Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to navigation Skip directly to page options Skip directly to site content

Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

Asbestos, crocidolite

RTECS #

CI6479000

CAS #

12001-28-4; 132207-33-1

Updated

December 2013

Molecular Weight

765.98

Molecular Formula

ONa2Fe2O33FeO8SiO2H2O

Synonyms

Amorphous crocidolite asbestos
Asbestos (ACGIH)
Crocidolite
Crocidolite (9CI)
Crocidolite asbestos
Crocidolite asbestos (ACGIH)
Fibrous crocidolite asbestos
Krokydolith (German)
NCI C09007

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
Cytogenetic Analysisintraperitoneal/rat100 mg/kgCNREA8 48,6455,1988
Cytogenetic Analysisembryo/hamster2 mg/LCRNGDP 6,473,1985
Cytogenetic Analysislung/hamster5 mg/L/24HMUREAV 57,225,1978
Cytogenetic Analysisovary/hamster10 mg/LCSHCAL 4,941,1977
DNA adductinhalation/mouse5.75 mg/m3/6H/5DEVHPAZ 108,341,2000
DNA Damageembryo/rat847 µg/kgCNREA8 49,5713,1989
DNA Damageleukocyte/human50 mg/LMUREAV 311,209,1994
DNA inhibitionlung/hamster62 mg/LTIVIEQ 1,71,1987
host-mediated assayEscherichia coli/mouse0.006 mg/L/6H/5DEVHPAZ 108,341,2000
micronucleus testother cell types/human0.5 mg/L/72HMUREAV 559,19,2004
micronucleus testembryo/human25 µg/plate/48HTOLED5 143,45,2003
micronucleus testembryo/hamster2 µg/cm2CNREA8 44,5017,1984
morphological transformembryo/hamster2600 µg/m3CRNGDP 9,891,1988
morphological transformother cell types/mouse10 mg/LCSHCAL 4,941,1977
mutation in mammalian somatic cellsother cell types/human50 mg/LEMMUEG 26,67,1995
mutation in mammalian somatic cellslung/hamster10 mg/LMUREAV 68,265,1979
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium100 µg/plate (-enzymatic activation step)CRNGDP 15,1749,1994
other mutation test systemsfibroblast/human10 mg/LMUREAV 116,369,1983
other mutation test systemsinhalation/mouse5.75 mg/m3/6H/5DEVHPAZ 108,341,2000
other mutation test systemsovary/hamster10 mg/LMUREAV 116,369,1983
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctionembryo/hamster2 µg/cm2CNREA8 44,5017,1984
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctionlung/hamster40 mg/LCRNGDP 8,553,1987
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctionintraperitoneal/rat100 mg/kgCNREA8 48,6455,1988
sister chromatid exchangeovary/hamster10 mg/LJEPTDQ 4(2-3),373,1980
sister chromatid exchangeother cell types/rat10 mg/LBJIMAG 44,281,1987
specific locus testinhalation/mouse5.75 mg/m3/6H/5DEVHPAZ 108,341,2000
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisother cell types/rat4 µg/cm2MUREAV 241,361,1990

Tumorigenic Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
implant/rat lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kgTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
JJIND8 67,965,1981
implant/rat toxic dose: 200 mg/kgTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
IARCCD 8,289,1973
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 11 mg/m3/1Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
BJCAAI 29,252,1974
inhalation/rat toxic concentration (other than lowest): 12 mg/m3/13W- intermittentTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
RRCRBU 39,37,1972
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 480 mg/kg/60W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Gastrointestinal: Tumors

Musculoskeletal: Tumors
ARDSBL 141(Suppl),A3-A937,1990
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kgTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
ENVRAL 29,238,1982
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kgTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
PBPHAW 14,47,1978
intraperitoneal/rat toxic dose: 90 mg/kgTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
ENVRAL 4,496,1971
intraperitoneal/rat toxic dose: 250 mg/kgTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
ENVRAL 29,123,1982
intraperitoneal/rat toxic dose: 100 mg/kgTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
ENVRAL 29,238,1982
intraperitoneal/rat toxic dose: 125 mg/kgTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
ENVRAL 29,238,1982
intrapleural/hamster lowest published toxic dose: 83 mg/kgTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
31BYAP -,92,1974
intrapleural/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kgTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
31BYAP -,92,1974
intrapleural/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 8 mg/kgTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
ENVRAL 4,496,1971
intrapleural/rat lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kgTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
BJCAAI 23,567,1969
intrapleural/rat lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kgTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
BJCAAI 41,918,1980
intrapleural/rat toxic dose: 100 mg/kgTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
IAPUDO 30,311,1980
intrapleural/rat toxic dose: 10 mg/kgTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Bronchogenic carcinoma
JNCIAM 48,797,1972
intratracheal/Dog lowest published toxic dose: 52 mg/kg/2Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Cardiac: Tumors

