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Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

Benzo(a)pyrene

RTECS #

DJ3675000

CAS #

50-32-8

Updated

December 2013

Molecular Weight

252.32

Molecular Formula

C20H12

Synonyms

3,4-Benz(a)pyrene
3,4-Benzopirene (Italian)
3,4-Benzopyrene
3,4-Benzpyren (German)
3,4-Benzpyrene
3,4-Benzypyrene
3,4-BP
6,7-Benzopyrene
B(a)P
BaP
Benz(a)pyrene
Benzo(d,e,f)chrysene
BP
Coal tar pitch volatiles: benzo(a)pyrene (OSHA)
RCRA waste number U022

Skin and Eye Irritation and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
skin /mouse 14 µg mildCALEDQ 4,333,1978

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
body fluid assaySalmonella typhimurium/rat10 mg/kgENMUDM 1,155,1979
body fluid assayovary/rat2 mg/kgMUREAV 143,263,1985
body fluid assaySalmonella typhimurium/mouse100 mg/kgCNREA8 38,4478,1978
Cytogenetic Analysisintraperitoneal/mouse50 mg/kgEMMUEG 19,259,1992
Cytogenetic Analysisoral/mouse25 mg/kgTCMUD8 3,321,1983
Cytogenetic Analysisleukocyte/mouse100 µg/L/17H-continuousIJCNAW 9,435,1972
Cytogenetic Analysisfibroblast/mouse5 µmol/LCNREA8 42,1866,1982
Cytogenetic Analysislymphocyte/mouse2500 µg/LENMUDM 8(Suppl 6),24,1986
Cytogenetic Analysisintravenous/rat50 mg/kgGANNA2 64,637,1973
Cytogenetic Analysisintraperitoneal/rat800 mg/kgMUREAV 182,309,1987
Cytogenetic Analysisunreported route/rat423 mg/kgMUREAV 113,239,1983
Cytogenetic Analysisother cell types/rat100 µg/LMUREAV 169,141,1986
Cytogenetic Analysisskin/other fish100 ng/LEESADV 5,261,1981
Cytogenetic Analysisother cell types/other fish100 µg/L/48HENMUDM 4,181,1982
Cytogenetic Analysismultiple/non-mammalian species10 µg/LMUREAV 319,223,1993
Cytogenetic Analysisfibroblast/human40 µmol/L/24HMUREAV 46,297,1977
Cytogenetic Analysisleukocyte/human1 mg/LBJCAAI 30,103,1974
Cytogenetic Analysislymphocyte/human2400 µg/LMUREAV 113,239,1983
Cytogenetic Analysisovary/hamster3970 nmol/LMOTOEX 1,217,1987
Cytogenetic Analysisinhalation/hamster100 µg/L/5D- intermittentTOXID9 1,139,1981
Cytogenetic Analysisintraperitoneal/hamster200 mg/kgTOLED5 2,277,1978
Cytogenetic Analysislung/hamster100 mg/LATSUDG 4,41,1980
Cytogenetic Analysisfibroblast/hamster1 mg/LBJCAAI 30,103,1974
Cytogenetic Analysisovary/hamster1 mmol/LMUREAV 111,209,1983
Cytogenetic Analysisparenteral/chicken31 µg/kg47JMAE -,137,1982
Cytogenetic Analysisfibroblast/hamster0.01 gm/L/48H (+enzymatic activation step)MUTAEX 16,183,2001
Cytogenetic Analysissperm/human200 mg/L/120M (+enzymatic activation step)MUTAEX 504,183,2002
Cytogenetic Analysismammary gland/human5 µmol/L/24HEMMUEG 39,235,2002
Cytogenetic Analysisother cell types/mouse2.1 µmol/LTOXID9 66,368,2002
Cytogenetic Analysisembryo/human0.1 µmol/L/24HMUREAV 604,8,2006
Cytogenetic Analysislymphocyte/human5 mg/L/2HEMMUEG 47,150,2006
Cytogenetic Analysisovary/hamster20 mg/L/24H (+enzymatic activation step)JTEHF8 68,1841,2005
Cytogenetic Analysislung/hamster10 mg/L/6H (+enzymatic activation step)FCTOD7 46,2525,2008
Cytogenetic Analysissubcutaneous/mouse2 mg/kgMUTAEX 21,61,2006
Cytogenetic Analysisovary/hamster20 mg/L (+enzymatic activation step)FCTOD7 49,2273,2011
Cytogenetic Analysisliver/human2 µmol/LMUTAEX 26,593,2011
DNA adductliver/human0.5 µmol/L/24HMUREAV 742,2,2012
DNA adductother cell types/human25 nmol/plate/12HMUREAV 750,77,2013
DNA adductkidney/human2 µmol/L/24HTXAPA9 249,224,2010
DNA adductother cell types/human1 µmol/L/14HTXCYAC 279,36,2011
DNA adductoral/mouse450 mg/kg/3D- intermittentTXCYAC 285,133,2011
DNA adductother cell types/mouse1 µmol/L/3H (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 723,134,2011
DNA adductother cell types/human4 µmol/L/12HEMMUEG 48,593,2007
DNA adductmultiple/other fish5 ppmEMS37* -,411,2006
DNA adductmammary gland/human4 µmol/LEMS37* -,426,2006
DNA adductlung/human1 µmol/LEMMUEG 48,14,2007
DNA adductliver/human5 µmol/L/14HMUREAV 671,67,2009
DNA adductliver/human8 µmol/L/10HMUREAV 671,67,2009
DNA adductliver/rat3 µmol/L/24HMUTAEX 22,55,2007
DNA adductoral/mouse819 mg/kg/13W-continuousCRNGDP 24,613,2003
DNA adductskin/mouse8 mg/kg/4D- intermittentCRNGDP 25,493,2004
DNA adductskin/mouse404 µg/kgMUREAV 649,161,2008
DNA adductmultiple/other fish5 ppm/24HEMS37* -,411,2006
DNA adductmultiple/other fish10 ppm/4HEMS37* -,411,2006
DNA adductlung/human1 µmol/L/18HEMMUEG 48,14,2007
DNA adductoral/mouse5 mg/kgEMMUEG 42,243,2003
DNA adductmammary gland/human0.25 µmol/L/6HMUTAEX 20,469,2005
DNA adductliver/human0.25 µmol/L/6HMUTAEX 20,469,2005
DNA adductintraperitoneal/mouse625 mg/kg/5D- intermittentNSAPCC 375(Suppl 1),73,2007
DNA adductlung/human1 µmol/L/24HBJCAAI 91,333,2004
DNA adductsubcutaneous/mouse25 mg/kg/5W- intermittentJAPTO* 23,255,2003
DNA adductoral/mouse37.5 mg/kg/30D- intermittentTOXID9 78,347,2004
DNA adduct/Salmonella typhimurium30 µg/plate/1H (+enzymatic activation step)EMMUEG 40,1,2002
DNA adductliver/rat0.1 mg/L/1HBCPCA6 67,1711,2004
DNA adductother cell types/cattle10 mmol/L/60MCBINA8 139,129,2002
DNA adductAscites tumor/rat1 µmol/L/24HETOPFR 12,15,2002
DNA adductlymphocyte/human1 µmol/L/1HMUREAV 582,155,2005
DNA adductoral/mammal (species unspecified)87.5 mg/kg/7D- intermittentTOXID9 44,195,2005
DNA adductoral/rat2523 µg/kgTOXID9 44,305,2005
DNA adductfibroblast/human100 nmol/LTOXID9 44,465,2005
DNA adductother cell types/human1 nmol/L/24HBJCAAI 91,333,2004
DNA adductoral/mouse6.3 mg/kg/9W- intermittentJJATDK 15,59,1995
DNA adductfibroblast/mouse4 µmol/L/24HMUREAV 521,91,2002
DNA adductmammary gland/human1 µmol/L/24HCRTOEC 13,10,2000
DNA adductlung/hamster0.5 µmol/L/6HMUTAEX 17,45,2002
DNA adductoral/mouse273 mg/kg/7WMUTAEX 16,333,2001
DNA adductintratracheal/rat10 mg/kgCRNGDP 1,87,2000
DNA adductskin/rat10 mg/kgCRNGDP 1,87,2000
DNA adductintraperitoneal/mouse13.200 mg/kgCRNGDP 21,629,2000
DNA adductoral/mouse7840 mg/kg/2W-continuousCRNGDP 21,1601,2000
DNA adductembryo/hamster1 mg/L/6HCRNGDP 22,1505,2001
DNA adductother cell types/Dog1 µmol/LCNREA8 43,4723,1983
DNA adductlung/Dog1 µmol/LCNREA8 43,4723,1983
DNA adductfibroblast/human50 µmol/L/2H (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 484,3,2001
DNA adductoral/human0.1 µg/kgMUREAV 472,119,2000
DNA adductfibroblast/human0.1 mmol/L/24HMUREAV 471,57,2000
DNA adductmammary gland/human0.08 µmol/L/12HCALEDQ 155,47,2000
DNA adductlung/monkey25 µmol/L50NNAZ 7,845,1983
DNA adductother cell types/monkey1 µmol/LCNREA8 43,4723,1983
DNA adductother cell types/monkey25 µmol/L50NNAZ 7,845,1983
DNA adductother cell types/hamster5 mg/LCRNGDP 15,661,1994
DNA adductintravenous/rabbit1 mg/kgCBINA8 51,151,1984
DNA adductintraperitoneal/rabbit11 mg/kgCRNGDP 3,1405,1982
DNA adductlymphocyte/mammal (species unspecified)30 µmol/LCBINA8 47,87,1983
DNA adductembryo/hamster500 µg/LPAACA3 25,86,1984
DNA adductother cell types/hamster800 nmol/LCNREA8 33,2837,1973
DNA adductother cell types/hamster1 µmol/LCNREA8 43,4723,1983
DNA adductother cell types/human1500 nmol/LTCMUD8 1,3,1980
DNA adductother cell types/human400 nmol/LPNASA6 78,6251,1981
DNA adductother cell types/human4 µmol/LCALEDQ 18,11,1983
DNA adductliver/human100 nmol/LPAACA3 25,117,1984
DNA adductlymphocyte/human1 µmol/L/72HCNREA8 49,6503,1989
DNA adduct/Salmonella typhimurium147 gm/LMUREAV 109,183,1983
DNA adduct/Other microorganisms3 µmol/LPNCCA2 5,39,1965
DNA adduct/Other microorganisms11 ng/LCBINA8 39,205,1982
DNA adductoral/Drosophila melanogaster1 mmol/LEMMUEG 23,171,1994
DNA adductoral/other fish125 µmol/kg/5D- intermittentMUREAV 427,135,1999
DNA adduct/non-mammalian species1700 nmol/LGANMAX 6,49,1968
DNA adductintraperitoneal/other fish20 mg/kgCALEDQ 49,81,1990
DNA adducttestis/salmon5 µg/1H-continuousBIJOAK 110,159,1968
DNA adductother cell types/rat1500 nmol/LTCMUD8 1,3,1980
DNA adductother cell types/rat1 µmol/LCRNGDP 4,297,1983
DNA adductembryo/rat500 µg/LPAACA3 25,86,1984
DNA adductlung/rat2 µmol/LCRNGDP 3,267,1982
DNA adductintravenous/rat140 µg/kgCNREA8 38,4640,1978
DNA adductskin/rat800 nmol/kgIJCNAW 28,387,1981
DNA adductintraperitoneal/rat40 mg/kgCRNGDP 5,231,1984
DNA adductembryo/mouse1200 nmol/LIJCNAW 4,813,1969
DNA adductskin/mouse40 µmol/kgIJCNAW 23,201,1979
DNA adductliver/rat3 µmol/LMUREAV 419,91,1998
DNA adductother cell types/rat5 mg/LCRNGDP 15,661,1994
DNA adductliver/mouse6 µmol/LJJIND8 62,947,1979
DNA Damagefibroblast/mouse3 mg/LCOINAV 256,389,1977
DNA Damagelymphocyte/mouse500 µmol/LMUREAV 203,155,1988
DNA Damageliver/rat80 µmol/LJBCHA3 252,6424,1977
DNA Damagefibroblast/rat1500 µmol/LCBINA8 18,337,1977
DNA Damageother cell types/rat4 µg/tubeBLFSBY 24,331,1983
DNA Damageoral/rat62500 µg/kgCRNGDP 10,393,1989
DNA Damageother cell types/rat31 µmol/LCRNGDP 3,203,1982
DNA Damageother cell types/salmon80 µmol/LEVHPAZ 23,51,1978
DNA Damageintraperitoneal/other fish125 gm/kgSTEVA8 32,13,1983
DNA Damage/Other microorganisms100 µmol/LMUREAV 368,235,1996
DNA Damage/Escherichia coli500 mg/LBBACAQ 103,275,1965
DNA Damage/Bacillus subtilis200 µg/discPMRSDJ 1,175,1981
DNA Damagefibroblast/human10 mg/LCNREA8 38,1638,1978
DNA DamageHeLa cell/human1500 nmol/LEMMUEG 17,20,1991
DNA Damageleukocyte/human500 µmol/LMUREAV 346,49,1995
DNA Damagelung/hamster30 µmol/L/2HBBRCA9 72,732,1976
DNA Damageovary/hamster100 µmol/LMUREAV 77,259,1980
DNA Damagekidney/mammal (species unspecified)1 mmol/LJTEHD6 6,333,1980
DNA Damageintraperitoneal/frog125 gm/kgSTEVA8 32,13,1983
DNA Damageother cell types/hamster100 nmol/LCRNGDP 3,1283,1982
DNA Damagefibroblast/hamster10 µmol/LLIFSAK 48,1255,1991
DNA Damageintraperitoneal/mouse150 mg/kg/3DMUREAV 480-481,147,2001
DNA Damageliver/human5 mg/L/1HMUREAV 490,1,2001
DNA Damage/Escherichia coli24.1 µg/L/3H (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 515,85,2002
DNA Damageliver/rat5 µmol/L/12HMUREAV 519,163,2002
DNA Damageliver/human10 µmol/L/12HMUREAV 519,163,2002
DNA Damagelung/hamster0.1 µmol/L/1HMUTAEX 17,45,2002
DNA Damagemammary gland/human1 µmol/L/4HCRTOEC 13,10,2000
DNA Damagemammary gland/human1 µmol/L/24HCRTOEC 13,10,2000
DNA Damage/Escherichia coli1000 ng/plate/2H (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 520,161,2002
DNA Damageembryo/other fish10 mg/L/16HMUREAV 513,83,2002
DNA Damageintratracheal/rat750 mg/LMUREAV 534,33,2003
DNA Damagefibroblast/mouse1 µmol/L/19HMUREAV 521,91,2002
DNA Damageintratracheal/rat3.75 mg/kgMUREAV 538,19,2003
DNA Damageskin/mouse2 gm/L/3D-continuousTOXID9 44,448,2005
DNA Damageother cell types/pig50 µmol/L/24HTXCYAC 207,255,2005
DNA Damageliver/human25 µmol/L/24HTCMUD8 23(Suppl 1),273,2003
DNA Damageembryo/hamster1 mg/L/5HTOLED5 142,77,2003
DNA Damagelymphocyte/human0.05 mmol/L/3H (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 540,43,2003
DNA DamageAscites tumor/human25 µmol/L/24HFCTOD7 40,1077,2002
DNA Damageother cell types/human1 mg/LMAERE* 53,243,2002
DNA Damagelymphocyte/human300 µmol/L/20MMUREAV 557,203,2004
DNA Damageliver/human1 µmol/L/24HMUREAV 557,167,2004
DNA Damageother cell types/human1 µmol/L/24HMUREAV 557,167,2004
DNA Damagemammary gland/human0.12 mg/L/24H (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 588,47,2005
DNA Damage/Salmonella typhimurium1.25 µmol/L/125M (+enzymatic activation step)EMMUEG 43,10,2004
DNA Damage/Salmonella typhimurium4 µmol/L/2H (+enzymatic activation step)EMMUEG 46,126,2005
DNA Damageother cell types/mouse1 µmol/LTOXID9 66,368,2002
DNA Damageother cell types/human25 µmol/L/20HTXCYAC 213,138,2005
DNA Damageembryo/human50 µmol/LMUREAV 604,8,2006
DNA Damageovary/human9 µmol/LMUREAV 575,17,2005
DNA Damagelung/human2 µmol/L/2HTOLED5 174,10,2007
DNA Damagefibroblast/hamster50 µmol/L/2H (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 650,96,2008
DNA Damagefibroblast/hamster10 µmol/L/2H (-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 650,96,2008
DNA Damageliver/rat5 µmol/L/2HTOLED5 164,54,2006
DNA Damagelung/rat1 µmol/L/2HTOLED5 164,54,2006
DNA Damageother cell types/human5 µmol/L/4HEMMUEG 42,228,2003
DNA Damageother cell types/human5 µmol/L/30MEMMUEG 48,106,2007
DNA Damagemultiple/non-mammalian species1 mg/L/24HMUREAV 654,69,2008
DNA Damagemultiple/non-mammalian species10 mg/L/3DMUREAV 654,69,2008
DNA Damagemultiple/non-mammalian species1993 ng/L/168H-continuousMUREAV 649,135,2008
DNA Damagefibroblast/human1 µmol/L/24HMUREAV 547,109,2004
DNA Damageliver/human5 µmol/L/14HMUREAV 671,67,2009
DNA Damageother cell types/human10 µmol/l/48HMUREAV 696,21,2010
DNA Damageother cell types/human31.6 µmol/l/48HMUREAV 696,21,2010
DNA Damageliver/human10 µmol/l/48HMUREAV 696,21,2010
DNA Damageliver/human1 µmol/l/48HMUREAV 696,21,2010
DNA Damageother cell types/human1 µmol/LMUTAEX 19,499,2004
DNA Damagelung/rat10 mg/LMUREAV 563,117,2004
