CDC logo, Safer Healthier People  CDC HomeCDC SearchCDC Health Topics A-Z
NIOSH - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

Search NIOSH  |  NIOSH Home  |  NIOSH Topics  |  Site Index  |  Databases and Information Resources  |  NIOSH Products  |  Contact Us






Benzene, hexachloro -

RTECS #: DA2975000

CAS #: 118-74-1


UPDATE: May 2009 MW: 284.76 MF: C6Cl6


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. MUTATION DATA:
  3. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA:
  4. TUMORIGENIC DATA:
  5. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  6. OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA:
  7. REVIEWS:
  8. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:
  9. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  10. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  11. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. Amatin
  2. Anticarie
  3. Bunt - cure
  4. Bunt - no - more
  5. CEKU C.B.
  6. CO - OP Hexa
  7. Esaclorobenzene (Italian)
  8. Granox NM
  9. HCB
  10. Hexa C.B.
  11. Hexachlorbenzol (German)
  12. Hexachlorobenzene
  13. Hexachlorobenzene (ACGIH)
  14. Julin's carbon chloride
  1. NO Bunt
  2. NO Bunt 40
  3. NO Bunt 80
  4. NO Bunt liquid
  5. Pentachlorophenyl chloride
  6. Perchlorobenzene
  7. Phenyl perchloryl
  8. RCRA waste number U127
  9. Saatbeizfungizid (German)
  10. Sanocid
  11. Sanocide
  12. Smut - Go
  13. Snieciotox


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
DNA adduct Escherichia coli 20 mol/L MUREAV 89,95,1981
mutation in microorganisms Saccharomyes cerevisiae 100 ppm (-enzymatic activation step) RSTUDV 6,161,1976
mutation in mammalian somatic cells hamster lung 6 mg/L BLFSBY 39,359,1986
other mutation test systems oral
mouse
1 gm/kg MUREAV 343,157,1995


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
oral
mammal (species unspecified)
lowest published toxic dose: 27,562 g/kg (66 day prior to copulation-28 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Weaning or lactation index (e.g., # alive at weaning per # alive at day 4) ENVRAL 31,116,1983
oral
monkey
lowest published toxic dose: 910 g/kg (13 week prior to copulation) Reproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubes TOXID9 14,76,1974
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1 gm/kg (7-16 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system
TXAPA9 35,239,1976
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 600 mg/kg (6-17 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Weaning or lactation index (e.g., # alive at weaning per # alive at day 4)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
TOLED5 22,223,1984
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 625 mg/kg (8-12 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Live birth index (Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured after birth)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Viability index (e.g., # alive at day 4 per # born alive)
TCMUD8 7,7,1987
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 556 mg/kg (96 day prior to copulation-21 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Weaning or lactation index (e.g., # alive at weaning per # alive at day 4) TXCYAC 23,33,1982
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 40 mg/kg (10-13 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system TXAPA9 29,109,1974
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 6,450 mg/kg (1-22 day pregnant/21 day after birth) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Blood and lymphatic systems (including spleen and marrow)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Immune and reticuloendothelial system
DCTODJ 2,61,1979
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 88 mg/kg (70 day male/70 day prior to copulation-22 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain) 32OAAP -,189,1973
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 812 mg/kg (multigenerations) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Weaning or lactation index (e.g., # alive at weaning per # alive at day 4) AECTCV 5,207,1977
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 212 mg/kg (14 day prior to copulation-17 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic ARTODN 38,191,1977
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kg (14 day prior to copulation) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system TJADAB 45,524,1992


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
oral
hamster
lowest published toxic dose: 1,000 mg/kg/18 week- continuous Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Endocrine: Thyroid tumors
NATUAS 269,510,1977
oral
hamster
toxic dose : 3,360 mg/kg/80 week- continuous Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
TXAPA9 41,155,1977
oral
hamster
toxic dose : 3,360 mg/kg/80 week- continuous Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
TXAPA9 41,155,1977
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 6,972 mg/kg/83 week- continuous Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Blood: Lymphoma including Hodgkin's disease
IJCNAW 23,47,1979
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2,738 mg/kg/2 year- continuous Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Kidney tumors

