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Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

Acetic acid, lead(2+) salt

RTECS #

AI5250000

CAS #

301-04-2

Updated

December 2013

Molecular Weight

325.29

Molecular Formula

C4H6O4·Pb

Synonyms

Acetate de plomb (French)
Bleiacetat (German)
Dibasic lead acetate
Lead acetate
Lead diacetate
Lead dibasic acetate
Lead(2+) acetate
Lead(II) acetate
Normal lead acetate
Plumbous acetate
RCRA waste number U144
Salt of saturn
Sugar of lead

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
Cytogenetic Analysislymphocyte/human1 mmol/L/24HTXCYAC 10,67,1978
Cytogenetic Analysisoral/rat5000 ppmTKIZAM 82,232,1974
Cytogenetic Analysisunreported route/rat9 mg/kg/26W-continuousGISAAA 49(3),15,1984
Cytogenetic Analysisintraperitoneal/rat51800 µg/kgAEHLAU 40,144,1985
Cytogenetic Analysisoral/mouse16800 mg/kg/4WJTEHD6 2,619,1977
Cytogenetic Analysisoral/monkey206 mg/kg/64W- intermittentMUREAV 45,77,1977
Cytogenetic Analysisoral/domestic animal364 mg/kg/52W-continuousNICKA3 52,619,1981
Cytogenetic Analysisoral/mouse2001 mg/kg/30D-continuousBCLPT* 97,238,2005
DNA adduct/Escherichia coli50 µmol/LMUREAV 89,95,1981
DNA Damageother cell types/rat0.1 µmol/L/24HTOLED5 166,160,2006
DNA Damageother cell types/human30 µmol/L/72HEMS37* -,431,2006
DNA Damageother cell types/human30 µmol/LEMS37* -,431,2006
DNA Damageoral/mouse700 mg/kg/4W- intermittentFCTOD7 46,1488,2008
DNA Damagelymphocyte/human1 µmol/L/30MMUREAV 535,127,2003
DNA Damagelung/hamster1700 µmol/LMUREAV 298,97,1992
DNA Damagelung/mouse0.01 µmol/L/10MMUTAEX 16,265,2001
DNA Damageliver/mouse0.01 µmol/L/10MMUTAEX 16,265,2001
DNA Damagekidney/mouse0.01 µmol/L/10MMUTAEX 16,265,2001
DNA Damageinhalation/mouse0.408 mg/L/60MMUTAEX 16,265,2001
DNA Damageinhalation/mouse3.264 mg/L/4WMUTAEX 17,55,2002
DNA Damagelymphocyte/human0.01 mmol/L/1HMUREAV 535,127,2003
Dominant Lethal Testunreported route/rat1825 µg/kg/1Y-continuousGISAAA 49(3),15,1984
micronucleus testintraperitoneal/mouse7500 µg/kgGWZHEW 12,77,1986
micronucleus testintraperitoneal/rat51800 µg/kgAEHLAU 40,144,1985
micronucleus testfibroblast/hamster0.06 µmol/L/18HTOLED5 140-141,75,2003
micronucleus testoral/mouse2001 mg/kg/30D-continuousBCLPT* 97,238,2005
micronucleus testovary/hamster0.05 µmol/L/18HEMMUEG 45,346,2005
morphological transformembryo/rat200 mg/LJJIND8 67,1303,1981
morphological transformfibroblast/mouse800 µg/LJJIND8 67,1303,1981
morphological transformembryo/hamster1 mg/LJJIND8 67,1303,1981
mutation in mammalian somatic cellslung/hamster1700 µmol/LMUREAV 298,97,1992
other mutation test systemsintraperitoneal/rat10400 µg/kgAEHLAU 40,144,1985
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctionintraperitoneal/mouse179 µg/kgGNTKDF 18,147,1986
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction/Saccharomyes cerevisiae250 µmol/LMUTAEX 1,21,1986
sister chromatid exchangeintraperitoneal/mouse100 mg/kgMUREAV 158,217,1985
sister chromatid exchangeoral/mouse19200 mg/kg/48DNAYXEW 5,114,1985
sperm morphologyparenteral/mouse1 gm/kgARTODN 46,159,1980
sperm morphologyintraperitoneal/mouse400 mg/kg/5D- intermittentCMMUAO 5,257,1978
sperm morphologyintratesticular/domestic animal10 mg/kgIJEBA6 11,143,1973
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisembryo/hamster200 µmol/LMUREAV 131,173,1984
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisintraperitoneal/rat50 µg/kgPSEBAA 143,446,1973
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisparenteral/rat5 mg/kgLAINAW 30,647,1974