DNA Damagelymphocyte/rat10 mg/LMUREAV 563,117,2004
DNA Damageliver/rat10 mg/LMUREAV 563,117,2004
DNA Damageskin/mouse6400 µg/kgTXAPA9 234,192,2009
DNA Damageliver/human25 µmol/L/20HTXCYAC 255,15,2009
DNA Damageoral/mouse400 mg/kg/4W- intermittentBPBLEO 31,1053,2008
DNA Damageother cell types/human3.67 µmol/L/20HMUREAV 536,79,2003
DNA Damageintraperitoneal/mouse12.5 mg/kgMUREAV 719,52,2011
DNA Damageoral/mouse30 mg/kgFCTOD7 49,1674,2011
DNA Damageintraperitoneal/rat750 mg/kg/3D- intermittentMUREAV 722,7,2011
DNA Damageliver/human8 µmol/L/4HMUREAV 671,67,2009
DNA Damageliver/mouse30 µmol/L/48HMUTAEX 25,561,2010
DNA Damageovary/hamster0.4 µmol/L/2H (+enzymatic activation step)FCTOD7 48,1905,2010
DNA Damagemultiple/non-mammalian species10 µg/L/10H-continuousMUREAV 723,26,2011
DNA Damagemultiple/non-mammalian species0.1 µg/L/168HEMMUEG 48,735,2007
DNA Damagelymphocyte/human1.13 µmol/L (+/-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 743,25,2012
DNA Damagesperm/human1.13 µmol/L (+/-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 743,25,2012
DNA Damageother cell types/human200 µmol/L/1HMUREAV 726,146,2011
DNA Damageskin/mouse2 pphMUREAV 726,175,2011
DNA Damageother cell types/non-mammalian species98.4 nmol/L/1HMUREAV 741,1,2012
DNA Damagemultiple/non-mammalian species26.8 µmol/L/24H- intermittentMUREAV 741,1,2012
DNA Damageliver/human50 µmol/L/2HMUREAV 721,192,2011
DNA Damageliver/human2 µmol/LMUTAEX 26,593,2011
DNA Damageintraperitoneal/mouse70 mg/kg/14W- intermittentMUREAV 724,69,2011
DNA Damageoral/mouse70 mg/kg/14W- intermittentMUREAV 724,69,2011
DNA Damageother cell types/human10 nmol/L/12HMUTAEX 28,515,2013
DNA Damagelung/human15 µmol/L/24HMUTAEX 26,697,2011
DNA Damageother cell types/human1 µmol/L/3HFCTOD7 50,2524,2012
DNA Damageother cell types/human15 µmol/L/24HMUTAEX 25,223,2010
DNA Damageother cell types/human0.1 µmol/L/2HMUREAV 743,91,2012
DNA inhibitionother cell types/hamster150 µmol/LCALEDQ 53,163,1990
DNA inhibitionfibroblast/human1 mg/LNEOLA4 33,699,1986
DNA inhibition/Other microorganisms200 µg/LPNASA6 74,1378,1977
DNA inhibition/Other microorganisms100 µg/LPNASA6 74,1378,1977
DNA inhibitionHeLa cell/human1500 nmol/LEMMUEG 17,20,1991
DNA inhibitionliver/rat10 µmol/LCNREA8 45,337,1985
DNA inhibitionintraperitoneal/rat40 mg/kgBCPCA6 34,755,1985
DNA inhibitionfibroblast/mouse7 µmol/LJOUOD4 5,147,1983
DNA inhibitionother cell types/mouse100 µmol/LJJIND8 65,1321,1980
DNA inhibitionintraperitoneal/mouse100 mg/kgMUREAV 46,305,1977
DNA repair/Escherichia coli70 µg/wellMUREAV 46,53,1977
DNA repairoral/Drosophila melanogaster100 mg/LMUREAV 290,175,1993
DNA repairother cell types/hamster1 µmol/LTIVIEQ 5,511,1991
DNA repairintraperitoneal/mouse10 mg/kgEVHPAZ 109,71,2001
DNA repairmammary gland/human5 µmol/L/48HEMMUEG 39,235,2002
DNA repair/Other microorganisms1 mmol/L (-enzymatic activation step)TOXID9 72,227,2003
DNA repairother cell types/human10 nmol/L/12HMUTAEX 28,515,2013
DNA repairintratracheal/rat3.75 mg/kgMUTAEX 18,449,2003
Dominant Lethal Testintraperitoneal/mouse750 mg/kgNATUAS 219,385,1968
gene conversion and mitotic recombination/Saccharomyes cerevisiae10 µg/platePMRSDJ 1,456,1981
heritable translocation testskin/Drosophila melanogaster2 mmol/L/48HFCTOD7 39,485,2001
host-mediated assaySalmonella typhimurium/rat40 mg/kgTOXID9 72,315,2003
host-mediated assayEscherichia coli/mouse50464 µg/kgMUREAV 241,83,1990
host-mediated assaymultiple/other fish10 mg/LMUREAV 577S,1,2005
micronucleus testother cell types/mouse4 mg/L/4HEMMUEG 47,56,2006
micronucleus testother cell types/human50 µmol/L/1HTOLED5 159,83,2005
micronucleus testmammary gland/human1 µmol/L/24HMUTAEX 21,351,2006
micronucleus testother cell types/human2 µmol/L/20HTXCYAC 213,138,2005
micronucleus testskin/mouse48 mg/kg/3DMUREAV 588,58,2005
micronucleus testmammary gland/mouse1.77 mg/L/3H (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 540,153,2003
micronucleus testoral/mouse320 mg/kg/4W- intermittentTOLED5 144,183,2003
micronucleus testliver/human25 µmol/L/24HTXCYAC 198,315,2004
micronucleus testother cell types/pig100 µmol/L/30HTXCYAC 207,255,2005
micronucleus testintraperitoneal/mouse75 mg/kg/3D- intermittentEMMUEG 45,44,2005
micronucleus testliver/human50 µmol/L/1HTOLED5 159,83,2005
micronucleus testmultiple/non-mammalian species101 ng/L/4D-continuousMUREAV 649,135,2008
micronucleus testembryo/mouse10 µmol/L/3HMUREAV 666,50,2009
micronucleus testfibroblast/mouse10 µmol/L/3HMUREAV 666,50,2009
micronucleus testsubcutaneous/mouse2 mg/kgMUTAEX 21,61,2006
micronucleus testother cell types/human0.26 µmol/L/20HMUREAV 536,79,2003
micronucleus testother cell types/human5 µmol/L/4HMUREAV 671,84,2009
micronucleus testother cell types/mouse3.154 mg/L/4H (+enzymatic activation step)MUTAEX 14,403,1999
micronucleus testoral/mouse750 mg/kg/5D- intermittentMUREAV 652,145,2008
micronucleus testother cell types/human3 mg/L/3H (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 702,171,2010
micronucleus testother cell types/mouse0.375 mg/L/3H (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 702,163,2010
micronucleus testfibroblast/hamster3 mg/L/3H (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 702,230,2010
micronucleus testovary/hamster2 mg/L/3H (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 702,237,2010
micronucleus testother cell types/human0.25 gm/L/48HMUREAV 750,40,2013
micronucleus testother cell types/human0.1 µmol/L/24HMUREAV 743,91,2012
micronucleus testother cell types/human0.1 µmol/L/48HMUREAV 743,91,2012
micronucleus testother cell types/human0.2 mg/L/4H (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 746,29,2012
micronucleus testskin/mouse0.5 pph/3D- intermittentMUREAV 743,42,2012
micronucleus testovary/hamster14.8 µmol/L/3H (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 751,1,2013
micronucleus testother cell types/mammal (species unspecified)0.2 µmol/LTXCYAC 270,66,2010
micronucleus testmultiple/non-mammalian species0.1 µg/L/96HEMMUEG 48,735,2007
micronucleus testovary/hamster10 µmol/L/3HMUREAV 724,7,2011
micronucleus testother cell types/human10 µmol/L/3HMUREAV 724,7,2011
micronucleus testliver/human200 µg/L/48HMUREAV 677,1,2009
micronucleus testlung/hamster10 mg/L/6H (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 721,21,2011
micronucleus testoral/rat1875 mg/kg/15D- intermittentMUREAV 702,40,2010
micronucleus testoral/rat750 mg/kg/6D- intermittentMUREAV 702,40,2010
micronucleus testintraperitoneal/mouse30 mg/kgFCTOD7 49,1674,2011
micronucleus testoral/mouse30 mg/kgFCTOD7 49,1674,2011
micronucleus testembryo/hamster100 µg/LCCLCDY 8,90,1986
micronucleus testovary/hamster0.1 mg/L/4H (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 537,115,2003
micronucleus testoral/mouse6.3 mg/kg/9W- intermittentJJATDK 15,59,1995
micronucleus testliver/human0.5 µmol/L/20HMUREAV 536,79,2003
micronucleus testskin/rat1 pph/3DMUREAV 513,93,2002
micronucleus testskin/mouse0.5 pph/3DMUREAV 513,93,2002
micronucleus testmultiple/frog60 ppbMUTAEX 4,12,1989
micronucleus testliver/human4 mg/L/1HMUREAV 490,1,2001
micronucleus testother cell types/hamster1 µmol/L/24HMUREAV 491,87,2001
micronucleus testother cell types/human0.2 mg/L/28HMUREAV 495,89,2001
micronucleus testmultiple/non-mammalian species60 ppbMUREAV 292,83,1993
micronucleus testother cell types/human10 mg/LTIVIEQ 5,515,1991
micronucleus testlymphocyte/human50 µmol/LMUREAV 291,93,1993
micronucleus testmultiple/non-mammalian species1000 ppbMUREAV 390,33,1997
micronucleus testmultiple/non-mammalian species10 ppb/8D-continuousENMUDM 8,41,1986
micronucleus testintraperitoneal/other fish10 mg/kgCYTBAI 47,147,1986
micronucleus testfibroblast/mouse250 µg/LMUREAV 279,217,1992
micronucleus testskin/mouse20 µg/kgEMMUEG 17,163,1991
micronucleus testintraperitoneal/rat800 mg/kgMUREAV 182,309,1987
micronucleus testoral/rat125 mg/kgMUREAV 278,165,1992
morphological transformother cell types/rat1 mg/LNEOLA4 30,303,1983
morphological transformliver/rat100 µmol/LCNREA8 43,5087,1983
morphological transformoral/rat200 mg/kgCNREA8 40,1157,1980
morphological transformembryo/rat15400 µg/LJJIND8 67,1303,1981
morphological transformother cell types/mouse100 µg/LIJCNAW 4,166,1969
morphological transformembryo/mouse100 µg/LPMRSDJ 5,659,1985
morphological transformfibroblast/mouse500 µg/LAETODY 1,133,1980
morphological transformother cell types/human10 mg/LITCSAF 17,719,1981
morphological transformfibroblast/human3200 µg/LCALEDQ 13,119,1981
morphological transformfibroblast/mouse0.033 µmol/L/21D (-enzymatic activation step)EMMUEG 35,300,2000
morphological transformembryo/hamster2.5 mg/L/4H (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 537,183,2003
morphological transformoral/mouse100 mg/kg/8D- intermittentCNREA8 49,1236,1989
morphological transformother cell types/hamster1200 nmol/LCNREA8 35,2413,1975
morphological transformlung/hamster10 µg/LTOLED5 1000(Sp Iss 1),18,1980
morphological transformintraperitoneal/hamster500 mg/kgARPAAQ 95,380,1973
morphological transformembryo/hamster400 µg/LCBINA8 13,105,1976
morphological transformkidney/hamster80 µg/LBJCAAI 37,873,1978
morphological transformfibroblast/hamster1 mg/LNATUAS 264,360,1976
morphological transformparenteral/hamster1 mg/LPNASA6 56,672,1966
morphological transformother cell types/guinea pig10 mg/LCNREA8 35,1035,1975
morphological transformembryo/mouse0.01 mg/L/72HMUREAV 702,100,2010
morphological transformfibroblast/mouse0.005 mg/L/48HMUREAV 744,20,2012
morphological transformembryo/hamster5 mg/L/7DMUREAV 548,1,2004
morphological transformembryo/hamster1 mg/L/7DTOLED5 142,77,2003
morphological transformembryo/mouse0.5 mg/L/2DMUREAV 588,7,2005
morphological transformembryo/hamster33.4 µg/L/24HMUREAV 572,45,2005
mutation in mammalian somatic cellsovary/hamster2 mg/L/5H (+/-enzymatic activation step)RTOPDW 35,255,2002
mutation in mammalian somatic cellsovary/hamster25 mg/L/3H (+enzymatic activation step)MUTAEX 20,29,2005
mutation in mammalian somatic cellsintraperitoneal/mouse5 mg/kgEMMUEG 48,591,2007
mutation in mammalian somatic cellsintraperitoneal/hamster200 mg/kgTOLED5 2,277,1978
mutation in mammalian somatic cellslung/hamster1 mg/LMUREAV 113,499,1983
mutation in mammalian somatic cellsfibroblast/hamster1 mg/LNATUAS 264,360,1976
mutation in mammalian somatic cellsembryo/hamster500 µg/LCNREA8 44,1445,1984
mutation in mammalian somatic cellslymphocyte/mouse4500 µg/LPMRSDJ 1,580,1981
mutation in mammalian somatic cellsembryo/mouse3 µmol/LPNASA6 76,930,1979
mutation in mammalian somatic cellsfibroblast/mouse200 nmol/LCNREA8 42,1866,1982
mutation in mammalian somatic cellsintraperitoneal/mouse32.3 mg/kg/8D- intermittentCALEDQ 137,137,1999
mutation in mammalian somatic cellsintraperitoneal/rat120 mg/kg/3DCRNGDP 21,715,2000
mutation in mammalian somatic cellsoral/mouse1750 mg/kgCALEDQ 164,1,2001
mutation in mammalian somatic cellsfibroblast/other fish5 mg/LAECTCV 10,663,1981
mutation in mammalian somatic cellsother cell types/rat18850 nmol/LENMUDM 5,33,1983
mutation in mammalian somatic cellsmammary gland/rat1 mg/LJJIND8 70,777,1983
mutation in mammalian somatic cellsliver/rat1 µmol/LMUREAV 130,53,1984
mutation in mammalian somatic cellsother cell types/human100 nmol/LCRNGDP 1,765,1980
mutation in mammalian somatic cellsfibroblast/human100 nmol/LCNREA8 40,4070,1980
mutation in mammalian somatic cellslymphocyte/human3 µmol/LMUREAV 128,221,1984
mutation in mammalian somatic cellslymphocyte/human1200 nmol/LENMUDM 4,304,1982
mutation in microorganismslymphocyte/mouse250 µg/L (+enzymatic activation step)EMMUEG 12(Suppl 13),103,1988
mutation in microorganismslymphocyte/human4 mg/L (+enzymatic activation step)JJIND8 63,309,1979
mutation in microorganisms/Saccharomyes cerevisiae1 gm/L (-enzymatic activation step)PMRSDJ 1,414,1981
mutation in microorganisms/Saccharomyes cerevisiae50 mg/L (+enzymatic activation step)CPBTAL 33,1576,1985
mutation in microorganisms/Escherichia coli200 nmol/plate (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 135,87,1984
mutation in microorganisms/Escherichia coli1 µmol/L (-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 60,395,1979
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium312 ng/plate (-enzymatic activation step)RCOCB8 44,131,1984
mutation in microorganisms/Bacillus subtilis5 gm/L (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 42,19,1977
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium2 µg/plate/72H (+enzymatic activation step)TOLED5 116,189,2000
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium5 µg/plate/20M (+/-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 492,13,2001
