86,399,1987
unscheduled DNA synthesis other microorganisms 1 mg/L CRNGDP 2,417,1981
unscheduled DNA synthesis oral
rat
240 mg/kg/8 day- continuous MUREAV 218,13,1989
unscheduled DNA synthesis rat liver 5 µmol/L CALEDQ 6,207,1979
unscheduled DNA synthesis rat other cell types 100 mmol/L SHKKAN 22,300,1980
unscheduled DNA synthesis rat other cell types 1 mg/L MUREAV 241,361,1990
unscheduled DNA synthesis intratracheal
rat
3.75 mg/kg MUTAEX 18,449,2003
unscheduled DNA synthesis skin
rabbit
100 µg/L PAACA3 21,94,1980
host-mediated assay mouse
Escherichia coli
50,464 µg/kg MUREAV 241,83,1990
host-mediated assay multiple
other fish
10 mg/L MUREAV 577S,1,2005
host-mediated assay rat
Salmonella typhimurium
40 mg/kg TOXID9 72,315,2003
mutation in microorganisms Bacillus subtilis 5 gm/L (+enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 42,19,1977
mutation in microorganisms Escherichia coli 1 µmol/L (-enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 60,395,1979
mutation in microorganisms Escherichia coli 200 nmol/plate (+enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 135,87,1984
mutation in microorganisms Escherichia coli 0.5 mg/L/2 hour (+enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 588,166,2005
mutation in microorganisms hamster embryo 4 µmol/L (+enzymatic activation step) CRNGDP 10,419,1989
mutation in microorganisms hamster ovary 1 mg/L (+enzymatic activation step) ENMUDM 4,354,1982
mutation in microorganisms hamster lung 25 nmol/plate (+enzymatic activation step) CNREA8 39,2660,1979
mutation in microorganisms human lymphocyte 4 mg/L (+enzymatic activation step) JJIND8 63,309,1979
mutation in microorganisms mouse lymphocyte 250 µg/L (+enzymatic activation step) EMMUEG 12(Suppl 13),103,1988
mutation in microorganisms other microorganisms 0.1 mg/L/4 hour (+enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 611,17,2006
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 312 ng/plate (-enzymatic activation step) RCOCB8 44,131,1984
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 2 µg/plate/72 hour (+enzymatic activation step) TOLED5 116,189,2000
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 5 µg/plate/20 minute (+/-enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 492,13,2001
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 6.125 nmol/plate/20 minute MUREAV 519,133,2002
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 10 mg/L/48 hour MUREAV 520,161,2002
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 10 µg/plate/20 minute (+enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 514,19,2002
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 0.1 µmol/plate/20 minute (+enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 521,187,2002
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 0.15 mmol/L/20 minute MUREAV 508,147,2002
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 40 nmol/plate/48 hour (+enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 541,123,2003
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 0.5 nmol/plate/48 hour (-enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 557,99,2004
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 4 mg/L/72 hour (+enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 558,181,2004
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 0.2 µmol/plate/72 hour (+enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 558,93,2004
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium embryo 19.8 nmol/plate/72 hour MUREAV 545,11,2004
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 10 mg/L/3 hour (+enzymatic activation step) RTOPDW 37,11,2003
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 2 µg/plate/48 hour (+enzymatic activation step) RTOPDW 35,255,2002
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 10 mg/L/2 hour MUREAV 578,225,2005
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 1 µmol/L/16 hour (+enzymatic activation step) EMMUEG 46,126,2005
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 0.4 µmol/L/48 hour EMMUEG 46,126,2005
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 4 µmol/L/2 hour (+enzymatic activation step) EMMUEG 46,126,2005
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 0.4 mg/L/2 hour (+enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 578,210,2005
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 1 µg/plate MUREAV 577S,1,2005
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 1.25 µg/plate/60 hour (+enzymatic activation step) MUTAEX 19,245,2004
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 45.9 pmol/L (+enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 626,88,2007
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 8 nmol/plate/73 hour (+enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 629,122,2007
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 20 µmol/L/30 minute (+enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 627,136,2007
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 0.1 µg/plate (+enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 609,60,2006
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 3 µg/plate/48 hour MUREAV 609,68,2006
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 0.1 µg/plate/12 hour (+enzymatic activation step) JTEHF8 68,1841,2005
mutation in microorganisms Saccharomyes cerevisiae 1 gm/L (-enzymatic activation step) PMRSDJ 1,414,1981
mutation in microorganisms Saccharomyes cerevisiae 50 mg/L (+enzymatic activation step) CPBTAL 33,1576,1985
mutation in microorganisms Saccharomyes cerevisiae 200 µmol/L MUREAV 577S,1,2005
mutation in microorganisms Saccharomyes cerevisiae 26 mg/L/16 hour MUTAEX 20,105,2004
micronucleus test multiple
frog
60 ppb MUTAEX 4,12,1989
micronucleus test hamster embryo 100 µg/L CCLCDY 8,90,1986
micronucleus test hamster other cell types 1 µmol/L/24 hour MUREAV 491,87,2001
micronucleus test hamster ovary 0.1 mg/L/4 hour (+enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 537,115,2003
micronucleus test hamster ovary 44.4 µmol/L/3 hour (+enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 630,1,2007
micronucleus test human other cell types 10 mg/L TIVIEQ 5,515,1991
micronucleus test human lymphocyte 50 µmol/L MUREAV 291,93,1993
micronucleus test human liver 4 mg/L/1 hour MUREAV 490,1,2001
micronucleus test human other cell types 0.2 mg/L/28 hour MUREAV 495,89,2001
micronucleus test human liver 0.5 µmol/L/20 hour MUREAV 536,79,2003
micronucleus test human liver 25 µmol/L/24 hour TXCYAC 198,315,2004
micronucleus test human other cell types 2 µmol/L /20 hour TXCYAC 213,138,2005
micronucleus test human other cell types 50 µmol/L/1 hour TOLED5 159,83,2005
micronucleus test human mammary gland 1 µmol/L/24 hour MUTAEX 21,351,2006
micronucleus test human liver 50 µmol/L/1 hour TOLED5 159,83,2005
micronucleus test mouse fibroblast 250 µg/L MUREAV 279,217,1992
micronucleus test oral
mouse
40 mg/kg MUREAV 234,179,1990
micronucleus test skin
mouse
20 µg/kg EMMUEG 17,163,1991
micronucleus test intraperitoneal
mouse
30 mg/kg PMRSDJ 1,698,1981
micronucleus test skin
mouse
0.5 pph/3 day MUREAV 513,93,2002
micronucleus test oral
mouse
6.3 mg/kg/9 week- intermittent JJATDK 15,59,1995
micronucleus test mouse mammary gland 1.77 mg/L/3 hour (+enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 540,153,2003
micronucleus test oral
mouse
320 mg/kg/4 week- intermittent TOLED5 144,183,2003
micronucleus test intraperitoneal
mouse
75 mg/kg/3 day- intermittent EMMUEG 45,44,2005
micronucleus test skin
mouse
48 mg/kg/3 day MUREAV 588,58,2005
micronucleus test mouse other cell types 4 mg/L/4 hour EMMUEG 47,56,2006
micronucleus test subcutaneous
mouse
20 mg/kg BPBLEO 28,2063,2005
micronucleus test multiple
non-mammalian species
1,000 ppb MUREAV 390,33,1997
micronucleus test multiple
non-mammalian species
10 ppb/8 day- continuous ENMUDM 8,41,1986
micronucleus test multiple
non-mammalian species
60 ppb MUREAV 292,83,1993
micronucleus test multiple
non-mammalian species
101 ng/L/4 day- continuous MUREAV 649,135,2008
micronucleus test intraperitoneal
other fish
10 mg/kg CYTBAI 47,147,1986
micronucleus test pig other cell types 100 µmol/L/30 hour TXCYAC 207,255,2005
micronucleus test intraperitoneal
rat
800 mg/kg MUREAV 182,309,1987
micronucleus test oral
rat
125 mg/kg MUREAV 278,165,1992
micronucleus test skin
rat
1 pph/3 day MUREAV 513,93,2002
gene conversion and mitotic recombination Saccharomyes cerevisiae 10 µg/plate PMRSDJ 1,456,1981
mutation in mammalian somatic cells intraperitoneal
hamster
200 mg/kg TOLED5 2,277,1978
mutation in mammalian somatic cells hamster lung 1 mg/L MUREAV 113,499,1983
mutation in mammalian somatic cells hamster fibroblast 1 mg/L NATUAS 264,360,1976
mutation in mammalian somatic cells hamster embryo 500 µg/L CNREA8 44,1445,1984