Reproductive Effects Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
intraperitoneal/rat 25 mg/kg (9D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Eye, ear
FOMOAJ 33,23,1974
intraperitoneal/rat 120 mg/kg (30D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands
CUSCAM 56,281,1987
intraperitoneal/rat 60 mg/kg (13-19D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects to embryo or fetusZYDXEN 21,349,1992
intraperitoneal/rat 1256 mg/kg (14W male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
EXPADD 31,249,1987
intraperitoneal/mouse 35 mg/kg (8D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
BIMDB3 30,223,1979
intraperitoneal/mouse 180 mg/kg (10-16D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Eye, ear

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
ZYDXEN 21,349,1992
intraperitoneal/guinea pig 12500 µg/kg (20D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous systemTJADAB 30,413,1984
intratesticular/domestic animal 10 mg/kg (1D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
IJEBA6 11,143,1973
intravenous/mammal (species unspecified) 256 mg/kg (7-10D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)VETODR 18(2),58,1976
intravenous/mouse 100 mg/kg (11D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)
TJADAB 26(1),13A,1982
intravenous/mouse 200 mg/kg (7-8D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)TJADAB 24(1),18A,1981
intravenous/hamster 50 mg/kg (8D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Eye, ear
EXMPA6 7,208,1967
intravenous/hamster 25 mg/kg (8D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
ANREAK 157,358,1967
multiple/rat 900 mg/kg (1-30D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
NETEEC 29,188,2007
oral/rat 2988.3 mg/kg (1-21D preg/21D after birth)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
FCTOD7 46,2089,2008
oral/rat 2988.3 mg/kg (1-21D preg/21D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effectsFCTOD7 46,2089,2008
oral/rat 378 mg/kg (1-21D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolicNETEEC 30,428,2008
oral/rat 6075 mg/kg (10D pre-50D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects
NRTXDN 29,1127,2008
oral/rat 1545 mg/kg (60D pre-21D after birth)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Endocrine system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
TXAPA9 234,117,2009
oral/rat 7.4 mg/kg (6D preg-21D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolicTOXID9 -,40,2009
oral/rat 1545 mg/kg (60D pre - 21D after birth)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Endocrine system
NRTXDN 32,83,2011
oral/rat 515 mg/kg (60D pre - 21D after birth)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalities
NRTXDN 32,83,2011
oral/rat 68 mg/kg (multigenerations)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolicTOLED5 32,255,1986
oral/rat 1275 mg/kg (5-22D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: PhysicalJTEHF8 54,77,1998
oral/rat 3825 mg/kg (5-22D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: StillbirthJTEHF8 54,77,1998
oral/rat 25 mg/kg (multigenerations)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: PhysicalJTEHF8 54,77,1998
oral/rat 75 mg/kg (multigenerations)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Endocrine system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
JTEHF8 54,77,1998
oral/rat 0.1 gm/kg (multigenerations)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Physical

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
EVHPAZ 110(Suppl 3),377,2002
oral/rat 8.8 gm/kg (0-22D preg/21D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Physical

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
EVHPAZ 110(Suppl 3),377,2002
oral/guinea pig 300 mg/kg (22-52D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Blood and lymphatic systems (including spleen and marrow)
TXCYAC 59,81,1989
oral/guinea pig 1108 mg/kg (22-52D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Endocrine system
TXCYAC 72,89,1992
oral/monkey 765 mg/kg (90D prior to copulation/1-23W pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: BehavioralNTOTDY 5,391,1983
oral/monkey 1557 mg/kg (62W prior to copulation)Reproductive: Maternal effects: Menstrual cycle changes or disordersFAATDF 9,722,1987
oral/monkey 600 mg/kg (57W prior to copulation)Reproductive: Other effects on female

Endocrine: Change in LH
REPTED 6,123,1992
oral/rat 322.5 mg/kg (1-22D preg/21D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)NETEEC 22,337,2000
oral/rat 660 mg/kg (1-22D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)NETEEC 22,337,2000
oral/rat 30 mg/kg (multigeneration))Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
NETEEC 22,337,2000
oral/rat 4200 mg/kg (21D after birth)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
NETEEC 22,41,2000
oral/rat 900 mg/kg (30D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
NETEEC 22,151,2000
oral/rat 3120 mg/kg (1-22D preg/30D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
NETEEC 22,151,2000
oral/rat 500 mg/kg (multigenerations)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Viability index (e.g., # alive at day 4 per # born alive)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
FESTAS 22,755,1971
oral/rat 600 mg/kg (multigenerations)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Endocrine system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Physical
TXAPA9 136,361,1996
oral/rat 17550 mg/kg (5-22D preg/1-21D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
JTEHD6 54,101,1998
oral/mouse 11 gm/kg (1-22D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Weaning or lactation index (e.g., # alive at weaning per # alive at day 4)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
HETOEA 14,872,1995
oral/mouse 500 mg/kg (multigenerations)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system
HETOEA 14,872,1995
oral/rat 2380 mg/kg (17W male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
KHZDAN 23(4),304,1980
oral/mouse 236 mg/kg (7-16D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)ARTODN 41,125,1978
oral/mouse 4800 mg/kg (1-8D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)CRSBAW 172,1037,1978
oral/mouse 9 gm/kg (7-21D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: AbortionCRSBAW 170,1319,1976
oral/mouse 259 mg/kg (7-17D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Blood and lymphatic systems (including spleen and marrow)ARTODN 41,125,1978
oral/rat 1257 µL/kg (10D prior to copulation/1-22D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Blood and lymphatic systems (including spleen and marrow)

Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalities
TOSCF2 42,129,1998
oral/rat 600 µg/kg (30D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Impotence
AJOGAH 115,1058,1973
oral/rat 97 mg/kg (5W male/5W pre-3W after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: BehavioralEVHPAZ 12,119,1975
oral/rat 14700 mg/kg (1-21D preg/21D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Live birth index (Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured after birth)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Weaning or lactation index (e.g., # alive at weaning per # alive at day 4)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
AHRTAN 47,245,1996
oral/rat 1800 mg/kg (1-22D preg/14D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolicTOLED5 7,373,1981
oral/rat 460 mg/kg (49D pre-21D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)EVHPAZ 17,290,1976
oral/rat 230 mg/kg (49D pre-21D after birth)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Blood and lymphatic systems (including spleen and marrow)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects
CEXIAL 35,413,1979
oral/rat 1950 mg/kg (6-18D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)TJADAB 26,229,1982
oral/rat 1413 mg/kg (1-18D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Maternal- fetal exchange

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
ENVRAL 30,152,1983
oral/rat 1875 mg/kg (7D pre-21D after birth)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
NETEEC 24,805,2002
oral/rat 1199 mg/kg (1-22D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
NETEEC 24,149,2002
oral/rat 6 gm/kg (30D prior to copulation/22D preg/21D after birth)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
LIFSAK 74,1139,2004
oral/rat 4.4 gm/kg (30D pre-21D after birth)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects
TOSCF2 77,35,2004
oral/rat 5.8 gm/kg (30D prior to copulation/22D preg/3W after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
PSCHDL 168,236,2003
oral/rat 5.84 gm/kg (30D pre-21D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
PSCHDL 174,203,2004
oral/rat 1119.8 mg/kg (0-21D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
TOLED5 143,331,2003
oral/rat 4200 mg/kg (1-21D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
ETOPFR 13,187,2003
oral/rat 1554 mg/kg (1D preg-21D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: BehavioralNETEEC 26,291,2004
oral/rat 5.84 gm/kg (30D pre-21D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects
NEROEW 23,444,2000
oral/rat 275 mg/kg (10-17D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolicTOXID9 44,123,2005
oral/rat 3700 mg/kg (6D preg-21D after birth)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
TOXID9 44,217,2005
oral/rat 2150 mg/kg (1D preg-21D after birth)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous systemTOXID9 66,129,2002
oral/mouse 8.4 mg/kg (21D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: BehavioralTOXID9 78,183,2004
oral/rat 4.2 mg/kg (21D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolicTOXID9 78,184,2004
oral/rat 2000 mg/kg (1D preg-21D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
DCTODJ 28,67,2005
oral/rat 4.3 mg/kg (1-22D preg/21D after birth)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
TOXID9 78,230,2004
oral/rat 16.8 mg/kg (21D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effectsTOXID9 78,273,2004
oral/rat 245 mg/kg (3-9D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects
TOXID9 60,30,2001
oral/rat 245 mg/kg (15-21D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects
TOXID9 60,30,2001
oral/rat 4200 mg/kg (21D after birth)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous systemTOXID9 66,336,2002
oral/rat 5850 mg/kg (4D preg-21D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolicTOXID9 60,228,2001
oral/rat 10800 mg/kg (1D preg-50D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolicTOXID9 60,187,2001
oral/rat 4300 mg/kg (1D preg-21D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolicTOXID9 60,187,2001
oral/rat 2000 mg/kg (2-21D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolicTOXID9 60,354,2001
oral/rat 8000 mg/kg (2D preg-60D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolicTOXID9 60,354,2001
oral/rat 592 mg/kg (30D pre-21D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: BehavioralTXCYAC 211,49,2005
oral/rat 1272 mg/kg (30D prior to copulation/1-22D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: BehavioralTXCYAC 211,49,2005
oral/rat 1800 mg/kg (30D prior to copulation)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital systemREPTED 21,104,2006
oral/rat 4200 mg/kg (multigeneration)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolicNETOX* 27,39,2006
oral/rat 990 mg/kg (1D preg-12D after birth)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Hepatobiliary system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
EESADV 51,35,2002
oral/rat 990 mg/kg (1D preg-12D after birth)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
EESADV 53,259,2002
oral/rat 5600 mg/kg (15D preg-21D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
TOLED5 164,63,2006
oral/rat 2100 mg/kg (1-21D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolicNRTXDN 28,402,2007
oral/rat 5400 mg/kg (16D preg-21D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects
NETEEC 29,385,2007
subcutaneous/rat 800 mg/kg (9-22D preg/14D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolicJTEHD6 10,653,1982
subcutaneous/rat 110 mg/kg (15W male)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects
NETEEC 19,191,1997
unreported route/rat 2.92 gm/kg (30D pre-21D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)PSCHDL 158,165,2001