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium40 nmol/plate/48H (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 541,123,2003
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium0.0015 mmol/L/20MMUREAV 508,147,2002
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium0.001 µmol/plate/20M (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 521,187,2002
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium10 µg/plate/20M (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 514,19,2002
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium6.125 nmol/plate/20MMUREAV 519,133,2002
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium10 mg/L/48HMUREAV 520,161,2002
mutation in microorganismsembryo/hamster4 µmol/L (+enzymatic activation step)CRNGDP 10,419,1989
mutation in microorganismsovary/hamster1 mg/L (+enzymatic activation step)ENMUDM 4,354,1982
mutation in microorganismslung/hamster25 nmol/plate (+enzymatic activation step)CNREA8 39,2660,1979
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium2 µg/plate/48H (+enzymatic activation step)JOETD7 135,586,2011
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium40 nmol/tube/45H (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 653,14,2008
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium1 µg/plate/48HMUREAV 703,99,2010
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium0.0035 mg/L/48H (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 750,12,2013
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium1.25 µg/plate/60H (+enzymatic activation step)MUTAEX 19,245,2004
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium45.9 pmol/L (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 626,88,2007
mutation in microorganisms/Other microorganisms0.1 mg/L/4H (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 611,17,2006
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium8 nmol/plate/73H (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 629,122,2007
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium0.4 mg/L/2H (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 578,210,2005
mutation in microorganisms/Escherichia coli0.5 mg/L/2H (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 588,166,2005
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium1 µg/plateMUREAV 577S,1,2005
mutation in microorganisms/Saccharomyes cerevisiae200 µmol/LMUREAV 577S,1,2005
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium1 µmol/L/16H (+enzymatic activation step)EMMUEG 46,126,2005
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium0.4 µmol/L/48HEMMUEG 46,126,2005
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium4 µmol/L/2H (+enzymatic activation step)EMMUEG 46,126,2005
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium10 mg/L/2HMUREAV 578,225,2005
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium10 mg/L/3H (+enzymatic activation step)RTOPDW 37,11,2003
mutation in microorganismsembryo/Salmonella typhimurium19.8 nmol/plate/72HMUREAV 545,11,2004
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium0.5 nmol/plate/48H (-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 557,99,2004
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium4 mg/L/72H (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 558,181,2004
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium0.02 µmol/plate/72H (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 558,93,2004
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium0.1 µg/plate/12H (+enzymatic activation step)JTEHF8 68,1841,2005
mutation in microorganisms/Saccharomyes cerevisiae26 mg/L/16HMUTAEX 20,105,2004
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium0.1 µg/plate (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 609,60,2006
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium0.09 mg/plate/40H (+enzymatic activation step)MUTAEX 24,433,2009
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium0.02 mmol/L/30M (+enzymatic activation step)EPIRE8 73,75,2007
other mutation test systemsliver/rat1 µmol/L/48HMUREAV 615,87,2007
other mutation test systemsskin/mouse200 mg/LCBINA8 4,155,1971/1972
other mutation test systemsintraperitoneal/mouse50 mg/kgEMMUEG 19,259,1992
other mutation test systemsembryo/hamster1 mg/LBICHAW 17,1597,1978
other mutation test systems/Salmonella typhimurium1 mg/LMUREAV 192,239,1987
other mutation test systems/Escherichia coli700 pmol/tubePNASA6 79,5971,1982
other mutation test systemsskin/mouse4 mg/kgSCIEAS 199,778,1978
phage inhibition capacity/Salmonella typhimurium3900 pmol/platePPTCBY 9,337,1979
phage inhibition capacity/Escherichia coli400 ng/plateCSHCAL 4,1451,1977
phage inhibition capacityembryo/hamster60 µg/LENMUDM 6,474,1984
phage inhibition capacity/Escherichia coli0.5 µmol/L (+enzymatic activation step)EMMUEG 36,206,2000
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctionliver/hamster1 mg/LPMRSDJ 5,397,1985
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction/Saccharomyes cerevisiae150 mg/LPMRSDJ 1,468,1981
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctionparenteral/Drosophila melanogaster5 mmol/LCNREA8 33,302,1973
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctionoral/Drosophila melanogaster100 µmol/LBIZNAT 102,271,1983
sister chromatid exchangeleukocyte/human50 µmol/LMUREAV 346,49,1995
sister chromatid exchangelymphocyte/human1 µmol/L/72HCNREA8 49,6503,1989
sister chromatid exchangefibroblast/human1 mg/LMUREAV 58,317,1978
sister chromatid exchangeliver/human1 mmol/LMUREAV 117,47,1983
sister chromatid exchangelung/mouse25 mg/kgPSEBAA 158,269,1978
sister chromatid exchangeembryo/mouse1 µmol/LENMUDM 2,245,1980
sister chromatid exchangefibroblast/mouse100 nmol/LCNREA8 42,1866,1982
sister chromatid exchangeintraperitoneal/mouse20 mg/kgCRNGDP 10,1041,1989
sister chromatid exchangeintravenous/mouse100 mg/kgJJMCAQ 38,207,1985
sister chromatid exchangebone marrow/mouse30 µmol/LMUREAV 224,465,1989
sister chromatid exchangeother cell types/mouse30 µmol/LMUREAV 224,465,1989
sister chromatid exchangeliver/rat1600 pmol/LECEBDI 52,355,1984
sister chromatid exchangeother cell types/rat500 µmol/LMUREAV 93,409,1982
sister chromatid exchangeAscites tumor/rat1 mmol/LMUREAV 122,47,1983
sister chromatid exchangeintraperitoneal/rat25 mg/kgCRNGDP 10,1041,1989
sister chromatid exchangeliver/hamster110 µg/LMUREAV 207,69,1988
sister chromatid exchangekidney/monkey1 µmol/LCNREA8 45,3626,1985
sister chromatid exchangeintraperitoneal/hamster900 mg/kg/24HMUREAV 66,65,1979
sister chromatid exchangeovary/hamster5610 nmol/LMOTOEX 1,217,1987
sister chromatid exchangeembryo/hamster10 ng/LCHYCDW 17,221,1983
sister chromatid exchangelung/hamster1 µg/LJCINAO 64,1245,1979
sister chromatid exchangefibroblast/hamster500 µmol/LMUREAV 93,409,1982
sister chromatid exchangeinhalation/hamster100 µg/L/5D- intermittentNTIS** DE83-007112
sister chromatid exchangeunreported route/hamster25 mg/kgEXPEAM 33,25,1977
sister chromatid exchangeother cell types/hamster9900 nmol/LCRNGDP 6,1627,1985
sister chromatid exchangelymphocyte/human0.03 mg/L/24HFCTOD7 39,485,2001
sister chromatid exchangeskin/rabbit30 µg/LPAACA3 21,94,1980
sister chromatid exchangelymphocyte/rabbit10 µmol/L/30MMUREAV 58,321,1978
sister chromatid exchangeparenteral/chicken31 µg/kg47JMAE -,137,1982
sister chromatid exchangemultiple/frog10 mg/LENMUDM 8(Suppl 6),30,1986
sister chromatid exchangeovary/hamster20 mg/L/4H (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 520,161,2002
sister chromatid exchangelung/hamster5 mg/L/6H (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 515,181,2002
specific locus testovary/hamster1 mg/L/9DEMMUEG 16,260,1990
specific locus testlung/hamster4 mg/L/3H (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 537,183,2003
specific locus testother cell types/human15 µg/L/10HMUREAV 472,93,2000
specific locus testother cell types/hamster0.5 µmol/L/24HMUREAV 517,135,2002
specific locus testlymphocyte/human0.1 mg/L/72HMUREAV 495,157,2001
specific locus testovary/hamster5 mg/LPMRSDJ 1,594,1981
specific locus testparenteral/mouse100 mg/kgARTODN 38,75,1977
specific locus testoral/other insects500 ppmMUREAV 268,155,1992
specific locus testoral/Drosophila melanogaster250 µmol/LMUREAV 234,71,1990
specific locus testmultiple/other fish50 ppb/24HEMMUEG 46,88,2005
specific locus testskin/mouse404 µg/kgMUREAV 649,161,2008
specific locus testfibroblast/mouse10 µmol/L/3HMUREAV 666,50,2009
specific locus testmultiple/other fish3 gm/L/96H-continuousMUREAV 656,36,2008
specific locus testembryo/mouse10 µmol/L/3HMUREAV 666,50,2009
specific locus testintraperitoneal/mouse200 mg/kg/5D- intermittentMUTAEX 23,445,2008
specific locus testintraperitoneal/mouse200 mg/kgMUTAEX 23,445,2008
specific locus testother cell types/human1.25 mg/L/3H (+enzymatic activation step)MUTAEX 24,35,2009
specific locus testoral/mouse625 mg/kg/11D- intermittentMUREAV 559,199,2004
specific locus testoral/mouse50 mg/kgMUTAEX 14,113,1999
specific locus testfibroblast/mouse1 µmol/L/5WMUREAV 577S,1,2005
specific locus testskin/mouse56 mg/kg/8W-continuousMUREAV 588,35,2005
specific locus testovary/hamster4 mg/L/5H (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 602,14,2006
specific locus testintratracheal/mouse20 mg/kgMUREAV 577S,1,2005
specific locus testmultiple/other fish10 mg/LMUREAV 577S,1,2005
specific locus testother cell types/human0.49 mg/L/16H (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 724,76,2011
sperm morphologyintraperitoneal/mouse100 mg/kg/5DPNASA6 72,4425,1975
sperm morphologyparenteral/mouse500 mg/kgARTODN 38,75,1977
sperm morphologyunreported route/mouse200 mg/kgENMUDM 4,318,1982
sperm morphologyintraperitoneal/hamster25 mg/kg/5DJTEHD6 8,929,1981
sperm morphologysperm/human200 mg/L/2H (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 491,57,2001
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisoral/mouse6.3 mg/kg/9W- intermittentJJATDK 15,59,1995
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisskin/rabbit100 µg/LPAACA3 21,94,1980
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisliver/monkey10 mg/LMUREAV 206,91,1988
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisembryo/hamster300 µg/LMUREAV 129,111,1984
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisliver/hamster10 µmol/LENMUDM 5,1,1983
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisother cell types/hamster100 µg/LEVSRBT 27,277,1983
Unscheduled DNA Synthesislung/hamster6 mg/LMUREAV 230,111,1990
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisliver/other fish10 µmol/LNCIMAV 65,163,1984
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisliver/other fish20 nmol/LHKXUDL 4,368,1984
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisliver/other fish1 µmol/LAECTCV 14,555,1985
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisother cell types/other fish10 µmol/LCBPCEE 86,399,1987
Unscheduled DNA Synthesis/Other microorganisms1 mg/LCRNGDP 2,417,1981
Unscheduled DNA Synthesismammary gland/human10 µmol/LEMMUEG 20,148,1992
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisother cell types/human10 µmol/LMUREAV 122,377,1983
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisother cell types/human3 mg/LMUREAV 140,43,1984
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisother cell types/human5 µmol/LTXAPA9 79,28,1985
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisother cell types/human1 µmol/LTIVIEQ 5,377,1991
Unscheduled DNA SynthesisHeLa cell/human1 mmol/LCNREA8 38,2621,1978
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisliver/human1 µmol/LBANRDU 13,101,1982
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisliver/mouse1 µmol/LTOPADD 12,119,1984
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisskin/mouse8 mg/kgPHMGBN 18,281,1979
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisoral/mouse12 mg/kgCNREA8 44,1547,1984
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisother cell types/rat1 mg/LMUREAV 241,361,1990
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisliver/rat5 µmol/LCALEDQ 6,207,1979
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisother cell types/rat100 mmol/LSHKKAN 22,300,1980
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisoral/rat240 mg/kg/8D-continuousMUREAV 218,13,1989
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisintratracheal/rat3.75 mg/kgMUTAEX 18,449,2003
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisother cell types/human0.1 µmol/L/20HTXCYAC 213,138,2005
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisliver/human0.01 µmol/L/44HMUREAV 559,211,2004