mutation in mammalian somatic cells hamster ovary 2 mg/L/5 hour (+/-enzymatic activation step) RTOPDW 35,255,2002
mutation in mammalian somatic cells hamster ovary 25 mg/L/3 hour (+enzymatic activation step) MUTAEX 20,29,2005
mutation in mammalian somatic cells human other cell types 100 nmol/L CRNGDP 1,765,1980
mutation in mammalian somatic cells human fibroblast 100 nmol/L CNREA8 40,4070,1980
mutation in mammalian somatic cells human lymphocyte 3 µmol/L MUREAV 128,221,1984
mutation in mammalian somatic cells human lymphocyte 1,200 nmol/L ENMUDM 4,304,1982
mutation in mammalian somatic cells mouse lymphocyte 4,500 µg/L PMRSDJ 1,580,1981
mutation in mammalian somatic cells mouse embryo 3 µmol/L PNASA6 76,930,1979
mutation in mammalian somatic cells mouse fibroblast 200 nmol/L CNREA8 42,1866,1982
mutation in mammalian somatic cells oral
mouse
1,750 mg/kg CALEDQ 164,1,2001
mutation in mammalian somatic cells intraperitoneal
mouse
32.3 mg/kg/8 day- intermittent CALEDQ 137,137,1999
mutation in mammalian somatic cells other fish fibroblast 5 mg/L AECTCV 10,663,1981
mutation in mammalian somatic cells rat other cell types 18,850 nmol/L ENMUDM 5,33,1983
mutation in mammalian somatic cells rat mammary gland 1 mg/L JJIND8 70,777,1983
mutation in mammalian somatic cells rat liver 1 µmol/L MUREAV 130,53,1984
mutation in mammalian somatic cells intraperitoneal
rat
120 mg/kg/3 day CRNGDP 21,715,2000
morphological transform guinea pig other cell types 10 mg/L CNREA8 35,1035,1975
morphological transform hamster other cell types 1,200 nmol/L CNREA8 35,2413,1975
morphological transform hamster lung 10 µg/L TOLED5 1000(Sp Iss 1),18,1980
morphological transform intraperitoneal
hamster
500 mg/kg ARPAAQ 95,380,1973
morphological transform hamster embryo 400 µg/L CBINA8 13,105,1976
morphological transform hamster kidney 80 µg/L BJCAAI 37,873,1978
morphological transform hamster fibroblast 1 mg/L NATUAS 264,360,1976
morphological transform parenteral
hamster
1 mg/L PNASA6 56,672,1966
morphological transform hamster embryo 2.5 mg/L/4 hour (+enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 537,183,2003
morphological transform hamster embryo 1 mg/L/7 day TOLED5 142,77,2003
morphological transform hamster embryo 33.4 µg/L/24 hour MUREAV 572,45,2005
morphological transform hamster embryo 5 mg/L/7 day MUREAV 548,1,2004
morphological transform human other cell types 10 mg/L ITCSAF 17,719,1981
morphological transform human fibroblast 3,200 µg/L CALEDQ 13,119,1981
morphological transform oral
mouse
100 mg/kg/8 day- intermittent CNREA8 49,1236,1989
morphological transform mouse other cell types 100 µg/L IJCNAW 4,166,1969
morphological transform mouse embryo 100 µg/L PMRSDJ 5,659,1985
morphological transform mouse fibroblast 500 µg/L AETODY 1,133,1980
morphological transform mouse fibroblast 0.33 µmol/L/21 day (-enzymatic activation step) EMMUEG 35,300,2000
morphological transform mouse embryo 0.5 mg/L/2 day MUREAV 588,7,2005
morphological transform rat other cell types 1 mg/L NEOLA4 30,303,1983
morphological transform rat liver 100 µmol/L CNREA8 43,5087,1983
morphological transform oral
rat
200 mg/kg CNREA8 40,1157,1980
morphological transform rat embryo 15,400 µg/L JJIND8 67,1303,1981
other mutation test systems Escherichia coli 700 pmol/tube PNASA6 79,5971,1982
other mutation test systems hamster embryo 1 mg/L BICHAW 17,1597,1978
other mutation test systems skin
mouse
4 mg/kg SCIEAS 199,778,1978
other mutation test systems skin
mouse
200 mg/L CBINA8 4,155,1971/1972
other mutation test systems intraperitoneal
mouse
50 mg/kg EMMUEG 19,259,1992
other mutation test systems rat liver 1 µmol/L/48 hour MUREAV 615,87,2007
other mutation test systems Salmonella typhimurium 1 mg/L MUREAV 192,239,1987
phage inhibition capacity Escherichia coli 400 ng/plate CSHCAL 4,1451,1977
phage inhibition capacity Escherichia coli 0.5 µmol/L (+enzymatic activation step) EMMUEG 36,206,2000
phage inhibition capacity hamster embryo 60 µg/L ENMUDM 6,474,1984
phage inhibition capacity Salmonella typhimurium 3,900 pmol/plate PPTCBY 9,337,1979
sister chromatid exchange parenteral
chicken
31 µg/kg 47JMAE -,137,1982
sister chromatid exchange multiple
frog
10 mg/L ENMUDM 8(Suppl 6),30,1986
sister chromatid exchange intraperitoneal
hamster
900 mg/kg/24 hour MUREAV 66,65,1979
sister chromatid exchange hamster ovary 5,610 nmol/L MOTOEX 1,217,1987
sister chromatid exchange hamster embryo 10 ng/L CHYCDW 17,221,1983
sister chromatid exchange hamster lung 1 µg/L JCINAO 64,1245,1979
sister chromatid exchange hamster fibroblast 500 µmol/L MUREAV 93,409,1982
sister chromatid exchange inhalation
hamster
100 µg/L/5 day- intermittent NTIS** DE83-007112
sister chromatid exchange unreported route
hamster
25 mg/kg EXPEAM 33,25,1977
sister chromatid exchange hamster other cell types 9,900 nmol/L CRNGDP 6,1627,1985
sister chromatid exchange hamster liver 110 µg/L MUREAV 207,69,1988
sister chromatid exchange hamster lung 5 mg/L/6 hour (+enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 515,181,2002
sister chromatid exchange hamster ovary 20 mg/L/4 hour (+enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 520,161,2002
sister chromatid exchange human leukocyte 50 µmol/L MUREAV 346,49,1995
sister chromatid exchange human lymphocyte 1 µmol/L/72 hour CNREA8 49,6503,1989
sister chromatid exchange human fibroblast 1 mg/L MUREAV 58,317,1978
sister chromatid exchange human liver 1 mmol/L MUREAV 117,47,1983
sister chromatid exchange human lymphocyte 0.3 mg/L/24 hour FCTOD7 39,485,2001
sister chromatid exchange monkey kidney 1 µmol/L CNREA8 45,3626,1985
sister chromatid exchange mouse lung 25 mg/kg PSEBAA 158,269,1978
sister chromatid exchange mouse embryo 1 µmol/L ENMUDM 2,245,1980
sister chromatid exchange mouse fibroblast 100 nmol/L CNREA8 42,1866,1982
sister chromatid exchange intraperitoneal
mouse
20 mg/kg CRNGDP 10,1041,1989
sister chromatid exchange intravenous
mouse
100 mg/kg JJMCAQ 38,207,1985
sister chromatid exchange mouse bone marrow 30 µmol/L MUREAV 224,465,1989
sister chromatid exchange mouse other cell types 30 µmol/L MUREAV 224,465,1989
sister chromatid exchange rat liver 1,600 pmol/L ECEBDI 52,355,1984
sister chromatid exchange rat other cell types 500 µmol/L MUREAV 93,409,1982
sister chromatid exchange rat Ascites tumor 1 mmol/L MUREAV 122,47,1983
sister chromatid exchange intraperitoneal
rat
25 mg/kg CRNGDP 10,1041,1989
sister chromatid exchange skin
rabbit
30 µg/L PAACA3 21,94,1980
sister chromatid exchange rabbit lymphocyte 10 µmol/L/30 minute MUREAV 58,321,1978
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction parenteral
Drosophila melanogaster
5 mmol/L CNREA8 33,302,1973
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction oral
Drosophila melanogaster
100 µmol/L BIZNAT 102,271,1983
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction hamster liver 1 mg/L PMRSDJ 5,397,1985
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction Saccharomyes cerevisiae 150 mg/L PMRSDJ 1,468,1981
specific locus test oral
Drosophila melanogaster
250 µmol/L MUREAV 234,71,1990
specific locus test hamster ovary 5 mg/L PMRSDJ 1,594,1981
specific locus test hamster other cell types 0.5 µmol/L/24 hour MUREAV 517,135,2002
specific locus test hamster ovary 1 mg/L/9 day EMMUEG 16,260,1990
specific locus test hamster lung 4 mg/L/3 hour (+enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 537,183,2003
specific locus test hamster ovary 4 mg/L/5 hour (+enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 602,14,2006
specific locus test human other cell types 15 µg/L/10 hour MUREAV 472,93,2000
specific locus test human lymphocyte 0.1 mg/L/72 hour MUREAV 495,157,2001
specific locus test parenteral
mouse
100 mg/kg ARTODN 38,75,1977
specific locus test oral
mouse
625 mg/kg/11 day- intermittent MUREAV 559,199,2004
specific locus test oral
mouse
50 mg/kg MUTAEX 14,113,1999
specific locus test skin
mouse
56 mg/kg/8 week- continuous MUREAV 588,35,2005
specific locus test mouse fibroblast 1 µmol/L/5 week MUREAV 577S,1,2005
specific locus test intratracheal
mouse
20 mg/kg MUREAV 577S,1,2005
specific locus test skin
mouse
404 µg/kg MUREAV 649,161,2008
specific locus test multiple
other fish
10 mg/L MUREAV 577S,1,2005
specific locus test multiple
other fish
50 ppb/24 hour EMMUEG 46,88,2005
specific locus test oral
other insects
500 ppm MUREAV 268,155,1992
sperm morphology intraperitoneal
hamster
25 mg/kg/5 day JTEHD6 8,929,1981
sperm morphology human sperm 200 mg/L/2 hour (+enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 491,57,2001
sperm morphology intraperitoneal
mouse
100 mg/kg/5 day PNASA6 72,4425,1975
sperm morphology parenteral
mouse
500 mg/kg ARTODN 38,75,1977
sperm morphology unreported route
mouse
200 mg/kg ENMUDM 4,318,1982
heritable translocation test skin
Drosophila melanogaster
2 mmol/L/48 hour FCTOD7 39,485,2001