Tumorigenic Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 900 mg/kg/60D- continuousTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Endocrine: Adrenal cortex tumors
ENVRAL 24,391,1981
oral/rat toxic dose: 250 gm/kg/47W- continuousTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Kidney tumors
BJCAAI 16,283,1962
oral/rat toxic dose: 2430 mg/kg/23W- continuousTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Brain and Coverings: Tumors

Endocrine: Tumors
ENVRAL 24,391,1981
oral/rat toxic dose: 4605 mg/kg/44W- continuousTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Endocrine: Adrenal cortex tumors
ENVRAL 24,391,1981
oral/rat toxic dose: 7560 mg/kg/72W- continuousTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Endocrine: Tumors

Endocrine: Thyroid tumors
ENVRAL 24,391,1981
oral/rat toxic dose: 9150 mg/kg/44W- continuousTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Kidney tumors
AJPAA4 50,571,1967
oral/rat toxic dose: 218 gm/kg/1Y- continuousTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Kidney tumors
BECTA6 23,464,1979
oral/rat toxic dose: 138 gm/kg/76W- continuousTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Kidney tumors
TOPADD 13,50,1985
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 92.4 gm/kg/100W- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Bladder tumors
TOXID9 72,84,2003

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
In Vitro/Human, neuroblastoma Inhibitor Concentration Low: 2000 µmol/L/48HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.NETEEC 32,300,2011
In Vitro/Human, neuroblastoma Inhibitor Concentration Low: 1000 µmol/L/72HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell morphology: overgrowth of cell appendixes etc.NETEEC 32,300,2011
In Vitro/Human, neuroblastoma Inhibitor Concentration Low: 5 mmol/L/72HNETEEC 32,300,2011
In Vitro/Human, neuroblastoma Inhibitor Concentration Low: 5 µmol/L/48HNETEEC 32,300,2011
In Vitro/Non-mammalian species, fibroblast Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 1.77 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell countingTIVIEQ 7,537,1993
In Vitro/phaInhibitor Concentration Low: 1 µmol/L/2HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell protein synthesisNETEEC 32,58,2011
intracerebral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2602 ng/kgBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases
TXAPA9 200,27,2004
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 12.5 mg/kgBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXCYAC 178,183,2002
intraperitoneal/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 140 mg/kgTXCYAC 64,19,1990
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 700 mg/kgBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changesNETEEC 33,473,2011
intraperitoneal/pigeon lowest published lethal dose: 150 mg/kgARTODN 46,265,1980
intraperitoneal/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 150 mg/kgEQSSDX 1,1,1975
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kgBehavioral: Alteration of operant conditioningPHTOEH 92,88,2003
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 15 mg/kgBrain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNSFCTOD7 45,412,2007
intraperitoneal/wild bird lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kgBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning
NETOX* 26,615,2005
intravenous/Dog lowest published lethal dose: 300 mg/kgEQSSDX 1,1,1975
intravenous/man lowest published toxic dose: 71 mg/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Blood: Normocytic anemia

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
HUTODJ 4,301,1985
intravenous/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 104 mg/kgNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainIGSBAL 93,461,1977
intravenous/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 25 mg/kgBehavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Food intake (animal)

Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea
JIHTAB 31,301,1949
oral/Dog lowest published lethal dose: 300 mg/kgHBAMAK 4,1289,1935
oral/human lowest published lethal dose: 714 mg/kgBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
IPSTB3 3,93,1976
oral/mouse lowest published lethal dose: 200 mg/kgTPKVAL 2,148,1961
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kgGastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of salivary glandsTOXID9 44,236,2005
subcutaneous/cat lowest published lethal dose: 100 mg/kgHBAMAK 4,1289,1935
subcutaneous/Dog lowest published lethal dose: 80 mg/kgHBAMAK 4,1289,1935
subcutaneous/frog lowest published lethal dose: 1600 mg/kgHBAMAK 4,1289,1935
subcutaneous/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 300 mg/kgHBAMAK 4,1289,1935
Tank with water/Zebrafish lowest published toxic concentration: 20 µg/L 24HBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesterase
NRTXDN 32,116,2011