Reproductive Effects Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/rat 75 µg/m3 (11-20D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal systemREPTED 16,801,2002
inhalation/rat 25 µg/m3 (11-20D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Viability index (e.g., # alive at day 4 per # born alive)
REPTED 16,801,2002
inhalation/rat 25 µg/m3 (11-20D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Live birth index (Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured after birth)
TOXID9 72,125,2003
inhalation/rat 100 µg/m3 (14-17D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalities
TOXID9 72,125,2003
inhalation/rat 100 µg/m3 (8-21D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other neonatal measures or effects
TOXID9 72(Suppl 1),338,2003
inhalation/rat 0.025 mg/m3 (11-20D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous systemTOXID9 66,335,2002
inhalation/rat 100 µg/m3 (14-17D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolicTOXID9 60,274,2001
inhalation/rat 25 µg/m3 (10-19D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal deathTOXID9 66,369,2002
inhalation/rat 75 µg/m3 (60D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Other effects on male
TOXID9 -,234,2008
intramuscular/rat 2100 µg/kg (15-19D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: BehavioralJDPHDH 19,67,1993
intraperitoneal/rat 60 mg/kg (16-18D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolicBNEOBV 38,291,1980
intraperitoneal/mouse 50 mg/kg (1D prior to copulation)Reproductive: Maternal effects: OogenesisPPHAD4 1,143,1980
intraperitoneal/mouse 1500 mg/kg (5D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)PMRSDJ 1,712,1981
intraperitoneal/mouse 300 mg/kg (16-18D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Immune and reticuloendothelial systemJTEHD6 6,569,1980
intraperitoneal/mouse 200 mg/kg (7D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Skin and skin appendages