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 75 µg/m3 (11-20 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system REPTED 16,801,2002
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 25 µg/m3 (11-20 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Viability index (e.g., # alive at day 4 per # born alive)
REPTED 16,801,2002
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 25 µg/m3 (11-20 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Live birth index (Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured after birth)
TOXID9 72,125,2003
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 100 µg/m3 (14-17 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalities
TOXID9 72,125,2003
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 100 µg/m3 (8-21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other neonatal measures or effects
TOXID9 72(Suppl 1),338,2003
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.25 mg/m3 (11-20 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system TOXID9 66,335,2002
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 100 µg/m3 (14-17 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic TOXID9 60,274,2001
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 25 µg/m3 (10-19 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death TOXID9 66,369,2002
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 75 µg/m3 (60 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Other effects on male
TOXID9 -,234,2008
intramuscular
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2,100 µg/kg (15-19 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral JDPHDH 19,67,1993
intraperitoneal
hamster
lowest published toxic dose: 10 mg/kg (5 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
JTEHD6 8,929,1981
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kg (1 day prior to copulation) Reproductive: Maternal effects: Oogenesis PPHAD4 1,143,1980
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1,500 mg/kg (5 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count) PMRSDJ 1,712,1981
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kg (16-18 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Immune and reticuloendothelial system JTEHD6 6,569,1980
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kg (7 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Skin and skin appendages