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 5.46 µg/m3/15D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Endocrine: Differential effect of sex or castration on observed toxicity
TXCYAC 207,323,2005
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 5 mg/m3/6H/70D- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glandsHETOEA 12,165,1993
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kg/20D- intermittentBehavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesterase

Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Catecholamine levels in CNS
BPBLEO 28,490,2005
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 37680 µg/kg/5D- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Blood: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Other metals
BECTA6 16,190,1976
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 280 mg/kg/35D- intermittentEndocrine: Change in LH

Endocrine: Androgenic

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)
TXCYAC 100,101,1995
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 120 mg/kg/6W- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Other measures of fertility

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
JTEHF8 55,45,1998
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kg/6W- intermittentEndocrine: Androgenic

Blood: Other changes
JTEHF8 55,45,1998
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 59 mg/kg/6W- intermittentGastrointestinal: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Na

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
FEPRA7 36,1116,1977
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 30 mg/kg/30D- intermittentBlood: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
INHEAO 25,55,1987
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 152 mg/kg/4D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Changes in surface EEG

Blood: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
INHEAO 22,189,1984
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 69 mg/kg/22W- intermittentPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from afferent nerve

Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerve

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition
INHEAO 24,163,1986
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kg/5W- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
TXCYAC 103,53,1995
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 30 mg/kg/30D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
FHICY* 24,233,1986
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 120 mg/kg/30D- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm ductFHICY* 24,233,1986
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 180 mg/kg/30D- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)FHICY* 24,233,1986
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 60 mg/kg/6W- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Other measures of fertility
TXCYAC 122,133,1997
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 58.33 mg/kg/70D- intermittentEndocrine: Changes in adrenal weightRCOCB8 14,689,1976
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4.554 mg/kg/3D- intermittentBlood: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Amino acids (including renal excretion)
ARTODN -,227,1987
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 140 mg/kg/1W- intermittentBlood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) countTXCYAC 191,245,2003
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 560 mg/kg/4W- intermittentBlood: Changes in spleen

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other hydrolases
TXCYAC 191,245,2003
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.75 mg/kg/15D- intermittentBiochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Catecholamine levels in CNSFCTOD7 41,379,2003
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 90 mg/kg/9W- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)TXCYAC 122,133,1997
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 75 mg/kg/3D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TXCYAC 212,185,2005
intraperitoneal/rat : 280 mg/kg/35D- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in prostate weight

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
FCTOD7 44,1114,2006
intraperitoneal/rat : 560 mg/kg/35D- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glandsFCTOD7 44,1114,2006
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.75 mg/kg/15D- intermittentEndocrine: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
ARTODN 76,671,2002
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 28 mg/kg/4W- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesterase

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on mitochondrial function
BCLPT* 105(Suppl 1),122,2009
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 210 mg/kg/6W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Effect on specific coenzyme: Other coenzymes
FCTOD7 48,1753,2010
oral/Dog lowest published toxic dose: 286 mg/kg/13W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Blood: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
JEPTDQ 3(5-6),465,1980
oral/domestic animal lowest published toxic dose: 105 mg/kg/7D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNS

Eye: Other eye effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Glycolytic
AJVRAH 54,808,1993
oral/guinea pig lowest published toxic dose: 1250 mg/kg/25D- intermittentEndocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunction

Endocrine: Adrenal cortex hyperplasia

Reproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubes
MTPEEI -,6,1993
oral/guinea pig lowest published toxic dose: 750 mg/kg/75D- intermittentEndocrine: Adrenal cortex hyperplasia

Endocrine: Effect on menstrual cycle

Endocrine: Other changes
MTPEEI -,6,1993
oral/guinea pig lowest published toxic dose: 900 mg/kg/30D- intermittentBlood: Other changes

Blood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified)

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count
TPKVAL 2,148,1961
oral/guinea pig lowest published toxic dose: 600 mg/kg/15D- intermittentBlood: Other changes

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count
TPKVAL 2,172,1961
oral/guinea pig lowest published toxic dose: 6080 mg/kg/152D- intermittentPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Flaccid paralysis with appropriate anesthesia

Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerve

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TPKVAL 2,172,1961
oral/guinea pig lowest published toxic dose: 2600 mg/kg/65D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainTPKVAL 2,172,1961
oral/monkey lowest published toxic dose: 600000 µg/kg/400D- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)REPTED 6,123,1992
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 28 gm/kg/16W- continuousRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldBECTA6 19,266,1978
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 58.8 gm/kg/14W- continuousRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldBECTA6 19,266,1978
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 33.6 gm/kg/8W- continuousReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)BECTA6 19,266,1978
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 16.8 gm/kg/4W- continuousNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainBECTA6 19,266,1978
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1120 mg/kg/16W- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Brain and Coverings: Changes in brain weight