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
TJADAB 20,365,1979
intraperitoneal/mouse 150 mg/kg (8D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: StillbirthNTIS** CONF-771017
intraperitoneal/mouse 250 mg/kg (13-17D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Cytological changes (including somatic cell genetic material)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Blood and lymphatic systems (including spleen and marrow)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Immune and reticuloendothelial system
JTEHD6 42,259,1994
intraperitoneal/hamster 10 mg/kg (5D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
JTEHD6 8,929,1981
oral/mouse 600 µg/kg (14-17D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
TOXID9 -,131,2009
oral/mouse 24 mg/kg (1-12D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)TXCYAC 259,97,2009
oral/mouse 6 mg/kg (1-3D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: BehavioralTXCYAC 259,97,2009
oral/mouse 28 mg/kg (1-14D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolicTXCYAC 259,97,2009
oral/rat 100 µg/kg (14-17D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolicNRTXDN 28,965,2007
oral/mammal (species unspecified) 875 mg/kg (4-10D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)TOXID9 44,195,2005
oral/mammal (species unspecified) 87.5 mg/kg (4-10D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal deathTOXID9 44,195,2005
oral/rat 40 mg/kg (14D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)

Reproductive: Other effects to embryo or fetus
NSAPCC 272,89,1972
oral/rat 2 gm/kg (28D prior to copulation/1-22D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Stillbirth