Blood: Leukemia
PAACA3 24,59,1983
oral
rat
toxic dose : 5,475 mg/kg/2 year- continuous Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Kidney tumors
PAACA3 24,59,1983
oral
rat
toxic dose : 1,050 mg/kg/30 week- continuous Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Porphyrin including bile pigments
CALEDQ 11,169,1980
oral
rat
toxic dose : 6,300 mg/kg/90 week- continuous Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
CRNGDP 6,631,1985
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 221.34 mg/kg/6 week- continuous Liver: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Facilitates action of known carcinogens
JTPAE7 18,7,2005


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
cat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 1,600 mg/m3 N/R 85GMAT -,72,1982
inhalation
cat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 1,800 mg/m3/6 hour Behavioral: Tetany

Behavioral: Irritability

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning
VCVGK* -,32,1984
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.5 mg/m3/8 hour Eye: Conjunctiva irritation

Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Headache
VCVGK* -,33,1984
inhalation
mouse
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 4 gm/m3 N/R 85GMAT -,72,1982
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 3,600 mg/m3 N/R 85GMAT -,72,1982
inhalation
rabbit
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 1,800 mg/m3 N/R 85GMAT -,72,1982
inhalation
rabbit
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 1,800 mg/m3/6 hour Behavioral: Tetany

Behavioral: Irritability

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning
VCVGK* -,32,1984
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kg Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Porphyrin including bile pigments
TXAPA9 221,235,2007
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kg Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Porphyrin including bile pigments
TXAPA9 221,235,2007
intraperitoneal
rat
lethal dose : >500 mg/kg N/R NCNSA6 5,18,1953
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 150 mg/kg N/R JTEHD6 12,223,1983
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 85.4 mg/kg Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
GEPHDP 18,165,1987
oral
cat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,700 mg/kg N/R 85GMAT -,72,1982
oral
guinea pig
lethal dose (50 percent kill): >3 gm/kg N/R PEMNDP 9,469,1991
oral
mammal (species unspecified)
lethal dose (50 percent kill): >5 gm/kg Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)
NTIS** PB288-416
oral
mammal (species unspecified)
lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
VCVGK* -,32,1984
oral
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 4 gm/kg N/R 85GMAT -,72,1982
oral
quail
lethal dose (50 percent kill): >6,400 mg/kg N/R MFLRA3 38,709,1973
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 10 gm/kg N/R FMCHA2 -,C163,1991
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1 gm/kg Endocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunction BCPCA6 39,817,1990
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3,500 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)
VCVGK* -,32,1984
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kg Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TOSCF2 76,291,2003
oral
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2,600 mg/kg N/R 85GMAT -,72,1982
unreported route
mammal (species unspecified)
lowest published toxic dose: 10 mg/kg Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
VCVGK* -,32,1984
unreported route
man
lowest published lethal dose: 220 mg/kg N/R 85DCAI 2,73,1970


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
cat
lowest published toxic concentration: 20 mg/m3/45 day- intermittent Cardiac: Other changes

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
VCVGK* -,32,1994
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 400 mg/m3/4 hour/6 day- intermittent Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field VCVGK* -,32,1994
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 30 mg/m3/4 hour/17 week- intermittent Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field VCVGK* -,33,1994
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published toxic concentration: 190 mg/m3/20 day- intermittent Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field VCVGK* -,32,1994
oral
dog
lowest published toxic dose: 36,400 mg/kg/1 year- intermittent Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TXAPA9 40,227,1977
oral
hamster
lowest published toxic dose: 4,704 mg/kg/28 week- continuous Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight

Endocrine: Changes in thyroid weight

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
ARTODN 60,343,1987
oral
mammal (species unspecified)
lowest published toxic dose: 7,104 mg/kg/30 day- continuous Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Tremor

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
NTIS** PB288-416
oral
monkey
lowest published toxic dose: 3,840 mg/kg/60 day- intermittent Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Endocrine: Other changes
TXAPA9 37,433,1976
oral
monkey
lowest published toxic dose: 900 mg/kg/90 day- intermittent Reproductive: Maternal effects: Menstrual cycle changes or disorders JJATDK 12,13,1992
oral
monkey
lowest published toxic dose: 9.1 mg/kg/13 week- intermittent Reproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubes AJVRAH 56,1673,1995
oral
monkey
lowest published toxic dose: 480 mg/kg/60 day- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
VCVGK* -,33,1994
oral
monkey
lowest published toxic dose: 480 mg/kg/60 day- intermittent Reproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubes VCVGK* -,33,1994
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1,512 mg/kg/18 week- continuous Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Plasma proteins not involving coagulation
EVHPAZ 39,79,1981
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 842 mg/kg/6 week- continuous Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune response DCTODJ 2,111,1979
oral
pig
lowest published toxic dose: 455 mg/kg/13 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight

Endocrine: Changes in thyroid weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
TXAPA9 43,137,1978
oral
pig
lowest published toxic dose: 5,414.5 mg/kg/13 week- continuous Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
VCVGK* -,33,1994
oral
quail
lowest published toxic dose: 5 gm/kg/10 day- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
JTEHD6 15,431,1985
oral
quail
lowest published toxic dose: 2,500 mg/kg/5 day- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
JTEHD6 15,93,1985
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2,022 mg/kg/55 day- continuous Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
TOLED5 30,71,1986
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,596 mg/kg/28 day- continuous Liver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight
JTEHD6 11,663,1983
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3,326 mg/kg/15 week- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TXAPA9 40,529,1977
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2,100 mg/kg/6 week- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Porphyrin including bile pigments
ARTODN 52,13,1983
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,729 mg/kg/13 week- continuous Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Endocrine: Adrenal cortex hyperplasia

Blood: Other changes
TXAPA9 119,181,1993
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 250 mg/kg/5 week- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
JTEHD6 23,311,1988
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,500 mg/kg/60 day- continuous Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.) ARTODN 43,115,1979
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 250 mg/kg/5 day- intermittent Endocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunction JJATDK 13,79,1993
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 280 mg/kg/14 day- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)
BCPCA6 27,361,1978
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 30 gm/kg/30 day- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Change in gonadotropins

Endocrine: Effect on menstrual cycle
JAPTO* 20,81,2000
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 625 mg/kg/5 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Ca
FAATDF 12,242,1989
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 350 mg/kg/5 week- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
FAATDF 12,242,1989
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,750 mg/kg/10 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Ca

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
FAATDF 12,242,1989
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,050 mg/kg/15 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
FAATDF 12,242,1989
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3.5 mg/kg/5 week- intermittent Blood: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Ca
FAATDF 12,242,1989
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 700 mg/kg/10 week- intermittent Blood: Other changes

Musculoskeletal: Joints

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
FAATDF 12,242,1989
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 70 mg/kg/10 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: P
FAATDF 12,242,1989
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 105 mg/kg/15 week- intermittent Musculoskeletal: Joints FAATDF 12,242,1989
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,750 mg/kg/1 week- intermittent Endocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunction BCPCA6 39,817,1990
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3,500 mg/kg/1 week- intermittent Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Porphyrin including bile pigments BCPCA6 39,817,1990
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 7 gm/kg/1 week- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunction
BCPCA6 39,817,1990
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 56 gm/kg/8 week- intermittent Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Porphyrin including bile pigments
BCPCA6 39,817,1990
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 59.5 mg/kg/17 week- continuous Liver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in spleen
VCVGK* -,33,1994
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 9,450 mg/kg/21 day- continuous Immunological Including Allergic: Increase in humoral response

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight
TOXID9 72,373,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 280 mg/kg/28 day- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TXCYAC 180,233,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 20 mg/kg/4 week- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
BCPCA6 65,1495,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 20,000 mg/kg/4 week- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunction
BCPCA6 65,1495,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kg/5 day- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other carbohydrates
TXCYAC 197,165,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3,000 mg/kg/3 day- intermittent Endocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunction

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
TXCYAC 207,349,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 30,000 mg/kg/3 day- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunction

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
TXCYAC 207,349,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 15 gm/kg/3 week- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Porphyrin including bile pigments
CBCPAI 130,199,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5 gm/kg/1 week- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
CBCPAI 130,199,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 40 gm/kg/8 week- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
CBCPAI 130,199,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,625 mg/kg/13 week- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOXID9 44,242,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 65 mg/kg/13 week- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis (interstitial)

Endocrine: Other changes
TOXID9 44,242,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1.95 mg/kg/13 week- intermittent Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation) TOXID9 44,242,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 650 mg/kg/13 week- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight

Skin and Appendages: Other: Breast
TOXID9 44,242,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 195 mg/kg/13 week- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Blood: Changes in spleen
TOXID9 44,242,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kg/5 day- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
TXAPA9 204,187,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 18 mg/kg/8 day- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Skin: After systemic exposure: Dermatitis, other

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXAPA9 209,19,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 45 mg/kg/20 day- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Skin: After systemic exposure: Dermatitis, other
TXAPA9 209,19,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 450 mg/kg/20 day- continuous Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Immunological Including Allergic: Increased immune response
TXAPA9 209,19,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 180 mg/kg/8 day- continuous Skin: After systemic exposure: Dermatitis, other

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXAPA9 209,19,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kg/5 day- intermittent Liver: Other changes TOSCF2 96,47,2007
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 65 mg/kg/13 week- intermittent Musculoskeletal: Changes in teeth and supporting structures TOPADD 32,35,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 23.604 mg/kg/6 week- continuous Liver: Changes in liver weight JTPAE7 18,7,2005


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value time-weighted average 0.002 mg/m3 (skin) DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value Confirmed animal carcinogen DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Sufficient Evidence IMEMDT 79,-,2000
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT 79,-,2000
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Group 2B IMEMDT 79,-,2000
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 127,101,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
JAMAAP 183,88,1963
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 127,83,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 567,227,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 567,109,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TXCYAC 196,1,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
NETOX* 26,531,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
DIMON* 39,678,1993
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 627,59,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ENTOX* -,511,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ENTOX* -,334,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 584,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
JTEHD6 7,1,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 533,153,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
REPTED 23,260,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
JTPAE7 17,137,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ITODC* -,327,2004


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM time-weighted average 0.002 mg/m3, Skin, Carcinogen, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - DENMARK time-weighted average 0.025 mg/m3, OCT 2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - HUNGARY Carcinogen, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE NETHERLANDS MAC-TGG 0.03 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - NEW ZEALAND skin, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - POLAND MAC(time-weighted average) 0.5 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - RUSSIA time-weighted average 0.3 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 0.9 mg/m3, Skin, JUN2003


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: A1753;
Number of Industries 2;
Total Number of Facilities 10;
Number of Occupations 12;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 1,038;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 26


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

ATSDR TOXICOLOGY PROFILE (NTIS** PB/97/121065/AS)
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Rodent dominant lethal
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
Used as a fungicide, an additive for pyrotechnic compositions andas wood preservative
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
On EPA IRIS database
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NTP 11th Report on Carcinogens,2004:Reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen
NTP Carcinogenesis studies; laboratory assigned, October 2000