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
JTEMEM 3,235,1990
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 880 mg/kg/14D- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other hydrolases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
ARTODN 63,23,1989
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 11087 mg/kg/26W- continuousBlood: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
BECTA6 42,476,1989
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 4710 mg/kg/30D- continuousBlood: Other changes

Blood: Changes in bone marrow not included in above

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other hydrolases
ARTODN 63,23,1989
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 700 mg/kg/4W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
FCTOD7 46,1488,2008
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 140 mg/kg/4W- intermittentLiver: Other changesFCTOD7 46,1488,2008
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2600 mg/kg/10D- continuousBlood: Changes in bone marrow not included in above

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Other metals
FCTOD7 49,2934,2011
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2600 mg/kg/10D- continuousBlood: Changes in bone marrow not included in above

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Porphyrin including bile pigments
FCTOD7 46,3147,2008
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2001 mg/kg/30D- continuousLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
BCLPT* 97,238,2005
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 34.16 gm/kg/15W- continuousBlood: Changes in spleen

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXAPA9 218,215,2007
oral/pigeon lowest published toxic dose: 4396 mg/kg/64W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Blood: Normocytic anemia

Blood: Other changes
ENVRAL 28,344,1982
oral/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 9.9 gm/kg/60D- continuousVascular: Structural changes in vessels

Vascular: Other changes
TOLED5 180S,S53,2008
oral/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 3360 mg/kg/6W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
FCTOD7 48,236,2010
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 168 mg/kg/4W- intermittentBehavioral: Food intake (animal)

Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
FCTOD7 47,2209,2009
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3000 mg/kg/75D- continuousLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
FCTOD7 49,3119,2011
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.42 gm/kg/6W- continuousNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainFCTOD7 50,222,2012
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.7 gm/kg/2W- continuousBlood: Changes in bone marrow not included in above

Musculoskeletal: Osteoporosis

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
FCTOD7 48,2688,2010
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2708.1 mg/kg/59D- continuousBehavioral: Alteration of classical conditioningTXCYAC 272,23,2010
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2754 mg/kg/60D- continuousBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning
TXCYAC 272,23,2010
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1400 mg/kg/4W- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Proteases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TOLED5 184,56,2009
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.56 gm/kg/8W- continuousCardiac: EKG changes not diagnostic of above

Cardiac: Change in rate

Vascular: BP elevation not characterized in autonomic section
INJPD2 40,69,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kg/30D- intermittentLiver: Liver function tests impaired

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Renal function tests depressed

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Porphyrin including bile pigments
TOVEFN (1),12,2006
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 14 gm/kg/20W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Other metals
TXCYAC 214,39,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.56 gm/kg/8W- continuousVascular: BP elevation not characterized in autonomic sectionTOLED5 180S,S36,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1456 mg/kg/0.5Y- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Spinal Cord: Other degenerative changes

Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from afferent nerve
TPKVAL 2,115,1961
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 420 mg/kg/2W- continuousLiver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
JTCTDW 42,798,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1260 mg/kg/6W- continuousLiver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
JTCTDW 42,798,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 7000 mg/kg/28D- continuousBehavioral: Alteration of operant conditioningPHTOEH 92,88,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5599 mg/kg/6W- continuousBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
NRTXDN 28,850,2007
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3973.2 mg/kg/12W- continuousLiver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Conditioned vitamin deficiency
FCTOD7 45,1478,2007
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3 mg/kg/30D- continuousLiver: Other changesEMS37* -,438,
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 40 mg/kg/40D- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm ductTPKVAL 10,64,1968
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4 mg/kg/40D- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)TPKVAL 10,64,1968
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3591 mg/kg/6W- continuousBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Blood: Other changes
TXAPA9 219,33,2007
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 119 mg/kg/7D- continuousNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainTOSCF2 92,286,2006
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 357 mg/kg/3W- continuousBehavioral: Food intake (animal)

Liver: Other changes

Musculoskeletal: Other changes
TOSCF2 92,286,2006
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5600 mg/kg/8W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Plasma proteins not involving coagulation
DCTODJ 1,11,2006
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 6100 mg/kg/61D- continuousBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Catalases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
HETOEA 23,157,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2940 mg/kg/12W- continuousLiver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
TXCYAC 219,11,2006
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 280 mg/kg/4W- continuousVascular: BP elevation not characterized in autonomic section