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
TJADAB 20,365,1979
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 150 mg/kg (8 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Stillbirth NTIS** CONF-771017
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 250 mg/kg (13-17 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Cytological changes (including somatic cell genetic material)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Blood and lymphatic systems (including spleen and marrow)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Immune and reticuloendothelial system
JTEHD6 42,259,1994
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 60 mg/kg (16-18 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic BNEOBV 38,291,1980
oral
mammal (species unspecified)
lowest published toxic dose: 875 mg/kg (4-10 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) TOXID9 44,195,2005
oral
mammal (species unspecified)
lowest published toxic dose: 87.5 mg/kg (4-10 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death TOXID9 44,195,2005
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kg (16 day prior to copulation-5 day after birth) Reproductive: Maternal effects: Oogenesis DOESD6 54,410,1981
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1,280 mg/kg (16 day prior to copulation-5 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Germ cell effects (in offspring) DOESD6 54,410,1981
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kg (7-16 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects TJADAB 19,37A,1979
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kg (multigenerations) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Female fertility index (e.g., # females pregnant per # sperm positive females; # females pregnant per # females mated)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Male fertility index (e.g., # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile nonpregnant females)
BIREBV 24,183,1981
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 75 mg/kg (12-14 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic TJADAB 32,29A,1985
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kg (7-16 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain) BIREBV 24,183,1981
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 40 mg/kg (14 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)