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
EXPEAM 20,224,1964
oral/rat 1344 mg/kg (15D pre-5D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Live birth index (Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured after birth)DOESD6 54,410,1981
oral/mouse 100 mg/kg (16D pre-5D after birth)Reproductive: Maternal effects: OogenesisDOESD6 54,410,1981
oral/mouse 1280 mg/kg (16D pre-5D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Germ cell effects (in offspring)DOESD6 54,410,1981
oral/mouse 100 mg/kg (7-16D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effectsTJADAB 19,37A,1979
oral/mouse 100 mg/kg (multigenerations)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Female fertility index (e.g., # females pregnant per # sperm positive females; # females pregnant per # females mated)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Male fertility index (e.g., # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile nonpregnant females)
BIREBV 24,183,1981
oral/mouse 75 mg/kg (12-14D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolicTJADAB 32,29A,1985
oral/mouse 100 mg/kg (7-16D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)BIREBV 24,183,1981
subcutaneous/rat 150 mg/kg (6-8D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
TXCYAC 42,195,1986
subcutaneous/mouse 160 mg/kg (12D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Live birth index (Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured after birth)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
PPHAD4 1,85,1980
subcutaneous/mouse 12 gm/kg (multigeneration)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Respiratory systemCALEDQ 55,227,1990
unreported route/mouse 40 µg/kg (1D prior to copulation)Reproductive: Maternal effects: OogenesisTXAPA9 76,18,1984

Tumorigenic Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
implant/Dog lowest published toxic dose: 651 mg/kg/21W- continuousTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
JJIND8 65,921,1980
implant/frog lowest published toxic dose: 45 mg/kgTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Kidney tumors
EXPEAM 20,143,1964
implant/hamster lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kg/22W- continuousTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
CNREA8 47,5202,1987
implant/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kgTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
BJCAAI 39,761,1979
implant/rat lowest published toxic dose: 150 µg/kgTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
JJIND8 72,733,1984
implant/rat toxic dose: 500 µg/kgTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
CALEDQ 20,97,1983
inhalation/hamster lowest published toxic concentration: 9500 µg/m3/4H/96W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Olfaction: Tumors

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
JJIND8 66,575,1981
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 200 ng/m3/6H/13W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
GISAAA 47(7),23,1982
intracerebral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 22 mg/kgTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Brain and Coverings: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
CNREA8 29,1927,1969
intramuscular/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2400 µg/kgTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
NTIS** DOE/EV/03140-5
intramuscular/rat toxic dose: 3150 µg/kgTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
PAACA3 21,72,1980
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 32.3 mg/kg/8D- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
CALEDQ 137,137,1999
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 38 µg/kgTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
CALEDQ 185,13,2002
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kgTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
MOCAE8 35,93,2002
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kgTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
TOXID9 66,186,2002
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kgTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Increased incidence of tumors in susceptible strains
CNREA8 67,9248,2007
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kgTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
BCLPT* 98,593,2006
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kgTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Increased incidence of tumors in susceptible strains
CRNGDP 29,1594,2008
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 10 mg/kgTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
ATSUDG 4,74,1980
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kg (16-18D pregnant)Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Transplacental tumorigenesis

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
JTEHD6 6,569,1980
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 16 mg/kgTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
BJCAAI 12,65,1958
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kgTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
VOONC* -,950,1992
intratracheal/hamster lowest published toxic dose: 64 mg/kgTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
CALEDQ 3,231,1977
intratracheal/hamster lowest published toxic dose: 120 mg/kg/17W- intermittentTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
CALEDQ 25,271,1985
intratracheal/hamster toxic dose: 360 mg/kg/36W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
CNREA8 32,28,1972
intratracheal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kg/10W- intermittentTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
PWPSA8 22,269,1979
intratracheal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 0.5 mg/kgTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
MUREAV 477,41,2001
intratracheal/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 145 mg/kg/2Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Bronchogenic carcinoma

Blood: Leukemia
GANNA2 71,197,1980
intratracheal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1200 µg/kgTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
CRNGDP 10,1285,1989
intratracheal/rat toxic dose: 200 mg/kg/15W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Liver: Tumors
31BYAP -,199,1974
intravenous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 10 mg/kgTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
JNCIAM 1,225,1940
intravenous/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 30 mg/kg (25D pregnant)Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Transplacental tumorigenesis

Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Structural change in nerve or sheath
BEXBAN 85,369,1978
intravenous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 39 mg/kg/6D- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
CNREA8 29,506,1969
oral/hamster lowest published toxic dose: 420 mg/kg/21W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Gastrointestinal: Tumors

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
ZEKBAI 65,56,1962
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 700 mg/kg/75W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Blood: Leukemia
GISAAA 45(12),14,1980
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 400 mg/kg/4W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
BCLPT* 104,360,2009
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2340 mg/kg/39W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Gastrointestinal: Tumors

Blood: Lymphoma including Hodgkin's disease
TOPADD 33,609,2005
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 400 mg/kg/4W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
BPBLEO 30,2268,2007
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 202 mg/kgTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Increased incidence of tumors in susceptible strains
CNREA8 67,3475,2007
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 320 mg/kg/4W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Gastrointestinal: Tumors
TOLED5 144,183,2003
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 20 mg/kg/5D- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
CALEDQ 159,113,2000
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 240 mg/kg/12D- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
CRNGDP 21,179,2000
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 80 mg/kg/8W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Increased incidence of tumors in susceptible strains
BJCAAI 91,1380,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 520 mg/kg/104W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Gastrointestinal: Tumors
FCTOD7 50,927,2012
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1352 mg/kg/104W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
FCTOD7 50,927,2012
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1716 mg/kg/104W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Kidney tumors
FCTOD7 50,927,2012
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4472 mg/kg/104W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
FCTOD7 50,927,2012
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3172 mg/kg/104W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Gastrointestinal: Tumors
FCTOD7 50,927,2012
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 15 mg/kgTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Gastrointestinal: Tumors

Musculoskeletal: Tumors
EXPTAX 18,288,1980
parenteral/Dog lowest published toxic dose: 819 mg/kg/26W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
JJIND8 65,921,1980
rectal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kgTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Blood: Leukemia

Gastrointestinal: Colon tumors
ONCOBS 37,77,1980
rectal/mouse toxic dose: 560 mg/kg/14W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
CALEDQ 20,117,1983
skin/mouse toxic dose: 26 mg/kg/65W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
AJPAA4 102,381,1981
skin/mouse toxic dose: 12 mg/kg/20D- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
CRNGDP 6,1483,1985
skin/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 480 mg/kg/32W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
TXCYAC 163,1,2001
skin/mouse toxic dose: 18 mg/kg/73W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
EVHPAZ 38,149,1981
skin/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1000 µg/kgTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
TOXID9 72,86,2003
skin/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 14 mg/kg/14W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
TOXID9 72,86,2003
skin/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 30 mg/kg/10D- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
PBBHAU 21,17,1984
skin/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 120 mg/kg (multigenerations)Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Transplacental tumorigenesis
BEXBAN 71,677,1971
skin/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 28500 µg/kg/19W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
FAATDF 9,297,1987
skin/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 25 ng/kg/110W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
ARGEAR 50,266,1980
skin/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 17 mg/kg/57W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
HSZPAZ 236,79,1935
subcutaneous/hamster lowest published toxic dose: 4000 µg/kgTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Bronchogenic carcinoma
CNREA8 32,360,1972
subcutaneous/monkey lowest published toxic dose: 40 mg/kgTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
PSEBAA 127,594,1968
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kg (18-19D pregnant)Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Respiratory system
CALEDQ 55,227,1990
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 9 mg/kgTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
JJIND8 71,309,1983
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 480 mg/kg (11-15D pregnant)Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Transplacental tumorigenesis

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
PSEBAA 135,84,1970
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 40 mg/kgTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Increased incidence of tumors in susceptible strains
CRNGDP 28,2236,2007
subcutaneous/mouse toxic dose: 12 mg/kgTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
GANNA2 62,309,1971
subcutaneous/mouse toxic dose: 8 mg/kgTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
CNREA8 12,657,1952
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 455 µg/kg/60D- intermittentTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
CBINA8 29,159,1980
unreported route/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 80 mg/kg/8D- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
BEBMAE 88(11),592,1979

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
In Vitro/Human, blood (whole or unspecified cells) Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): >200 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell Viability (cell death), unspecified assayTXCYAC 229,11,2007
In Vitro/Human, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 1 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysFCTOD7 50,353,2012
In Vitro/Human, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 32 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Apoptosis in vitroMUREAV 726,75,2011
In Vitro/Human, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 8 µmol/L/12HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell Viability (cell death), unspecified assayMUREAV 726,75,2011
In Vitro/Human, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 5 µmol/L/23HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Apoptosis in vitro

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assays
TXAPA9 249,166,2010
In Vitro/Human, lung Inhibitor Concentration Low: 0.63 mg/L/12HBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductasesTXCYAC 273,35,2010
In Vitro/Human, skin Inhibitor Concentration Low: 5 µmol/L/18HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assays
TXCYAC 271,83,2010
In Vitro/jkhInhibitor Concentration Low: 50 nmol/L/20HBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammationTXCYAC 284,34,2011
In Vitro/jpcInhibitor Concentration Low: 5 µmol/L/48HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TXCYAC 280,135,2011
In Vitro/jpfInhibitor Concentration Low: 1 µmol/L/18HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell morphology: overgrowth of cell appendixes etc.

