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Asbestos, crocidolite

RTECS #: CI6479000

CAS #: 12001-28-4


UPDATE: May 2009 MW: 765.98 MF: ONa2Fe2O33FeO8SiO2H2O


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. MUTATION DATA:
  3. TUMORIGENIC DATA:
  4. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  5. OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA:
  6. REVIEWS:
  7. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:
  8. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  9. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  10. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. Amorphous crocidolite asbestos
  2. Asbestos (ACGIH)
  3. Crocidolite
  4. Crocidolite (9CI)
  5. Crocidolite asbestos
  1. Crocidolite asbestos (ACGIH)
  2. Fibrous crocidolite asbestos
  3. Krokydolith (German)
  4. NCI C09007


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
cytogenetic analysis hamster embryo 2 mg/L CRNGDP 6,473,1985
cytogenetic analysis hamster lung 5 mg/L/24 hour MUREAV 57,225,1978
cytogenetic analysis hamster ovary 10 mg/L CSHCAL 4,941,1977
cytogenetic analysis intraperitoneal
rat
100 mg/kg CNREA8 48,6455,1988
DNA adduct inhalation
mouse
5.75 mg/m3/6 hour/5 day EVHPAZ 108,341,2000
DNA damage human leukocyte 50 mg/L MUREAV 311,209,1994
DNA damage rat embryo 847 g/kg CNREA8 49,5713,1989
DNA inhibition hamster lung 62 mg/L TIVIEQ 1,71,1987
unscheduled DNA synthesis rat other cell types 4 g/cm2 MUREAV 241,361,1990
host-mediated assay mouse
Escherichia coli
0.6 mg/L/6 hour/5 day EVHPAZ 108,341,2000
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 100 g/plate (-enzymatic activation step) CRNGDP 15,1749,1994
micronucleus test hamster embryo 2 g/cm2 CNREA8 44,5017,1984
micronucleus test human other cell types 0.5 mg/L/72 hour MUREAV 559,19,2004
micronucleus test human embryo 25 g/plate/48 hour TOLED5 143,45,2003
mutation in mammalian somatic cells hamster lung 10 mg/L MUREAV 68,265,1979
mutation in mammalian somatic cells human other cell types 50 mg/L EMMUEG 26,67,1995
morphological transform hamster embryo 2,600 g/m3 CRNGDP 9,891,1988
morphological transform mouse other cell types 10 mg/L CSHCAL 4,941,1977
other mutation test systems hamster ovary 10 mg/L MUREAV 116,369,1983
other mutation test systems human fibroblast 10 mg/L MUREAV 116,369,1983
other mutation test systems inhalation
mouse
5.75 mg/m3/6 hour/5 day EVHPAZ 108,341,2000
sister chromatid exchange hamster ovary 10 mg/L JEPTDQ 4(2-3),373,1980
sister chromatid exchange rat other cell types 10 mg/L BJIMAG 44,281,1987
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction hamster embryo 2 g/cm2 CNREA8 44,5017,1984
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction hamster lung 40 mg/L CRNGDP 8,553,1987
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction intraperitoneal
rat
100 mg/kg CNREA8 48,6455,1988
specific locus test inhalation
mouse
5.75 mg/m3/6 hour/5 day EVHPAZ 108,341,2000


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 11 mg/m3/1 year- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
BJCAAI 29,252,1974
inhalation
rat
toxic concentration (other than lowest) : 12 mg/m3/13 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
RRCRBU 39,37,1972
implant
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kg Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
JJIND8 67,965,1981
implant
rat
toxic dose : 200 mg/kg Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
IARCCD 8,289,1973
intrapleural
hamster
lowest published toxic dose: 83 mg/kg Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
31BYAP -,92,1974
intrapleural
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kg Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
31BYAP -,92,1974
intrapleural
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kg Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
BJCAAI 23,567,1969
intrapleural
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kg Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
BJCAAI 41,918,1980
intrapleural
rat
toxic dose : 10 mg/kg Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Bronchogenic carcinoma
JNCIAM 48,797,1972
intrapleural
rat
toxic dose : 100 mg/kg Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
IAPUDO 30,311,1980
intrapleural
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 8 mg/kg Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
ENVRAL 4,496,1971
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 480 mg/kg/60 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Gastrointestinal: Tumors

