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Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

L-Ascorbic acid

RTECS #

CI7650000

CAS #

50-81-7; 14536-17-5; 30208-61-8; 50976-75-5; 56533-05-2; 57304-74-2; 57606-40-3; 89924-69-6; 129940-97-2

Updated

July 2013

Molecular Weight

176.14

Molecular Formula

C6H8O6

Synonyms

3-Keto-L-gulofuranolactone
3-Oxo-L-gulofuranolactone
3-Oxo-L-gulofuranolactone (enol form)
Adenex
Allercorb
Antiscorbic vitamin
Antiscorbutic vitamin
Arco-cee
Ascoltin
Ascor-B.I.D.
Ascorbajen
Ascorbate
Ascorbic acid
Ascorbutina
Ascorin
Ascorteal
Ascorvit
Cantan
Cantaxin
Catavin C
ce lent
Cebicure
Cebid
Cebion
Cebione
Cecon
Cee-caps TD
Cee-vite
Cegiolan
Ceglion
Celaskon
Celin
Cemagyl
Ce-Mi-Lin
Cemill
Cenetone
Cereon
Cergona
Cescorbat
Cetamid
Cetane-caps TD
Cetemican
Cevalin
Cevatine
Cevex
Cevi-bid
Cevimin
CE-VI-Sol
Cevital
Cevitamic acid
Cevitamin
Cevitan
Cevitex
Cewin
Ciamin
Cipca
Citriscorb
C-Level
C-Long
Colascor
Concemin
C-Quin
C-Span
C-Vimin
Davitamon C
Dora-C-500
Duoscorb
Hicee
Hybrin
IDO-C
Kyselina askorbova (Czech)
L(+)-Ascorbic acid
L-3-Ketothreohexuronic acid lactone
Laroscorbine
L-Ascorbate
Lemascorb
Liqui-Cee
L-Lyxoascorbic acid
L-threo-Hex-2-enonic acid, gamma-lactone
L-Xyloascorbic acid
NCI-C54808
NSC 33832
Planavit C
Proscorbin
Redoxon
Ribena
Roscorbic
Scorbacid
Scorbu-C
Secorbate
Testascorbic
Vicelat
Vicomin C
Viforcit
Viscorin
Vitace
Vitacee
Vitacimin
Vitacin
Vitamin C
Vitamisin
Vitascorbol
Xitix

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
Cytogenetic Analysisintraperitoneal/mouse1600 mg/kgTCMUD8 9,51,1989
Cytogenetic Analysisovary/hamster300 mg/LFCTXAV 18,497,1980
DNA Damagelymphocyte/mammal (species unspecified)500 µmol/LJNSVA5 24,263,1978
DNA Damageoral/mouse1 mg/kgMUREAV 577S,1,2005
DNA Damageother cell types/human300 µmol/L/30MTOLED5 170,57,2007
DNA Damage/Bacillus subtilis2 mg/discPMRSDJ 1,175,1981
DNA Damagefibroblast/human200 µmol/LCNREA8 42,3783,1982
DNA Damageother cell types/human200 µmol/LCNREA8 42,3783,1982
DNA inhibitionHeLa cell/human2500 µmol/LMUREAV 92,427,1982
DNA inhibitionother cell types/human200 µmol/LCNREA8 42,3783,1982
DNA inhibitionother cell types/human200 mg/LONCOBS 35,160,1978
DNA repair/Saccharomyes cerevisiae100 mg/LPMRSDJ 1,502,1981
gene conversion and mitotic recombination/Saccharomyes cerevisiae300 mg/LPMRSDJ 1,491,1981
micronucleus testintraperitoneal/mouse4500 mg/kg/3D-continuousEMMUEG 21,160,1993
micronucleus testovary/hamster400 mg/LEMMUEG 26,240,1995
micronucleus testoral/mouse30 mg/kgMUREAV 577S,1,2005
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium500 µg/plate (+/-enzymatic activation step)ABCHA6 45,327,1981
mutation in microorganisms/Other microorganisms1000 ppm (-enzymatic activation step)POASAD 34,114,1953
mutation in microorganisms/Neurospora crassa2 mmol/L (-enzymatic activation step)MAGDA3 10,249,1979
other mutation test systemsliver/mouse500 µmol/LJNSVA5 24,263,1978
other mutation test systemsfibroblast/human200 µmol/LCNREA8 42,3783,1982
other mutation test systemsother cell types/human200 µmol/LCNREA8 42,3783,1982
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction/Saccharomyes cerevisiae100 mg/LPMRSDJ 1,468,1981
sister chromatid exchangeintraperitoneal/mouse1600 mg/kgTCMUD8 9,51,1989
sister chromatid exchangeovary/hamster500 mg/LSCIEAS 236,933,1987
sperm morphologyparenteral/silkworm25 µgEISOAU 34,367,1981