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
TOLED5 166,88,2006
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 560 mg/kg/8W- continuousVascular: Contraction (isolated tissue)TOLED5 166,88,2006
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4200 mg/kg/14D- continuousReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Other measures of fertility
TXAPA9 124,310,1994
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 350 mg/kg/4W- continuousBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changesTOXID9 66,128,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 525 mg/kg/3W- continuousBiochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Dopamine in striatumTOXID9 78,230,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 89.6 mg/kg/16W- continuousBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changesTOXID9 78,273,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 350 mg/kg/7D- continuousGastrointestinal: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
JAPTO* 25,361,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 7500 mg/kg/50D- continuousBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TOXID9 60,186,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 900 mg/kg/30D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
MUREAV 577S,1,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 455 mg/kg/91D- continuousBehavioral: Alteration of classical conditioningTOXID9 60,354,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 35 gm/kg/5W- intermittentEye: Other eye effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TXCYAC 212,1,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 475 mg/kg/19D- intermittentEndocrine: Change in gonadotropins

Endocrine: Other changes
ENVRAL 19,383,1979
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1400 mg/kg/14D- intermittentEndocrine: Change in gonadotropins

Endocrine: Other changes
ENVRAL 19,383,1979
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 30000 mg/kg/50D- continuousEndocrine: Change in LH

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in prostate weight
TXAPA9 136,361,1996
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 21600 mg/kg/36D- continuousEndocrine: Effect on menstrual cycle

Endocrine: Other changes
TXAPA9 136,361,1996
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3600 mg/kg/6D- continuousNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainTXAPA9 136,361,1996
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3000 mg/kg/30D- intermittentBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Dopamine at other sites
TXCYAC 207,363,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2625 mg/kg/3W- continuousBrain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNSTOXID9 66,25,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 225 mg/kg/90D- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Proteinuria

Blood: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
TOXID9 66,31,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 75 mg/kg/30D- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)TOXID9 66,31,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 12 gm/kg/60D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
ARTODN 79,1,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 7 gm/kg/5W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
ARTODN 76,437,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4404 mg/kg/8W- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesterase

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
PHTOEH 74,66,1994
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 240 mg/kg/17W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
KHZDAN 17,21,1974
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 122 gm/kg/90D- continuousCardiac: EKG changes not diagnostic of above

Vascular: BP elevation not characterized in autonomic section

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Ca
DCTODJ 14,305,1991
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2006 mg/kg/61W- continuousBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Vascular: BP elevation not characterized in autonomic section

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Other metals
TOLED5 63,135,1992
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 43 mg/kg/1.5Y- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
GISAAA 44(2),9,1979
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 923 gm/kg/28W- continuousPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Sensory change involving peripheral nerve

Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerve

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
ENVRAL 62,148,1993
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 192 gm/kg/5W- continuousBlood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TXAPA9 41,361,1977
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 126 gm/kg/30W- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight

Endocrine: Hypoglycemia
TXAPA9 25,84,1973
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 344 gm/kg/1Y- continuousBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Brain and Coverings: Changes in brain weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TOLED5 42,55,1988
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2907 mg/kg/36W- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight
TXAPA9 56,59,1980
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1500 mg/kg/60D- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
BBIADT 43,95,1984
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3000 mg/kg/60D- continuousReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)BBIADT 43,95,1984
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 6000 mg/kg/60D- continuousRelated to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weightBBIADT 43,95,1984
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 70 gm/kg/10W- continuousReproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glandsAEHLAU 47,370,1992
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 280 mg/kg/2W- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm ductJAPTO* 21,275,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 150 mg/kg/60D- continuousBiochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Catecholamine levels in CNS

Cardiac: Other changes

Blood: Other changes
ETOPFR 2,69,1996
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 42000 mg/kg/7D- continuousBlood: Other changesJOAND3 11,521,1990
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 8400 mg/kg/14D- continuousEndocrine: Change in LH

Endocrine: Androgenic
TXAPA9 136,361,1996
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 9000 mg/kg/30D- continuousEndocrine: Change in LH

Endocrine: Androgenic
BIREBV 37,1135,1987
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 18000 mg/kg/30D- continuousNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainJOAND3 11,521,1990
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 36000 mg/kg/60D- continuousReproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in prostate weight
JOAND3 11,521,1990
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 84000 mg/kg/14D- continuousEndocrine: Androgenic

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)
JOAND3 11,521,1990
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3000 mg/kg/30D- continuousEndocrine: Androgenic

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)
TXCYAC 69,269,1991
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 9000 mg/kg/30D- continuousRelated to Chronic Data: Changes in prostate weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXCYAC 69,269,1991
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 225 mg/kg/90D- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
TOXID9 72,271,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 9100 mg/kg/91D- continuousBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Liver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
CBINA8 145,267,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 9100 mg/kg/91D- continuousBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Porphyrin including bile pigments
CBINA8 145,267,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 8400 mg/kg/6W- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Inflammation, necrosis or scarring of bladder

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
CBINA8 147,259,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 420 mg/kg/2W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TXCYAC 206,1,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 840 mg/kg/2W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TXCYAC 206,1,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 120 gm/kg/60D- intermittentCardiac: Cardiomyopathy including infarction