Reproductive: Other effects to embryo or fetus
NSAPCC 272,89,1972
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2 gm/kg (28 day prior to copulation/1-22 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Stillbirth

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
EXPEAM 20,224,1964
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,344 mg/kg (15 day prior to copulation-5 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Live birth index (Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured after birth) DOESD6 54,410,1981
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 100 µg/kg (14-17 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic NRTXDN 28,965,2007
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 160 mg/kg (12 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Live birth index (Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured after birth)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
PPHAD4 1,85,1980
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 12 gm/kg (multigeneration) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Respiratory system CALEDQ 55,227,1990
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 150 mg/kg (6-8 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
TXCYAC 42,195,1986
unreported route
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 40 µg/kg (1 day prior to copulation) Reproductive: Maternal effects: Oogenesis TXAPA9 76,18,1984


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
intracerebral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 22 mg/kg Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Brain and Coverings: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
CNREA8 29,1927,1969
inhalation
hamster
lowest published toxic concentration: 9,500 µg/m3/4 hour/96 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Olfaction: Tumors

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
JJIND8 66,575,1981
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 200 ng/m3/6 hour/13 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
GISAAA 47(7),23,1982
implant
dog
lowest published toxic dose: 651 mg/kg/21 week- continuous Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
JJIND8 65,921,1980
implant
frog
lowest published toxic dose: 45 mg/kg Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Kidney tumors
EXPEAM 20,143,1964
implant
hamster
lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kg/22 week- continuous Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
CNREA8 47,5202,1987
implant
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kg Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
BJCAAI 39,761,1979
implant
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 150 µg/kg Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
JJIND8 72,733,1984
implant
rat
toxic dose : 500 µg/kg Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
CALEDQ 20,97,1983
intramuscular
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2,400 µg/kg Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
NTIS** DOE/EV/03140-5
intramuscular
rat
toxic dose : 3,150 µg/kg Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
PAACA3 21,72,1980
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 10 mg/kg Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
ATSUDG 4,74,1980
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kg (16-18 day pregnant) Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Transplacental tumorigenesis

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
JTEHD6 6,569,1980
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 32.3 mg/kg/8 day- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
CALEDQ 137,137,1999
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 38 µg/kg Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
CALEDQ 185,13,2002
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kg Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
MOCAE8 35,93,2002
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kg Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
TOXID9 66,186,2002
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kg Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Increased incidence of tumors in susceptible strains
CNREA8 67,9248,2007
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 16 mg/kg Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
BJCAAI 12,65,1958
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kg Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
VOONC* -,950,1992
intratracheal
hamster
lowest published toxic dose: 64 mg/kg Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
CALEDQ 3,231,1977
intratracheal
hamster
lowest published toxic dose: 120 mg/kg/17 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
CALEDQ 25,271,1985
intratracheal
hamster
toxic dose : 360 mg/kg/36 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
CNREA8 32,28,1972
intratracheal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kg/10 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
PWPSA8 22,269,1979
intratracheal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 0.5 mg/kg Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
MUREAV 477,41,2001
intratracheal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,200 µg/kg Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
CRNGDP 10,1285,1989
intratracheal
rat
toxic dose : 200 mg/kg/15 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Liver: Tumors
31BYAP -,199,1974
intratracheal
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 145 mg/kg/2 year- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Bronchogenic carcinoma

Blood: Leukemia
GANNA2 71,197,1980
intravenous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 10 mg/kg Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
JNCIAM 1,225,1940
intravenous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 39 mg/kg/6 day- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
CNREA8 29,506,1969
intravenous
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 30 mg/kg (25 day pregnant) Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Transplacental tumorigenesis

Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Structural change in nerve or sheath
BEXBAN 85,369,1978
oral
hamster
lowest published toxic dose: 420 mg/kg/21 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Gastrointestinal: Tumors