Musculoskeletal: Tumors
ARDSBL 141(Suppl),A3-A937,1990
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kg Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
ENVRAL 29,238,1982
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kg Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
PBPHAW 14,47,1978
intraperitoneal
rat
toxic dose : 90 mg/kg Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
ENVRAL 4,496,1971
intraperitoneal
rat
toxic dose : 250 mg/kg Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
ENVRAL 29,123,1982
intraperitoneal
rat
toxic dose : 100 mg/kg Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
ENVRAL 29,238,1982
intraperitoneal
rat
toxic dose : 125 mg/kg Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
ENVRAL 29,238,1982
intratracheal
dog
lowest published toxic dose: 52 mg/kg/2 year- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Cardiac: Tumors

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
CANCAR 47,1994,1981
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 2,400 mg/kg/12 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
FCTXAV 6,566,1968
subcutaneous
mouse
toxic dose : 1,200 mg/kg/10 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
IJCNAW 2,628,1967
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 112 mg/kg Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Gastrointestinal: Tumors
ANYAA9 271,431,1976
subcutaneous
rat
toxic dose : 112 mg/kg Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
PBPHAW 14,47,1978


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
intrapleural
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 150 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Fe
ABBIA4 311,13,1994
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kg Immunological Including Allergic: Increase in cellular immune response

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
EVHPAZ 51,147,1983
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published lethal dose: 300 mg/kg Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea

Gastrointestinal: Peritonitis
AJPAA4 70,291,1973
intratracheal
hamster
lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXAPA9 181,93,2002
intratracheal
rat
lethal dose : >400 g/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes ARDSBL 141(Suppl),A3-A937,1990
intratracheal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXAPA9 181,93,2002
intratracheal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4.8 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis (interstitial)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
JAPTO* 24,147,2004


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 13,600 g/m3/6 hour/5 day- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosing alveolitis TXCYAC 109,147,1996
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 5.75 mg/m3/6 hour/5 day- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
EVHPAZ 108,341,2000
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 5.75 mg/m3/6 hour/5 day- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes EVHPAZ 108,341,2000
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 10 mg/m3/6 hour/1 year- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis (interstitial)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosing alveolitis
JTEHD6 21,193,1987
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 7,200 g/m3/6 hour/20 day- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis (interstitial) TXAPA9 137,67,1996


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value time-weighted average 0.1 fibers/cubic centimeter DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value Confirmed human carcinogen DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human Sufficient Evidence IMEMDT 2,17,1973
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Sufficient Evidence IMEMDT 2,17,1973
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human Sufficient Evidence IMEMDT 14,11,1977
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Sufficient Evidence IMEMDT 14,11,1977
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Group 1 IMSUDL 7,106,1987
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
31BYAP -,93,1974
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 658,162,2008


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD - air time-weighted average 5 fiber/cubic centimeter (fiber > 5 um) DTLWS* 3,33,1973
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) cancer hazard CFRGBR 29,1910.1001,1987
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRALIA 0.1 f/mL, JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit - DENMARK ceiling concentration 0.3 fibers/cubic centimeter, OCT 2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - KOREA time-weighted average 0.1 fiber/cm3, carcinogen, 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - MEXICO time-weighted average 0.2 fibers/cubic centimeter, 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit - NEW ZEALAND time-weighted average 0.1 fiber/ml, short term exposure limit 0.6 fiber/ml, carcinogen, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - NORWAY time-weighted average 0.1 fiber/cm3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWEDEN time-weighted average 0.1 f/cubic centimeter, Carcinogen, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWITZERLAND MAK- week 0.01 f/cubic centimeter, Carcinogen, DEC2006
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value;

Confirmed human carcinogen
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value
Confirmed human carcinogen


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO ASBESTOS-air 100 minute time-weighted average 0.1 fiber/cubic centimeter in a 400L air sample NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: X6692;
Number of Industries 2;
Total Number of Facilities 85;
Number of Occupations 4;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 2,415;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 247