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

32OAAP "Pesticide and the Environment: a Continuing Controversy, Selected Papers Presented and Papers Reviewed at the 8th Inter-American Conference on Toxicology and Occupational Medicine, Miami, FL, 1973," Deichmann, W.B., ed., New York, Stratton Intercontinental Medical Book Corp., 1973
85DCAI "Poisoning; Toxicology, Symptoms, Treatments," 2nd ed., Arena, J.M., Springfield, IL, C.C. Thomas, 1970
85GMAT "Toxicometric Parameters of Industrial Toxic Chemicals Under Single Exposure," Izmerov, N.F., et al., Moscow, Centre of International Projects, GKNT, 1982
AECTCV Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. (Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., Service Center, 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, NJ 070944) V.1- 1973-
AJVRAH American Journal of Veterinary Research. (American Veterinary Medical Assoc., 930 N. Meacham Rd., Schaumburg, IL 60196) V.1- 1940-
ARTODN Archives of Toxicology. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberger Pl. 3, D-1000 Berlin 33, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.32- 1974-
BCPCA6 Biochemical Pharmacology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.1- 1958-
BLFSBY Basic Life Sciences. (Plenum Pub. Corp., 223 Spring St., New York, NY 10003) V.1- 1973-
CALEDQ Cancer Letters (Shannon, Ireland). (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1975-
CBCPAI Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. (Elmsford, NY) V.1-37, 1960-70. For publisher information, see CBPBB8.
CRNGDP Carcinogenesis (London). (Oxford Univ. Press, Pinkhill House, Southfield Road, Eynsham, Oxford OX8 1JJ, UK) V.1- 1980-
DCTODJ Drug and Chemical Toxicology. (Marcel Dekker, 270 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10016) V.1- 1977/78-
DIMON* Disease-a Month (Chicago : Year Book Publishers) V. 24- 1978-
DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996
ENTOX* Encyclopedia of Toxicology: Reference Book, Elsevier, 2005
ENVRAL Environmental Research. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1967-
EVHPAZ EHP, Environmental Health Perspectives. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) No.1- 1972-
FAATDF Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1-40, 1981-97. For publisher information, see TOSCF2
FMCHA2 Farm Chemicals Handbook. (Meister Pub., 37841 Euclid Ave., Willoughy, OH 44094)
GEPHDP General Pharmacology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.6- 1975-
IJCNAW International Journal of Cancer. (International Union Against Cancer, 3 rue du Conseil- General, 1205 Geneva, Switzerland) V.1- 1966-
IMEMDT IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) V.1- 1972-
ITODC*
JAMAAP JAMA, Journal of the American Medical Association. (AMA, 535 N. Dearborn St., Chicago, IL 60610) V.1- 1883-
JAPTO* Journal of Applied Toxicology (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Oldlands Way Bognor Regis West Sussex, PO22 9SA England) V.1- 1981-
JJATDK JAT, Journal of Applied Toxicology. (John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Baffins Lane, Chichester, W. Sussex PO19 1UD, UK) V.1- 1981-
JTEHD6 Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. (Hemisphere Pub., 1025 Vermont Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20005) V.1- 1975/76-
JTPAE7 Journal of Toxicologic Pathology. (Nihon Dokusei Byori Gakkai, editor, 3-25-8 Nishi- shinbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105, Japan) V.1- 1988
MFLRA3 Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen, Rijksuniversiteit Gent. Communications of the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, State University of Ghent. (Rijksuniversiteit Gent, Faculteit Labdbouwwettenschappen, Coupure 653, B-9000, Ghent, Belgium) V.35- 1970-
MUREAV Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1964-
NATUAS Nature. (Nature Subscription Dept., POB 1018, Manasguan, NJ 08736) V.1- 1869-
NCNSA6 National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council, Chemical-Biological Coordination Center, Review. (Washington, DC)
NETOX* NeuroToxicology (Amsterdam : Elsevier Science) V.1- 1979-
NTIS** National Technical Information Service. (Springfield, VA 22161) Formerly U.S. Clearinghouse for Scientific & Technical Information.
PAACA3 Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research. (Waverly Press, 428 E. Preston St., Baltimore, MD 21202) V.1- 1954-
PEMNDP Pesticide Manual. (The British Crop Protection Council, 20 Bridport Rd., Thornton Heath CR4 7QG, UK) V.1- 1968-
REPTED Reproductive Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.1- 1987-
RSTUDV Rivista di Scienza e Technologia degli Alimenti e di Nutrizione Umana. Review of Science and Technology of Food and Human Nutrition. (Bologna, Italy) V.5-6, 1975-76. Discontinued.
TCMUD8 Teratogenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.1- 1980-
TJADAB Teratology, The International Journal of Abnormal Development. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.1- 1968-
TOLED5 Toxicology Letters. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1977-
TOPADD Toxicologic Pathology. (c/o Dr. F.A. de la Iglesia, Warner-Lambert Co., Pharmaceutical Research Div., POB 1047, Ann Arbor, MI 48106) V.6(3/4)- 1978-
TOSCF2 Toxicological Sciences (Oxford University Press, 6277 Sea Harbor Drive, Orlando, FL 32887 ) V. 41, Jan. 1998-
TOXID9 Toxicologist. (Soc. of Toxicology, Inc., 475 Wolf Ledge Parkway, Akron, OH 44311) V.1- 1981-
TXAPA9 Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1959-
TXCYAC Toxicology. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland, Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1973-
VCVGK* "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva, galogen I kislorod sodergashie organicheskie soedinenia". (Hazardous substances. Galogen and oxygen containing substances), Bandman A.L. et al., Chimia, 1994.

Used as a fungicide, an additive for pyrotechnic compositions andas wood preservative

RTECS Compound Description:
   Agricultural Chemical
   Tumorigen
   Mutagen
   Reproductive Effector
   Human Data

Click Here for Additional Information about RTECS

NIOSH Home |  NIOSH Search  |  Site Index  |  Topic List |  Contact Us