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
ZEKBAI 65,56,1962
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 700 mg/kg/75 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Blood: Leukemia
GISAAA 45(12),14,1980
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 20 mg/kg/5 day- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
CALEDQ 159,113,2000
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 240 mg/kg/12 day- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
CRNGDP 21,179,2000
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 320 mg/kg/4 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Gastrointestinal: Tumors
TOLED5 144,183,2003
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 80 mg/kg/8 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Increased incidence of tumors in susceptible strains
BJCAAI 91,1380,2004
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 2,340 mg/kg/39 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Gastrointestinal: Tumors

Blood: Lymphoma including Hodgkin's disease
TOPADD 33,609,2005
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 400 mg/kg/4 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
BPBLEO 30,2268,2007
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 202 mg/kg Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Increased incidence of tumors in susceptible strains
CNREA8 67,3475,2007
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 15 mg/kg Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Gastrointestinal: Tumors

Musculoskeletal: Tumors
EXPTAX 18,288,1980
parenteral
dog
lowest published toxic dose: 819 mg/kg/26 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
JJIND8 65,921,1980
rectal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kg Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Blood: Leukemia

Gastrointestinal: Colon tumors
ONCOBS 37,77,1980
rectal
mouse
toxic dose : 560 mg/kg/14 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
CALEDQ 20,117,1983
subcutaneous
hamster
lowest published toxic dose: 4,000 µg/kg Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Bronchogenic carcinoma
CNREA8 32,360,1972
subcutaneous
monkey
lowest published toxic dose: 40 mg/kg Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
PSEBAA 127,594,1968
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kg (18-19 day pregnant) Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Respiratory system
CALEDQ 55,227,1990
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 9 mg/kg Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
JJIND8 71,309,1983
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 480 mg/kg (11-15 day pregnant) Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Transplacental tumorigenesis

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
PSEBAA 135,84,1970
subcutaneous
mouse
toxic dose : 8 mg/kg Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
CNREA8 12,657,1952
subcutaneous
mouse
toxic dose : 12 mg/kg Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
GANNA2 62,309,1971
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 455 µg/kg/60 day- intermittent Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
CBINA8 29,159,1980
skin
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 120 mg/kg (multigenerations) Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Transplacental tumorigenesis
BEXBAN 71,677,1971
skin
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 28,500 µg/kg/19 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
FAATDF 9,297,1987
skin
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 25 ng/kg/110 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
ARGEAR 50,266,1980
skin
mouse
toxic dose : 12 mg/kg/20 day- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
CRNGDP 6,1483,1985
skin
mouse
toxic dose : 26 mg/kg/65 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
AJPAA4 102,381,1981
skin
mouse
toxic dose : 18 mg/kg/73 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
EVHPAZ 38,149,1981
skin
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 480 mg/kg/32 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
TXCYAC 163,1,2001
skin
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1,000 µg/kg Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
TOXID9 72,86,2003
skin
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 14 mg/kg/14 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
TOXID9 72,86,2003
skin
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 30 mg/kg/10 day- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
PBBHAU 21,17,1984
skin
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 17 mg/kg/57 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
HSZPAZ 236,79,1935
unreported route
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 80 mg/kg/8 day- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
BEBMAE 88(11),592,1979


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 266.7 ng/kg Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Olfaction: Other olfaction effects
TOLED5 133,211,2002
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published lethal dose: 500 mg/kg N/R TXAPA9 23,288,1972
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kg Reproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubes REPTED 5,379,1991
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 80 mg/kg Reproductive: Maternal effects: Oogenesis

Reproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubes
CBINA8 28,133,1979
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 80 mg/kg Reproductive: Maternal effects: Oogenesis

Reproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
TXAPA9 53,249,1980
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kg Blood: Changes in bone marrow not included in above

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
TXAPA9 193,84,2003
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
TXAPA9 202,244,2005
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kg Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TOXID9 60,277,2001
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kg Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
TXCYAC 211,132,2005
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kg Blood: Changes in bone marrow not included in above TOXID9 -,124,2008
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 30 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes TOXID9 -,178,2008
intraperitoneal
non-mammalian species
lowest published toxic dose: 3 mg/kg Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases
TXAPA9 192,45,2003
intraperitoneal
non-mammalian species
lowest published toxic dose: 2 mg/kg Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune response TOXID9 60,230,2001
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 40 mg/kg Liver: Change in gall bladder structure or function

Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
BCPCA6 17,1049,1968
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kg Reproductive: Maternal effects: Oogenesis

Reproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubes
CBINA8 28,133,1979
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kg Liver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
CBINA8 143-144,55,2003
intrarenal
frog
lowest published lethal dose: 9 mg/kg N/R CNREA8 24,1969,1964
intratracheal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 12 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
TOLED5 143,223,2003
intratracheal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 12 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TOLED5 150,179,2004
intratracheal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 10.5 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
JAPTO* 24,249,2004
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 7,570 µg/kg Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune response TOXID9 78,397,2004
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 125 mg/kg Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
HETOEA 24,149,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kg Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects FCTOD7 39,541,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 25 mg/kg Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
TOLED5 129,33,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 12.5 mg/kg Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Dopamine in striatum
TOXID9 66,370,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 25 mg/kg Eye: Lacrimation

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning
TOXID9 60,379,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 25 mg/kg Behavioral: Alteration of operant conditioning TOXID9 60,379,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 25 mg/kg Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
JJATDK 26,427,2006
subcutaneous
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 50 mg/kg N/R ZEKBAI 69,103,1967
skin
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 20 mg/kg/24 hour Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other PHTOEH 92,242,2003
unreported route
non-mammalian species
lowest published toxic dose: 2 mg/kg Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune response TOXID9 72,174,2003