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
CANCAR 47,1994,1981
subcutaneous/mouse toxic dose: 1200 mg/kg/10W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
IJCNAW 2,628,1967
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2400 mg/kg/12W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
FCTXAV 6,566,1968
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 112 mg/kgTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Gastrointestinal: Tumors
ANYAA9 271,431,1976
subcutaneous/rat toxic dose: 112 mg/kgTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
PBPHAW 14,47,1978

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
In Vitro/Human, lung Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 678 mg/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TXAPA9 249,8,2010
In Vitro/Mouse, macrophage Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 1000 mg/L/17HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)TIVIEQ 1,77,1987
In Vitro/Rat, lung Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 5.8 µg/cm2/7DIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell growth: Colony formationTIVIEQ 1,59,1987
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kgImmunological Including Allergic: Increase in cellular immune response

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
EVHPAZ 51,147,1983
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published lethal dose: 300 mg/kgBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea

Gastrointestinal: Peritonitis
AJPAA4 70,291,1973
intrapleural/rat lowest published toxic dose: 150 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Fe
ABBIA4 311,13,1994
intratesticular/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2 mg/kgBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammationJTSCDR 34,65,2009
intratracheal/hamster lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXAPA9 181,93,2002
intratracheal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4.8 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis (interstitial)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
JAPTO* 24,147,2004
intratracheal/rat Lethal dose: >400 µg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changesARDSBL 141(Suppl),A3-A937,1990
intratracheal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXAPA9 181,93,2002

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 13600 µg/m3/6H/5D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosing alveolitisTXCYAC 109,147,1996
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 5.75 mg/m3/6H/5D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
EVHPAZ 108,341,2000
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 5.75 mg/m3/6H/5D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changesEVHPAZ 108,341,2000
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 10 mg/m3/6H/1Y- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis (interstitial)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosing alveolitis
JTEHD6 21,193,1987
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 7200 µg/m3/6H/20D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis (interstitial)TXAPA9 137,67,1996

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-time-weighted average 0.1 f/cubic centimeter (resp)DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-Confirmed human carcinogenDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 2,17,1973
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 2,17,1973
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 14,11,1977
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 14,11,1977
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Group 1IMSUDL 7,106,1987
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW31BYAP -,93,1974
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 658,162,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 590,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 579,6,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 721,27,2011

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD-airtime-weighted average 5 fb/cc (fb > 5 um)DTLWS* 3,33,1973
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN check ACGIH TLV;
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRALIA0.1 f/mL, JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit-DENMARKceiling concentration 0.3 f/cc, MAY2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-DENMARKtime-weighted average 0.1 f/cc, carc, MAY2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FINLANDtime-weighted average 0.1 f/cc, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-ICELANDtime-weighted average 0.1 f/cc, carc, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-JAPANOccupational Exposure Limit 0.003 fcc, 1 carc, MAY2012
Occupational Exposure Limit-KOREAtime-weighted average 0.1 fiber/cm3, carcinogen, 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-MEXICOtime-weighted average 0.2 fibers/cc, 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit-NEW ZEALANDtime-weighted average 0.1 fiber/ml, short term exposure limit 0.6 fiber/ml, carcinogen, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-NORWAYtime-weighted average 0.1 fiber/cm3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWEDENtime-weighted average 0.1 f/cc, Carcinogen, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWITZERLANDMAK-week 0.01 f/cc, carc 1, JAN2011
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)-cancer hazardCFRGBR 29,1910.1001,1987

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO ASBESTOS-air100M time-weighted average 0.1 fb/cc in a 400L air sampleNIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code X6692; Number of Industries 2; Total Number of Facilities 85; Number of Occupations 4; Total Number of Employees Exposed 2415; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 247

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: TRP reversion
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NCI Carcinogenesis Studies (feed);no evidence:rat
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Asbestos (bulk) by PLM, 9002; by PCM, 7400; by TEM, 7402
NTP 11th Report on Carcinogens,2004:Known to be human carcinogen
TOP