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Apoptosis in vitro

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assays
TXAPA9 247,116,2010
In Vitro/jrdInhibitor Concentration Low: 2 µmol/L/12HBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductasesTXCYAC 274,42,2010
In Vitro/kvxInhibitor Concentration Low: 500 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTXCYAC 270,66,2010
In Vitro/mlbInhibitor Concentration Low: 1 µmol/L/6HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTXAPA9 247,60,2010
In Vitro/Mouse, blood (whole or unspecified cells) Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): >200 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell Viability (cell death), unspecified assayTXCYAC 229,11,2007
In Vitro/mzxInhibitor Concentration Low: 1 µmol/L/4DImmunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune responseTXAPA9 245,344,2010
In Vitro/Non-mammalian species, fibroblast Inhibitor Concentration Low: 0.05 µmol/L/66HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell proliferation: DNA incorporation, mitotic index etc.TXCYAC 270,66,2010
In Vitro/Rat, blood (whole or unspecified cells) Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): >200 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell Viability (cell death), unspecified assayTXCYAC 229,11,2007
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 266.7 ng/kgBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Olfaction: Other olfaction effects
TOLED5 133,211,2002
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kgBlood: Changes in bone marrow not included in above

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
TXAPA9 193,84,2003
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
TXAPA9 202,244,2005
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published lethal dose: 500 mg/kgTXAPA9 23,288,1972
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kgReproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubesREPTED 5,379,1991
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 80 mg/kgReproductive: Maternal effects: Oogenesis

Reproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubes
CBINA8 28,133,1979
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 80 mg/kgReproductive: Maternal effects: Oogenesis

Reproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
TXAPA9 53,249,1980
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TOXID9 60,277,2001
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
TXCYAC 211,132,2005
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kgBlood: Changes in bone marrow not included in aboveTOXID9 -,124,2008
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 30 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changesTOXID9 -,178,2008
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kgGastrointestinal: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
FCTOD7 49,807,2011
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 12.5 mg/kgBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Catalases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
MUREAV 719,52,2011
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 12.5 mg/kgBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): OtherMUREAV 719,52,2011
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 30 mg/kgBehavioral: Food intake (animal)

Behavioral: Fluid intake

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
FCTOD7 49,1674,2011
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
BCLPT* 98,593,2006
intraperitoneal/non-mammalian species lowest published toxic dose: 20 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
TOXID9 -,93,2009
intraperitoneal/non-mammalian species lowest published toxic dose: 3 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases
TXAPA9 192,45,2003
intraperitoneal/non-mammalian species lowest published toxic dose: 2 mg/kgImmunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune responseTOXID9 60,230,2001
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kgReproductive: Maternal effects: Oogenesis

Reproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubes
CBINA8 28,133,1979
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 40 mg/kgLiver: Change in gall bladder structure or function

Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
BCPCA6 17,1049,1968
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
CBINA8 143-144,55,2003
intrarenal/frog lowest published lethal dose: 9 mg/kgCNREA8 24,1969,1964
intratracheal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 12 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
TOLED5 143,223,2003
intratracheal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 12 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TOLED5 150,179,2004
intratracheal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 10.5 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
JAPTO* 24,249,2004
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 7570 µg/kgImmunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune responseTOXID9 78,397,2004
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kgEndocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight

Blood: Changes in bone marrow not included in above
TOXID9 -,364,2009
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 125 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
HETOEA 24,149,2005
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 40 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)
CRNGDP 29,1022,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 25 mg/kgBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
JJATDK 26,427,2006
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 12.5 mg/kgBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Dopamine in striatum
TOXID9 66,370,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 25 mg/kgEye: Lacrimation

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning
TOXID9 60,379,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 25 mg/kgBehavioral: Alteration of operant conditioningTOXID9 60,379,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 25 mg/kgBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
TOLED5 129,33,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kgBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effectsFCTOD7 39,541,2001
skin/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 20 mg/kg/24HBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): OtherPHTOEH 92,242,2003
skin/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 4037.1 µg/kgBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TXCYAC 251,28,2008
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
MUTAEX 21,61,2006
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Liver: Other changes
MUTAEX 21,61,2006
subcutaneous/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 50 mg/kgZEKBAI 69,103,1967
Tank with water/other fish lowest published toxic concentration: 20 mg/kg/14HGastrointestinal: Other changes

Blood: Changes in spleen
TIVIEQ 31,241,1995
Tank with water/other fish lowest published toxic concentration: 0.5 nmol/L/7DReproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)TIVIEQ 101,335,2011
Tank with water/other fish lowest published toxic concentration: 5 nmol/L/7DReproductive: Other developmental abnormalities

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesterase

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases
NRTXDN 33,758,2012
Tank with water/other fish lowest published toxic concentration: 25 nmol/L/7DReproductive: Other developmental abnormalities

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphokinase
NRTXDN 33,758,2012
Tank with water/other fish lowest published toxic concentration: 0.5 nmol/L/7DBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesterase

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases
NRTXDN 33,758,2012
Tank with water/Other invertebrate lowest published toxic concentration: 0.01 µg/L/1DBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductasesFCTOD7 49,3407,2011
Tank with water/Other invertebrate lowest published toxic concentration: 0.01 µg/L/3DBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases
FCTOD7 49,3407,2011
Tank with water/Zebrafish lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 5.1 µmol/L 3DTXCYAC 281,25,2011
Tank with water/Zebrafish lowest published toxic concentration: 0.5 µmol/L 3DAquatic organism effects: Growth retardation

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
TXCYAC 281,25,2011
unreported route/non-mammalian species lowest published toxic dose: 2 mg/kgImmunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune responseTOXID9 72,174,2003

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 8 mg/kg/5W- intermittentBlood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Immunological Including Allergic: Increase in humoral response

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOLED5 157,31,2005
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 75 µg/m3/6H/60D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Endocrine: Androgenic

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)
TOXID9 72,325,2003
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 100 µg/m3/4H/10D- intermittentReproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubesTOXID9 72,338,2003
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 75 µg/m3/10D- intermittentEndocrine: Estrogenic

Endocrine: Other changes
REPTED 16,801,2002
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 75 µg/m3/10D- intermittentEndocrine: Change in LH

Endocrine: Androgenic

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)
REPTED 17,527,2003
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 25000 mg/m3/10D- intermittentEndocrine: Other changes

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
TOXID9 60,273,2001
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.05 mg/m3/4H/10D- intermittentReproductive: Maternal effects: Oogenesis

Reproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubes
TOXID9 66,369,2002
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 75 µg/m3/60D- intermittentEndocrine: Change in LH

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
TOXID9 90,429,2006
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic dose: 75 µg/m3/60D- intermittentEndocrine: Change in LH

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
ETPAEK 60,269,2008
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 75 µg/m3/4H/60D- intermittentEndocrine: Change in LH

Endocrine: Other changes

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
TOXID9 -,235,2008
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2000 mg/kg/10D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)
TOLED5 180S,S40,2008
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kg/10D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainNRTXDN 28,630,2007
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 0.2 mg/kg/10D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Alteration of operant conditioning
NRTXDN 28,630,2007
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 375 mg/kg/3D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainMUREAV 702,40,2010
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 75.696 mg/kg/3D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
ARTODN 81,169,2007
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 90 mg/kg/90D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesterase

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
NRTXDN 32,188,2011
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 225 mg/kg/90D- intermittentBehavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning

Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Catecholamine levels in CNS

Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Dopamine at other sites
NRTXDN 32,188,2011
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kg/5W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Renal function tests depressed

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight
TOLED5 164,214,2006
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 20 mg/kg/2W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: ProteinuriaTOLED5 164,214,2006
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 30 mg/kg/3D- intermittentBiochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Dopamine at other sitesNRTXDN 28,860,2007
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kg/5D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TOXID9 60,382,2001
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kg/5W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight
TOXID9 60,310,2001
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 80 mg/kg/8W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes primarily in glomeruliTOXID9 60,312,2001
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 160 mg/kg/16W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: ProteinuriaTOXID9 60,312,2001
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3 mg/kg/3D- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Changes in uterine weightAECTCV 46,454,2004
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1120 mg/kg/16W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes primarily in glomeruli