Reproductive Effects Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
intraperitoneal/mouse 6680 mg/kg (11D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal deathARTODN 64,423,1990
intravenous/mouse 800 mg/kg (8D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
TOIZAG 8,175,1961
oral/guinea pig 19500 mg/kg (30-58D preg/10D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolicANYAA9 258,401,1975
oral/guinea pig 5800 mg/kg (1-58D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Stillbirth

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Viability index (e.g., # alive at day 4 per # born alive)
BEXBAN 57,483,1964
oral/guinea pig 2471 mg/kg (multigenerations)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)ANYAA9 258,465,1975
oral/rat 2500 mg/kg (1-22D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)AJANA2 110,29,1962

Tumorigenic Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1802500 mg/kg/103W- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Blood: Leukemia
NTIS** PB83-201194

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
In Vitro/Human, lymphocyte Inhibitor Concentration Low: 250 µmol/L/36HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.FCTOD7 50,168,2012
In Vitro/Mouse, fibroblast Inhibitor Concentration (10 percent kill): 256 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.TIVIEQ 2,1,1988
In Vitro/Mouse, fibroblast Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 840 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.TIVIEQ 2,1,1988
In Vitro/Mouse, fibroblast Inhibitor Concentration (10 percent kill): 256 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 2,1,1988
In Vitro/Mouse, fibroblast Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 1419 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 2,1,1988
In Vitro/Rat, liver Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): >2000 mg/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)TIVIEQ 5,543,1991
In Vitro/Rat, liver Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): >2000 mg/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 5,543,1991
In Vitro/Rat, liver Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): >2000 mg/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell protein synthesisTIVIEQ 5,543,1991
In Vitro/Rat, liver Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): >2000 mg/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.TIVIEQ 5,543,1991
In Vitro/Rat, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): >2000 mg/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)TIVIEQ 5,543,1991
In Vitro/Rat, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): >2000 mg/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 5,543,1991
In Vitro/Rat, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): >2000 mg/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell protein synthesisTIVIEQ 5,543,1991
In Vitro/Rat, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): >2000 mg/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.TIVIEQ 5,543,1991
intraperitoneal/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 643 mg/kgPMRSDJ 1,682,1981
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 90 mg/kgBehavioral: Rigidity (includes catalepsy)PSCHDL 181,71,2005
intravenous/cattle lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kgPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Fasciculations

Eye: Mydriasis (pupilliary dilation)

Cardiac: Pulse rate increased without fall in BP
JAPTO* 24,513,2004
intravenous/cattle lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory stimulation

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Urine volume increased

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition
JAPTO* 24,513,2004
intravenous/cattle lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kgNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Metabolic acidosisJAPTO* 24,513,2004
intravenous/man lowest published toxic dose: 2300 mg/kg/2DBlood: Oxidant related (GPD deficient) anemiaAIMEAS 82,810,1975
intravenous/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 518 mg/kgRPOBAR 2,269,1970
intravenous/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): >4 gm/kgBehavioral: Altered sleep time (including change in righting reflex)

Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)
OYYAA2 12,131,1976
intravenous/woman lowest published lethal dose: 900 mg/kgKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)AIMDAP 145,950,1985
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3367 mg/kgNCISP* JAN1986
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 250 mg/kgNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Other changesBPBLEO 27,1093,2004
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kgLiver: Other changesTXCYAC 246,132,2008
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 11.9 gm/kgBehavioral: Muscle contraction or spasticity

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decrease
ENTOX* -,182,2005
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 11900 mg/kgEye: Lacrimation

Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea
OYYAA2 12,131,1976
skin/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kgImmunological Including Allergic: Increase in cellular immune responseFATOAO 47,84,1984
subcutaneous/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): >10 gm/kgOYYAA2 12,131,1976
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2000 mg/kgReproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm ductTOLED5 188,45,2009

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 750 mg/kg/3D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
TXCYAC 252,9,2008
intravenous/rat : 300 mg/kg/3D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
EJPHAZ 534,202,2006
oral/human lowest published toxic dose: 72.96 gm/kg/313W- continuousTumorigenic: Active as anti-cancer agentJJIND8 92,1881,2000
oral/human lowest published toxic dose: 600 mg/kg/14D- intermittentVascular: BP lowering not characterized in autonomic section

