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Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

Benzene, hexachloro-

RTECS #

DA2975000

CAS #

118-74-1

Updated

December 2013

Molecular Weight

284.76

Molecular Formula

C6Cl6

Synonyms

Amatin
Anticarie
Bunt-cure
Bunt-no-more
CEKU C.B.
CO-OP Hexa
Esaclorobenzene (Italian)
Granox NM
HCB
Hexa C.B.
Hexachlorbenzol (German)
Hexachlorobenzene
Hexachlorobenzene (ACGIH)
Julin's carbon chloride
NO Bunt
NO Bunt 40
NO Bunt 80
NO Bunt liquid
Pentachlorophenyl chloride
Perchlorobenzene
Phenyl perchloryl
RCRA waste number U127
Saatbeizfungizid (German)
Sanocid
Sanocide
Smut-Go
Snieciotox

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
DNA adduct/Escherichia coli20 µmol/LMUREAV 89,95,1981
mutation in mammalian somatic cellslung/hamster6 mg/LBLFSBY 39,359,1986
mutation in microorganisms/Saccharomyes cerevisiae100 ppm (-enzymatic activation step)RSTUDV 6,161,1976
other mutation test systemsoral/mouse1 gm/kgMUREAV 343,157,1995

Reproductive Effects Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
oral/rat 556 mg/kg (96D pre-21D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Weaning or lactation index (e.g., # alive at weaning per # alive at day 4)TXCYAC 23,33,1982
oral/rat 40 mg/kg (10-13D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal systemTXAPA9 29,109,1974
oral/rat 6450 mg/kg (1-22D preg/21D after birth)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Blood and lymphatic systems (including spleen and marrow)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Immune and reticuloendothelial system
DCTODJ 2,61,1979
oral/rat 88 mg/kg (70D male/70D pre-22D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)32OAAP -,189,1973
oral/rat 812 mg/kg (multigenerations)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Weaning or lactation index (e.g., # alive at weaning per # alive at day 4)AECTCV 5,207,1977
oral/rat 212 mg/kg (14D pre-17D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolicARTODN 38,191,1977
oral/mouse 1 gm/kg (7-16D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system
TXAPA9 35,239,1976
oral/mouse 600 mg/kg (6-17D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Weaning or lactation index (e.g., # alive at weaning per # alive at day 4)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
TOLED5 22,223,1984
oral/mouse 625 mg/kg (8-12D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Live birth index (Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured after birth)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Viability index (e.g., # alive at day 4 per # born alive)
TCMUD8 7,7,1987
oral/monkey 910 µg/kg (13W prior to copulation)Reproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubesTOXID9 14,76,1974
oral/mammal (species unspecified) 27562 µg/kg (66D pre-28D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Weaning or lactation index (e.g., # alive at weaning per # alive at day 4)ENVRAL 31,116,1983
oral/rat 100 mg/kg (14D prior to copulation)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous systemTJADAB 45,524,1992

Tumorigenic Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
oral/hamster lowest published toxic dose: 1000 mg/kg/18W- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Endocrine: Thyroid tumors
NATUAS 269,510,1977
oral/hamster toxic dose: 3360 mg/kg/80W- continuousTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
TXAPA9 41,155,1977
oral/hamster toxic dose: 3360 mg/kg/80W- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
TXAPA9 41,155,1977
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 6972 mg/kg/83W- continuousTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Blood: Lymphoma including Hodgkin's disease
IJCNAW 23,47,1979
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2738 mg/kg/2Y- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Kidney tumors

Blood: Leukemia
PAACA3 24,59,1983
oral/rat toxic dose: 5475 mg/kg/2Y- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Kidney tumors
PAACA3 24,59,1983
oral/rat toxic dose: 1050 mg/kg/30W- continuousTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Porphyrin including bile pigments
CALEDQ 11,169,1980
oral/rat toxic dose: 6300 mg/kg/90W- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
CRNGDP 6,631,1985
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 221.34 mg/kg/6W- continuousLiver: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Facilitates action of known carcinogens
JTPAE7 18,7,2005

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
In Vitro/blaInhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 22.4 nmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTXAPA9 248,185,2010
inhalation/cat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 1600 mg/m385GMAT -,72,1982
inhalation/cat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 1800 mg/m3/6HBehavioral: Tetany

Behavioral: Irritability

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning
VCVGK* -,32,1984
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 0.5 mg/m3/8HEye: Conjunctiva irritation

Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Headache
VCVGK* -,33,1984
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 4 gm/m385GMAT -,72,1982
inhalation/rabbit lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 1800 mg/m3/6HBehavioral: Tetany