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 8 mg/kg/5 week- intermittent Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Immunological Including Allergic: Increase in humoral response

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOLED5 157,31,2005
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 75 µg/m3/10 day- intermittent Endocrine: Estrogenic

Endocrine: Other changes
REPTED 16,801,2002
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 75 µg/m3/10 day- intermittent Endocrine: Change in LH

Endocrine: Androgenic

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)
REPTED 17,527,2003
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 75 µg/m3/6 hour/60 day- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Endocrine: Androgenic

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)
TOXID9 72,325,2003
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 100 µg/m3/4 hour/10 day- intermittent Reproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubes TOXID9 72,338,2003
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 25,000 mg/m3/10 day- intermittent Endocrine: Other changes

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
TOXID9 60,273,2001
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.5 mg/m3/4 hour/10 day- intermittent Reproductive: Maternal effects: Oogenesis

Reproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubes
TOXID9 66,369,2002
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 75 µg/m3/60 day- intermittent Endocrine: Change in LH

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
TOXID9 90,429,2006
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 75 µg/m3/4 hour/60 day- intermittent Endocrine: Change in LH

Endocrine: Other changes

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
TOXID9 -,235,2008
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 75 µg/m3/60 day- intermittent Endocrine: Change in LH

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
ETPAEK 60,269,2008
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kg/10 day- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain NRTXDN 28,630,2007
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 0.2 mg/kg/10 day- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Alteration of operant conditioning
NRTXDN 28,630,2007
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,120 mg/kg/16 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes primarily in glomeruli

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Proteinuria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
TOXID9 78,90,2004
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3 mg/kg/3 day- intermittent Related to Chronic Data: Changes in uterine weight AECTCV 46,454,2004
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kg/5 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight
TOXID9 60,310,2001
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 80 mg/kg/8 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes primarily in glomeruli TOXID9 60,312,2001
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 160 mg/kg/16 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Proteinuria TOXID9 60,312,2001
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kg/5 day- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TOXID9 60,382,2001
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kg/5 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Renal function tests depressed

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight
TOLED5 164,214,2006
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 20 mg/kg/2 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Proteinuria TOLED5 164,214,2006
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 30 mg/kg/3 day- intermittent Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Dopamine at other sites NRTXDN 28,860,2007
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 75.696 mg/kg/3 day- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
ARTODN 81,169,2007
oral
mammal (species unspecified)
lowest published toxic dose: 87.5 mg/kg/7 day- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain TOXID9 44,195,2005
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kg/15 day- intermittent Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Immunological Including Allergic: Increase in cellular immune response

Immunological Including Allergic: Increase in humoral response
TXCYAC 199,261,2004
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 3,750 mg/kg/30 day- intermittent Blood: Changes in bone marrow not included in above

Immunological Including Allergic: Decreased immune response

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TOXID9 78,347,2004
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 375 mg/kg/30 day- intermittent Immunological Including Allergic: Decreased immune response TOXID9 78,347,2004
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 156 mg/kg/4 week- intermittent Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response

Immunological Including Allergic: Increase in humoral response

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXCYAC 211,107,2005
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 52,987 µg/kg/7 day- intermittent Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight

Blood: Changes in spleen
TOXID9 78,397,2004
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 3,750 mg/kg/30 day- intermittent Blood: Changes in bone marrow not included in above

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TOXID9 90,371,2006
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1,200 mg/kg/20 week- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TOPADD 33,609,2005
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 78 mg/kg/14 day- intermittent Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight TXAPA9 226,46,2008
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 26 mg/kg/2 day- intermittent Blood: Changes in spleen

Immunological Including Allergic: Decreased immune response
TXAPA9 226,46,2008
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 819 mg/kg/13 week- continuous Tumorigenic: Increased incidence of tumors in susceptible strains CRNGDP 24,613,2003
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 400 mg/kg/4 week- intermittent Gastrointestinal: Tumors

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
CRNGDP 24,461,2003
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 400 mg/kg/4 week- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
BPBLEO 30,2268,2007
oral
non-mammalian species
lowest published toxic dose: 171 mg/kg/30 day- continuous Endocrine: Androgenic

Endocrine: Estrogenic

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in ovarian weight
MAERE* 24,179,1988
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 9 gm/kg/90 day- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis) TOXID9 30,323,1996
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2,250 mg/kg/5 week- intermittent Blood: Changes in spleen

Immunological Including Allergic: Decreased immune response

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXAPA9 148,126,1998
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,000 mg/kg/10 day- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TOXID9 72,132,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5,040 mg/kg/12 week- continuous Liver: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TOXID9 44,116,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 8.4 mg/kg/2 week- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
EMMUEG 44,179,2004
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 400 mg/kg/2 week- intermittent Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune response TOXID9 3,86,1983
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 2.5 mg/kg/5 week- intermittent Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count) REPTED 15,479,2001
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 14 mg/kg/14 day- intermittent Related to Chronic Data: Changes in uterine weight ETPAEK 59,69,2007
skin
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 0.6 mg/kg/30 day- intermittent Blood: Other hemolysis with or without anemia

Blood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified)