Endocrine: Other changes
PSCHDL 159,319,2002
oral/monkey lowest published toxic dose: 6000 mg/kg/30D- continuousReproductive: Other effects on male

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TXAPA9 215,237,2006
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 210 mg/kg/2W- continuousBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)TOXID9 44,46,2005
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 18000 mg/kg/30D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
TXCYAC 191,19,2003
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 546 gm/kg/13W- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldNTPTR* NTP-TR-247,1983
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 3000 mg/kg/30D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
JOETD7 113,503,2007
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 480000 mg/kg/480D- continuousTumorigenic: Facilitates action of known carcinogensCRNGDP 26,657,2005
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1000 mg/kg/5D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on mitochondrial function

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on Na-K pump
FTRPAE 81,1094,2010
oral/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 1680 mg/kg/12W- intermittentBlood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TXCYAC 235,194,2007
oral/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 1680 mg/kg/12W- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Impotence

Reproductive: Other effects on male
TXCYAC 207,81,2005
oral/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 4480 mg/kg/16W- intermittentBehavioral: Food intake (animal)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
TXCYAC 215,97,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2100 mg/kg/12W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
TXCYAC 211,26,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2800 mg/kg/4W- intermittentBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)TOLED5 166,27,2006
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 11200 mg/kg/4W- intermittentBlood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TOLED5 166,27,2006
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5600 mg/kg/4W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)
TOLED5 166,27,2006
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2500 mg/kg/10D- intermittentEndocrine: Hyperglycemia

Blood: Other changes
FATOBP 159,75,1986
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 7000 mg/kg/28D- intermittentEndocrine: Change in gonadotropins

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in ovarian weight
AECTCV 41,83,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1200 mg/kg/30D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TXCYAC 188,117,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 769 mg/kg/25D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TOSCF2 73,339,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2240 mg/kg/16W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
TXCYAC 199,47,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3000 mg/kg/30D- intermittentEndocrine: Change in LH

Endocrine: Change in gonadotropins

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
TXCYAC 232,170,2007
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 455 gm/kg/13W- continuousBlood: Changes in bone marrow not included in above

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NTPTR* NTP-TR-247,1983
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3000 mg/kg/30D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Changes in brain weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
NRTXDN 28,490,2007
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kg/30D- intermittentMusculoskeletal: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TXCYAC 241,99,2007
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4000 mg/kg/20D- intermittentBehavioral: Altered sleep time (including change in righting reflex)FCLPH* 18,153,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 20160 mg/kg/28D- continuousBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effectsFCTOD7 46,3290,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kg/5D- intermittentEndocrine: Androgenic

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
TOLED5 187,201,2009
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5600 mg/kg/4W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
FCTOD7 48,633,2010
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1500 mg/kg/15D- intermittentBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
FCTOD7 48,764,2010
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 240 gm/kg/32W- intermittentTumorigenic: Protects against induction of experimental tumorsCRNGDP 30,1202,2009
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 818.8 mg/kg/2D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TXAPA9 243,300,2010
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5731.6 mg/kg/14D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TXAPA9 243,300,2010
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 36846 mg/kg/90D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TXAPA9 243,300,2010
parenteral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 28 gm/kg/7D- continuousVascular: BP lowering not characterized in autonomic section

Vascular: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
FCLPH* 18(Suppl 1),63,2004
skin/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kg/10D- intermittentBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammationFATOAO 47,84,1984
skin/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 120 gm/kg/30D- intermittentBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductasesACPSI* 23,813,2002

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWARPTDI 43,97,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCMAJAX 164,353,2001
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCTOXAO 40,715,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 140-141,125,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWAPHRER 39,2073,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,182,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWIJTOFN 24,51,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 584,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHTOPA* 1,595,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 543,191,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 681,51,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWBLREV* 3,71,1989
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 23,271,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNBREV* 5,1,1981
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXAPA9 243,239,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCLPH* 21,111,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 721,27,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 733,83,2012
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 733,39,2012

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Occupational Exposure Limit-RUSSIAshort term exposure limit 2 mg/m3, JUN2003

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code M0462; Number of Industries 41; Total Number of Facilities 7888; Number of Occupations 56; Total Number of Employees Exposed 137698; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 84231
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code M0462; Number of Industries 24; Total Number of Facilities 5030; Number of Occupations 33; Total Number of Employees Exposed 69440

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: Mammalian micronucleus; Histidine reversion-Ames test
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Sperm morphology-mouse
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: In vitro SCE-human lymphocytes; In vitro SCE-human
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: In vitro SCE-nonhuman
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
NCI Carcinogenesis Studies (feed);no evidence:mouse,rat
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