Behavioral: Irritability

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning
VCVGK* -,32,1984
inhalation/rabbit lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 1800 mg/m385GMAT -,72,1982
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 3600 mg/m385GMAT -,72,1982
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Porphyrin including bile pigments
TXAPA9 221,235,2007
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Porphyrin including bile pigments
TXAPA9 221,235,2007
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 85.4 mg/kgBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
GEPHDP 18,165,1987
intraperitoneal/rat Lethal dose: >500 mg/kgNCNSA6 5,18,1953
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 150 mg/kgJTEHD6 12,223,1983
oral/cat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1700 mg/kg85GMAT -,72,1982
oral/guinea pig lethal dose (50 percent kill): >3 gm/kgPEMNDP 9,469,1991
oral/mammal (species unspecified) lethal dose (50 percent kill): >5 gm/kgBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)
NTIS** PB288-416
oral/mammal (species unspecified) lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
VCVGK* -,32,1984
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 4 gm/kg85GMAT -,72,1982
oral/quail lethal dose (50 percent kill): >6400 mg/kgMFLRA3 38,709,1973
oral/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2600 mg/kg85GMAT -,72,1982
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 10 gm/kgFMCHA2 -,C163,1991
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1 gm/kgEndocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunctionBCPCA6 39,817,1990
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3500 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)
VCVGK* -,32,1984
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TOSCF2 76,291,2003
Tank with water/Daphnia lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 16 µg/L/48HTIVIEQ 31,125,1995
unreported route/mammal (species unspecified) lowest published toxic dose: 10 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
VCVGK* -,32,1984
unreported route/man lowest published lethal dose: 220 mg/kg85DCAI 2,73,1970

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/cat lowest published toxic concentration: 20 mg/m3/45D- intermittentCardiac: Other changes

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
VCVGK* -,32,1994
inhalation/rabbit lowest published toxic concentration: 190 mg/m3/20D- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldVCVGK* -,32,1994
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 30 mg/m3/4H/17W- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldVCVGK* -,33,1994
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 400 mg/m3/4H/6D- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldVCVGK* -,32,1994
oral/Dog lowest published toxic dose: 36400 mg/kg/1Y- intermittentGastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TXAPA9 40,227,1977
oral/hamster lowest published toxic dose: 4704 mg/kg/28W- continuousEndocrine: Changes in thymus weight

Endocrine: Changes in thyroid weight

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
ARTODN 60,343,1987
oral/mammal (species unspecified) lowest published toxic dose: 7104 mg/kg/30D- continuousBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Tremor

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
NTIS** PB288-416
oral/mammal (species unspecified) lowest published toxic dose: 120 mg/kg/30D- intermittentLiver: Multiple effectsFCLPH* 21(Suppl 1),51,2008
oral/mammal (species unspecified) lowest published toxic dose: 480 mg/kg/30D- intermittentLiver: Multiple effects

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
FCLPH* 21(Suppl 1),51,2008
oral/monkey lowest published toxic dose: 480 mg/kg/60D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
VCVGK* -,33,1994
oral/monkey lowest published toxic dose: 480 mg/kg/60D- intermittentReproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubesVCVGK* -,33,1994
oral/monkey lowest published toxic dose: 9.1 mg/kg/13W- intermittentReproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubesAJVRAH 56,1673,1995
oral/monkey lowest published toxic dose: 3840 mg/kg/60D- intermittentLiver: Fatty liver degeneration

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Endocrine: Other changes
TXAPA9 37,433,1976
oral/monkey lowest published toxic dose: 900 mg/kg/90D- intermittentReproductive: Maternal effects: Menstrual cycle changes or disordersJJATDK 12,13,1992
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1512 mg/kg/18W- continuousBlood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Plasma proteins not involving coagulation
EVHPAZ 39,79,1981
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 842 mg/kg/6W- continuousImmunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune responseDCTODJ 2,111,1979
oral/pig lowest published toxic dose: 455 mg/kg/13W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight

Endocrine: Changes in thyroid weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
TXAPA9 43,137,1978
oral/pig lowest published toxic dose: 5414.5 mg/kg/13W- continuousLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
VCVGK* -,33,1994
oral/quail lowest published toxic dose: 5 gm/kg/10D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
JTEHD6 15,431,1985
oral/quail lowest published toxic dose: 2500 mg/kg/5D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
JTEHD6 15,93,1985
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 250 mg/kg/5D- intermittentEndocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunctionJJATDK 13,79,1993
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 280 mg/kg/14D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)
BCPCA6 27,361,1978
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 30 gm/kg/30D- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Change in gonadotropins

Endocrine: Effect on menstrual cycle
JAPTO* 20,81,2000
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 625 mg/kg/5W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Ca
FAATDF 12,242,1989
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 59.5 mg/kg/17W- continuousLiver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in spleen
VCVGK* -,33,1994
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 9450 mg/kg/21D- continuousImmunological Including Allergic: Increase in humoral response

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight
TOXID9 72,373,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 280 mg/kg/28D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TXCYAC 180,233,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 20 mg/kg/4W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
BCPCA6 65,1495,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 20000 mg/kg/4W- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunction
BCPCA6 65,1495,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kg/5D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other carbohydrates
TXCYAC 197,165,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3000 mg/kg/3D- intermittentEndocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunction

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
TXCYAC 207,349,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 30000 mg/kg/3D- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunction

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
TXCYAC 207,349,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 15 gm/kg/3W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Porphyrin including bile pigments
CBCPAI 130,199,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5 gm/kg/1W- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
CBCPAI 130,199,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 40 gm/kg/8W- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
CBCPAI 130,199,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1625 mg/kg/13W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOXID9 44,242,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 65 mg/kg/13W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis (interstitial)

Endocrine: Other changes
TOXID9 44,242,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1.95 mg/kg/13W- intermittentBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)TOXID9 44,242,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 650 mg/kg/13W- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Skin and Appendages: Other: Breast
TOXID9 44,242,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 195 mg/kg/13W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Blood: Changes in spleen
TOXID9 44,242,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kg/5D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
TXAPA9 204,187,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 18 mg/kg/8D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Skin: After systemic exposure: Dermatitis, other

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXAPA9 209,19,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 45 mg/kg/20D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Skin: After systemic exposure: Dermatitis, other
TXAPA9 209,19,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 450 mg/kg/20D- continuousLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Immunological Including Allergic: Increased immune response
TXAPA9 209,19,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 180 mg/kg/8D- continuousSkin: After systemic exposure: Dermatitis, other

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXAPA9 209,19,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kg/5D- intermittentLiver: Other changesTOSCF2 96,47,2007
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 65 mg/kg/13W- intermittentMusculoskeletal: Changes in teeth and supporting structuresTOPADD 32,35,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 23.604 mg/kg/6W- continuousLiver: Changes in liver weightJTPAE7 18,7,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 20 mg/kg/30D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphokinase
TOLED5 177,116,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kg/30D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphokinase
TOLED5 177,116,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2022 mg/kg/55D- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
TOLED5 30,71,1986
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1596 mg/kg/28D- continuousLiver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight
JTEHD6 11,663,1983
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3326 mg/kg/15W- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TXAPA9 40,529,1977
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2100 mg/kg/6W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Porphyrin including bile pigments
ARTODN 52,13,1983
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1729 mg/kg/13W- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Endocrine: Adrenal cortex hyperplasia

Blood: Other changes
TXAPA9 119,181,1993
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 250 mg/kg/5W- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
JTEHD6 23,311,1988
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1500 mg/kg/60D- continuousBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)ARTODN 43,115,1979
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 350 mg/kg/5W- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
FAATDF 12,242,1989
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1750 mg/kg/10W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Ca

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
FAATDF 12,242,1989
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1050 mg/kg/15W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
FAATDF 12,242,1989
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3.5 mg/kg/5W- intermittentBlood: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Ca
FAATDF 12,242,1989
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 700 mg/kg/10W- intermittentBlood: Other changes

Musculoskeletal: Joints

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
FAATDF 12,242,1989
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 70 mg/kg/10W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: P
FAATDF 12,242,1989
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 105 mg/kg/15W- intermittentMusculoskeletal: JointsFAATDF 12,242,1989
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1750 mg/kg/1W- intermittentEndocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunctionBCPCA6 39,817,1990
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3500 mg/kg/1W- intermittentBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Porphyrin including bile pigmentsBCPCA6 39,817,1990
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 7 gm/kg/1W- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunction
BCPCA6 39,817,1990
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 56 gm/kg/8W- intermittentBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Porphyrin including bile pigments
BCPCA6 39,817,1990

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-time-weighted average 0.002 mg/m3 (skin)DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-Confirmed animal carcinogenDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 79,-,2000
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 79,-,2000
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Group 2BIMEMDT 79,-,2000
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 127,101,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJAMAAP 183,88,1963
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 127,83,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 567,227,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 567,109,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXCYAC 196,1,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNETOX* 26,531,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWDIMON* 39,678,1993
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 627,59,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,511,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,334,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 584,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJTEHD6 7,1,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 533,153,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 23,260,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJTPAE7 17,137,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWITODC* -,327,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 575,4,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 682,94,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWIMEMDT 79,493,
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 47,1819,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 23,271,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 705,165,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 26,19,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 33,269,2012

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMtime-weighted average 0.002 mg/m3, Skin, Carcinogen, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-DENMARKtime-weighted average 0.025 mg/m3, skin, carc, MAY2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-HUNGARYCarcinogen, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit-ICELANDtime-weighted average 0.025 mg/m3, carc, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-NEW ZEALANDskin, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-PERUtime-weighted average 0.002 mg/m3, JUL2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-POLANDMAC(time-weighted average) 0.5 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-RUSSIAtime-weighted average 0.3 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 0.9 mg/m3, Skin, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE NETHERLANDSMAC-TGG 0.03 mg/m3, 2003

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code A1753; Number of Industries 2; Total Number of Facilities 10; Number of Occupations 12; Total Number of Employees Exposed 1038; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 26

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
ATSDR TOXICOLOGY PROFILE (NTIS** PB/97/121065/AS)
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Rodent dominant lethal
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NTP 11th Report on Carcinogens,2004:Reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen
NTP Carcinogenesis studies; laboratory assigned, October 2000
On EPA IRIS database
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