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count
TOXID9 60,141,2001
skin
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 600 mg/kg/30 day- intermittent Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Blood: Changes in spleen
TOXID9 60,141,2001
unreported route
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 180 mg/kg/12 day- intermittent Immunological Including Allergic: Uncharacterized (multiple organ involvement) TOXID9 48,13,1999


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value Control as low as possible DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value Suspected human carcinogen DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Sufficient Evidence IMEMDT 3,91,1973
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Sufficient Evidence IMEMDT 32,211,1983
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human No Adequate Data IMEMDT 32,211,1983
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Group 2A IMSUDL 7,56,1987
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 558,7,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 566,21,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 558,155,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 540,89,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 544,397,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
PEXTAR 5,157,1964
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
85CVA2 5,257,1970
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
85DHAX Pc,4,1972
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
NTIS** CONF-691001
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
BLFSBY 24,129,1983
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
PVTMA3 9,622,1980
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ARPTDI 43,309,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 127,47,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 128,55,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 134,39,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 133,1,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 134,31,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 140-141,311,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 140-141,353,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 567,227,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 567,109,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 567,401,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 567,151,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 567,347,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TXAPA9 197,173,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUTAEX 14,301,1999
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUTAEX 17,149,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUTAEX 14,141,1999
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUTAEX 15,431,2000
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUTAEX 15,431,2000
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUTAEX 15,431,2000
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 589,208,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TXAPA9 197,49,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
EMMUEG 45,100,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
EMMUEG 45,106,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 577,146,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 588,88,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
REPTED 20,441,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 567,427,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 566,209,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 613,103,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
NETOX* 26,573,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUTAEX 20,399,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 613,76,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ENTOX* -,257,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 614,77,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 628,31,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 628,31,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
FCTOD7 44,1699,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 627,10,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 627,59,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 635,90,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 584,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ENTOX* -,334,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 636,95,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 658,28,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 566,183,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 547,1,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 533,92,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 658,124,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 540,165,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 658,154,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
REPTED 23,428,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 658,271,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUTAEX 19,423,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 659,202,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 659,202,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 659,68,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 659,31,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
JTPAE7 19,1,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
JTPAE7 19,1,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 544,339,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ITODC* -,327,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 544,361,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 574,92,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 608,136,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 566,249,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 566,129,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 543,17,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 543,195,2003


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry) 8 hour time-weighted average 0.2 mg/m3 CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction) 8 hour time-weighted average 0.2 mg/m3 CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards) 8 hour time-weighted average 0.2 mg/m3 CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors) 8 hour time-weighted average 0.2 mg/m3 CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRALIA Carcinogen, JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRIA TRK 0.002 mg/m3, JAN 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRIA TRK 0.005 mg/m3, JAN 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - FINLAND time-weighted average 0.01 mg/m3, Skin, Carcinogen, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - HUNGARY ceiling concentration 0.002 mg/m3, Carcinogen, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit - NORWAY time-weighted average 0.04 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - POLAND time-weighted average 0.003 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - RUSSIA time-weighted average 0.00015 mg/m3, Carcinogen, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWEDEN time-weighted average 0.002 mg/m3;
short term exposure limit 0.02 mg/m3, Skin, Carcinogen, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWITZERLAND MAK- week 0.0002 ppm (0.002 mg/m3), Carcinogen, DEC2006
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value;

Suspected human carcinogen
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value
Suspected human carcinogen


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974: Hazard Code: T0450;
Number of Industries 1;
Total Number of Facilities 11;
Number of Occupations 1;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 32
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: T0450;
Number of Industries 1;
Total Number of Facilities 75;
Number of Occupations 1;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 896;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 299


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

ATSDR TOXICOLOGY PROFILE (NTIS** PB/95/264370)
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Body fluid assay; Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Cell transform.-SA7/F344 rat; SHE-focus assay
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Cell transform.-mouse embryo
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Cell transform.-mouse prostate
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Cell transform.-RLV F344 rat embryo
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Cell transform.-SA7/SHE; Host-mediated assay
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: L5178Y cells in vitro-TK test; Mammalian micronucleus
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Mouse spot test; E coli polA with S9
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Histidine reversion-Ames test
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: In vitro SCE-human lymphocytes; In vitro SCE-human
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Sperm morphology-mouse; D melanogaster Sex-linked lethal
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: In vitro UDS in rat liver; V79 cell culture-gene mutation
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive/dose response: Cell transform.-BALB/c-3T3; SHE-clonal assay
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive/dose response: Cell transform.-C3H/10T1/2
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive/dose response: In vitro SCE-nonhuman; In vivo SCE-nonhuman
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: D melanogaster-nondisjunction
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Rodent heritable translocation; Mouse specific locus
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: UDS in mouse germ cells; S cerevisiae-homozygosis
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: E coli polA without S9; In vitro UDS-human fibroblast
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: CHO gene mutation
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
On EPA IRIS database
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons by HPLC, 5506; by GC, 5515
NTP 11th Report on Carcinogens,2004:Reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #ID-58


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

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EMS37*
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ITODC*
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RTECS Compound Description:
   Tumorigen
   Mutagen
   Reproductive Effector
   Human Data
   Primary Irritant

Click Here for Additional Information about RTECS

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