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: TRP reversion
Used as a mineral, natural or synthetic fiber
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Asbestos (bulk) by PLM, 9002; by PCM, 7400; by TEM, 7402
NCI Carcinogenesis Studies (feed);no evidence:rat
NTP 11th Report on Carcinogens,2004:Known to be human carcinogen


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

31BYAP "Experimental Lung Cancer: Carcinogenesis and Bioassays, International Symposium, 1974," Karbe, E., and J.F. Park, eds., Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., 1974
ABBIA4 Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.31- 1951-
AJPAA4 American Journal of Pathology. (Lippincott/Harper, Journal Fulfillment Dept., 2350 Virginia Ave., Hagerstown, MD 21740) V.1- 1925-
ANYAA9 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. (New York Academy of Sciences, 2 E. 63rd St., New York, NY 10021) V.1- 1877-
ARDSBL American Review of Respiratory Disease. (American Lung Assoc., 1740 Broadway, New York, NY 10019) V.80- 1959-
BJCAAI British Journal of Cancer. (Macmillan Press Ltd., Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hants. RG21 2XS, UK) V.1- 1947-
BJIMAG British Journal of Industrial Medicine. (British Medical Journal, Box 560B, Kennebunkport, ME 04046) V.1- 1944-
CANCAR Cancer (Philadelphia). (Lippincott/Harper, Journal Fulfillment Dept., 2350 Virginia Ave., Hagerstown, MD 21740) V.1- 1948-
CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402)
CNREA8 Cancer Research. (Public Ledger Building, Suit 816, 6th & Chestnut Sts., Philadelphia, PA 19106) V.1- 1941-
CRNGDP Carcinogenesis (London). (Oxford Univ. Press, Pinkhill House, Southfield Road, Eynsham, Oxford OX8 1JJ, UK) V.1- 1980-
CSHCAL Cold Spring Harbor Conferences on Cell Proliferation. (Cold Spring Harbor, NY) V.1-10, 1974-83.
DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996
DTLWS* "Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values for Substances in Workroom Air," Supplements. For publisher information, see 85INA8.
EMMUEG Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 1987-
ENVRAL Environmental Research. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1967-
EVHPAZ EHP, Environmental Health Perspectives. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) No.1- 1972-
FCTXAV Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. (London, UK) V.1-19, 1963-81. For publisher information, see FCTOD7.
IAPUDO IARC Publications. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) No.27- 1979-
IARCCD IARC Scientific Publications. (Geneva, Switzerland) No.1-26, 1971-78. For publisher information, see IAPUDO.
IJCNAW International Journal of Cancer. (International Union Against Cancer, 3 rue du Conseil- General, 1205 Geneva, Switzerland) V.1- 1966-
IMEMDT IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) V.1- 1972-
IMSUDL IARC Monographs, Supplement. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) No.1- 1979-
JAPTO* Journal of Applied Toxicology (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Oldlands Way Bognor Regis West Sussex, PO22 9SA England) V.1- 1981-
JEPTDQ Journal of Environmental Pathology and Toxicology. (Park Forest South, IL) V.1-5(3), 1977-81(?). For publisher information, see JEPOEC.
JJIND8 JNCI, Journal of the National Cancer Institute. (Washington, DC) V.61-79, 1978-87. For publisher information, see JNCIEQ.
JNCIAM Journal of the National Cancer Institute. (Washington, DC) V.1-60, 1940-78. For publisher information, see JJIND8.
JTEHD6 Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. (Hemisphere Pub., 1025 Vermont Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20005) V.1- 1975/76-
MUREAV Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1964-
NIOSH* National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda.
PBPHAW Progress in Biochemical Pharmacology. (S. Karger AG, Postfach CH-4009 Basel, Switzerland) V.1- 1965-
RRCRBU Recent Results in Cancer Research. (Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., Service Center, 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, NJ 07094) V.1- 1965-
TIVIEQ Toxicology In Vitro. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.1- 1987-
TOLED5 Toxicology Letters. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1977-
TXAPA9 Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1959-
TXCYAC Toxicology. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland, Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1973-

Used as a mineral, natural or synthetic fiber

RTECS Compound Description:
   Tumorigen
   Mutagen
   Human Data
   Natural Product

ALT CAS #: 132207-33-1
Click Here for Additional Information about RTECS

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