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Proteinuria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
TOXID9 78,90,2004
oral/mammal (species unspecified) lowest published toxic dose: 87.5 mg/kg/7D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainTOXID9 44,195,2005
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kg/15D- intermittentBlood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Immunological Including Allergic: Increase in cellular immune response

Immunological Including Allergic: Increase in humoral response
TXCYAC 199,261,2004
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 3750 mg/kg/30D- intermittentBlood: Changes in bone marrow not included in above

Immunological Including Allergic: Decreased immune response

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TOXID9 78,347,2004
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 375 mg/kg/30D- intermittentImmunological Including Allergic: Decreased immune responseTOXID9 78,347,2004
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 156 mg/kg/4W- intermittentImmunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response

Immunological Including Allergic: Increase in humoral response

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXCYAC 211,107,2005
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 52987 µg/kg/7D- intermittentEndocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight

Blood: Changes in spleen
TOXID9 78,397,2004
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 3750 mg/kg/30D- intermittentBlood: Changes in bone marrow not included in above

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TOXID9 90,371,2006
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 78 mg/kg/14D- intermittentEndocrine: Changes in spleen weightTXAPA9 226,46,2008
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 26 mg/kg/2D- intermittentBlood: Changes in spleen

Immunological Including Allergic: Decreased immune response
TXAPA9 226,46,2008
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 819 mg/kg/13W- continuousTumorigenic: Increased incidence of tumors in susceptible strainsCRNGDP 24,613,2003
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 400 mg/kg/4W- intermittentGastrointestinal: Tumors

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
CRNGDP 24,461,2003
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 400 mg/kg/4W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
BPBLEO 30,2268,2007
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kg/10D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Behavioral: Antianxiety
TOLED5 180S,S40,2008
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 450 mg/kg/3D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Endocrine: Hypoglycemia

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: P
TXCYAC 285,133,2011
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 900 mg/kg/3D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: P

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
TXCYAC 285,133,2011
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1200 mg/kg/20W- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TOPADD 33,609,2005
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 6000 µg/kg/60D- intermittentGastrointestinal: Colon tumorsTOXID9 -,344,2009
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 400 mg/kg/4W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
BCLPT* 103,137,2008
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 400 mg/kg/4W- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
BCLPT* 104,360,2009
oral/non-mammalian species lowest published toxic dose: 171 mg/kg/30D- continuousEndocrine: Androgenic

Endocrine: Estrogenic

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in ovarian weight
MAERE* 24,179,1988
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 8.4 mg/kg/2W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
EMMUEG 44,179,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5040 mg/kg/12W- continuousLiver: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TOXID9 44,116,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1000 mg/kg/10D- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TOXID9 72,132,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 9 gm/kg/90D- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)TOXID9 30,323,1996
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2250 mg/kg/5W- intermittentBlood: Changes in spleen

Immunological Including Allergic: Decreased immune response

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXAPA9 148,126,1998
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kg/10D- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
TIHEEC 25,417,2009
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1875 mg/kg/15D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
MUREAV 702,40,2010
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 30 mg/kg/30D- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm ductTXAPA9 248,28,2010
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 450 mg/kg/90D- intermittentEndocrine: Androgenic

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
TXAPA9 248,28,2010
skin/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 0.6 mg/kg/30D- intermittentBlood: Other hemolysis with or without anemia

Blood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified)

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count
TOXID9 60,141,2001
skin/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 600 mg/kg/30D- intermittentEndocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Blood: Changes in spleen
TOXID9 60,141,2001
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 400 mg/kg/2W- intermittentImmunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune responseTOXID9 3,86,1983
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2.5 mg/kg/5W- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)REPTED 15,479,2001
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 30 mg/kg/3D- intermittentReproductive: Maternal effects: Uterus, cervix, vagina

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in uterine weight
TOLED5 180,212,2008
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 14 mg/kg/14D- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Changes in uterine weightETPAEK 59,69,2007
unreported route/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 180 mg/kg/12D- intermittentImmunological Including Allergic: Uncharacterized (multiple organ involvement)TOXID9 48,13,1999

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-Control as low as possibleDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-Suspected human carcinogenDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 3,91,1973
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 32,211,1983
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human No Adequate DataIMEMDT 32,211,1983
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Group 2AIMSUDL 7,56,1987
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 558,7,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 566,21,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 558,155,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 540,89,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 544,397,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWPEXTAR 5,157,1964
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW85CVA2 5,257,1970
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW85DHAX Pc,4,1972
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNTIS** CONF-691001
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWBLFSBY 24,129,1983
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWPVTMA3 9,622,1980
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWARPTDI 43,309,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 127,47,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 128,55,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 134,39,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 133,1,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 134,31,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 140-141,311,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 140-141,353,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 567,227,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 567,109,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 567,401,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 567,151,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 567,347,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXAPA9 197,173,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 14,301,1999
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 17,149,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 14,141,1999
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 15,431,2000
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 589,208,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXAPA9 197,49,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEMMUEG 45,100,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEMMUEG 45,106,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 577,146,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 588,88,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 20,441,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 567,427,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 566,209,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 613,103,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNETOX* 26,573,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 20,399,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 613,76,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,257,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 614,77,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 628,31,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 44,1699,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 627,10,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 627,59,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 635,90,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 584,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,334,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 636,95,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 658,28,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 566,183,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 547,1,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 533,92,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 658,124,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 540,165,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 658,154,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 23,428,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 658,271,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 19,423,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 659,202,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 659,68,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 659,31,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJTPAE7 19,1,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 544,339,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWITODC* -,327,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 544,361,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 574,92,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 608,136,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 566,249,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 566,129,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 543,17,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 543,195,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 180,110,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 46,813,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 681,51,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 674,137,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 636,4,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 636,36,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 681,68,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 17,495,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 681,80,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 590,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 22,161,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 23,241,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 21,225,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 667,132,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 682,83,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 23,153,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 22,91,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 48,,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 48,,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 704,115,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 23,271,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 22,5,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXAPA9 244,66,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 22,83,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 705,107,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 24,383,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 24,391,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNETEEC 32,16,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 23,183,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 705,184,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 26,101,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 26,101,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 26,231,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 26,223,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 31,327,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 727,1,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 26,205,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 705,77,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 26,169,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 26,51,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 678,152,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 727,104,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 723,77,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 31,363,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 723,101,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 653,99,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEMMUEG 50,68,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 591,276,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 717,67,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 717,46,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 717,116,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 723,108,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 728,35,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 750,141,2012
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 33,269,2012
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 751,287,2012
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 49,2921,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 733,4,2012
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEMMUEG 50,68,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 25,3,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 752,99,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 27,257,2012
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEMMUEG 53,166,2012
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 23,207,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEMMUEG 53,645,2012
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEMMUEG 53,166,2012
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 28,485,2013

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN check ACGIH TLV;
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRALIACarcinogen, JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRIATRK-TMW 0.005 mg/m3;KZW 0.02 mg/m3, production, 2007
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRIATRK-TMW 0.002 mg/m3;KZW 0.008 mg/m3, 2007
Occupational Exposure Limit-FINLANDtime-weighted average 0.01 mg/m3, skin, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-HUNGARYceiling concentration 0.002 mg/m3, Carcinogen, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit-ICELANDtime-weighted average 0.005 mg/m3, carc, skin, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-JAPAN2A carc, MAY2012
Occupational Exposure Limit-NORWAYtime-weighted average 0.04 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-POLANDtime-weighted average 0.003 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-RUSSIAtime-weighted average 0.00015 mg/m3, Carcinogen, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWEDENtime-weighted average 0.002 mg/m3;short term exposure limit 0.02 mg/m3, Skin, Carcinogen, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWITZERLANDMAK-week 0.002 mg/m3, carc 2, skin, JAN2011
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction)8H time-weighted average 0.2 mg/m3CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors)8H time-weighted average 0.2 mg/m3CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry)8H time-weighted average 0.2 mg/m3CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards)8H time-weighted average 0.2 mg/m3CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code T0450; Number of Industries 1; Total Number of Facilities 75; Number of Occupations 1; Total Number of Employees Exposed 896; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 299
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code T0450; Number of Industries 1; Total Number of Facilities 11; Number of Occupations 1; Total Number of Employees Exposed 32

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
ATSDR TOXICOLOGY PROFILE (NTIS** PB/95/264370)
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: E coli polA without S9; In vitro UDS-human fibroblast
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: D melanogaster-nondisjunction
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Rodent heritable translocation; Mouse specific locus
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: UDS in mouse germ cells; S cerevisiae-homozygosis
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive/dose response: Cell transform.-BALB/c-3T3; SHE-clonal assay
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive/dose response: Cell transform.-C3H/10T1/2
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive/dose response: In vitro SCE-nonhuman; In vivo SCE-nonhuman
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Body fluid assay; Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Cell transform.-mouse embryo
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Cell transform.-mouse prostate
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Cell transform.-RLV F344 rat embryo
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Cell transform.-SA7/F344 rat; SHE-focus assay
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Cell transform.-SA7/SHE; Host-mediated assay
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: CHO gene mutation
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Histidine reversion-Ames test
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: In vitro SCE-human lymphocytes; In vitro SCE-human
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: In vitro UDS in rat liver; V79 cell culture-gene mutation
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: L5178Y cells in vitro-TK test; Mammalian micronucleus
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Mouse spot test; E coli polA with S9
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Sperm morphology-mouse; D melanogaster Sex-linked lethal
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons by HPLC, 5506; by GC, 5515
NTP 11th Report on Carcinogens,2004:Reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen
On EPA IRIS database
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #ID-58
TOP