Vascular: BP lowering not characterized in autonomic section

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TXCYAC 207,73,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3 mg/kg/30D- continuousEndocrine: Change in gonadotropins

Endocrine: Androgenic

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in prostate weight
BIREBV 33,722,1985
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 9 mg/kg/30D- continuousReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
BIREBV 33,722,1985
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 16.42 gm/kg/78W- continuousVascular: BP elevation not characterized in autonomic sectionTOLED5 41,129,1988
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 92.4 gm/kg/100W- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)TOXID9 72,84,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 259.84 mg/kg/1W- continuousBehavioral: Fluid intakeEVHPAZ 110,871,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 529.2 mg/kg/1W- continuousBehavioral: Fluid intake

Endocrine: Change in gonadotropins

Endocrine: Other changes
EVHPAZ 110,871,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2093.28 mg/kg/4W- continuousBehavioral: Fluid intake

Endocrine: Change in gonadotropins

Endocrine: Other changes
EVHPAZ 110,871,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4216.8 mg/kg/8W- continuousBehavioral: Fluid intake

Endocrine: Change in gonadotropins

Endocrine: Other changes
EVHPAZ 110,871,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 977.2 mg/kg/1W- continuousBehavioral: Fluid intake

Endocrine: Change in gonadotropins

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
EVHPAZ 110,871,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 14869.12 mg/kg/16W- continuousBehavioral: Fluid intake

Endocrine: Change in gonadotropins

Endocrine: Other changes
EVHPAZ 110,871,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 25 gm/kg/25D- intermittentBehavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure thresholdTXCYAC 173,249,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 14 mg/kg/4W- intermittentBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Catalases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TXCYAC 177,187,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 560 mg/kg/4W- intermittentBlood: Changes in spleen

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other hydrolases
TXCYAC 191,245,2003
subcutaneous/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 117 mg/kg/33W- intermittentBlood: Normocytic anemia

Blood: Other changes
ARTODN 64,522,1990
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 450 mg/kg/6W- intermittentBlood: Normocytic anemia

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other hydrolases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Porphyrin including bile pigments
GTPZAB 24(4),51,1980
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1920 mg/kg/14W- intermittentBlood: Pigmented or nucleated red blood cells

Blood: Methemoglobinemia- Carboxhemoglobinemia

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count
GISAAA 46(8),75,1981
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3000 mg/kg/30D- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
TXCYAC 213,25,2005
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1456 mg/kg/0.5Y- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Spinal Cord: Other degenerative changes

Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from afferent nerve
TPKVAL 2,115,1961
unreported route/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 0.25 pph/3W- intermittentBehavioral: AggressionTOXID9 66,207,2002

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-time-weighted average 0.05 mg(Pb)/m3DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-Confirmed animal carcinogenDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Inadequate EvidenceIMSUDL 7,230,1987
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Inadequate EvidenceIMSUDL 7,230,1987
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Group 3IMSUDL 7,230,1987
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWADTEAS 5,51,1972
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENVRAL 13,36,1977
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW85DHAX Pb,256,1972
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWARPTDI 44,87,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 148,153,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEMCPT* 2,67,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNUREA8 38,129,1980
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 584,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNETEEC 29,425,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 533,92,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJTEHD6 9,1,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 654,114,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHTOPA* 1,501,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 681,51,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 682,94,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWIMEMDT 87,225,

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMtime-weighted average 0.15 mg(Pb)/m3 (dust, fume), MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-HUNGARYtime-weighted average 0.05 mg(Pb)/m3, short term exposure limit 0.2 mg(Pb)/m3 (resp), SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit-HUNGARYtime-weighted average 0.15 mg(Pb)/m3, short term exposure limit 0.6 mg(Pb)/m3, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit-JAPANOccupational Exposure Limit 0.1 mg(Pb)/m3, 2B carc, MAY2012
Occupational Exposure Limit-MEXICOtime-weighted average 0.15 mg(Pb)/m3, 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit-RUSSIAtime-weighted average 0.05 mg(Pb)/m3, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWITZERLANDMAK-week 0.1 mg(Pb)/m3, KZG-week 0.8 mg(Pb)/m3, carc 3, inhal, JAN2011

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO LEAD, INORGANIC-air10H time-weighted average <0.1 mg(Pb)/m3NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code X8211; Number of Industries 4; Total Number of Facilities 156; Number of Occupations 5; Total Number of Employees Exposed 2145; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 50

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: E coli polA without S9
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: SHE-clonal assay; Mammalian micronucleus
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: B subtilis rec assay; In vitro UDS-human fibroblast
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: In vitro cytogenetics-human lymphocyte
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: In vivo cytogenetics-human lymphocyte
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: S cerevisiae-homozygosis
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive/dose response: Cell transform.-BALB/c-3T3
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Cell transform.-RLV F344 rat embryo
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Cell transform.-SA7/SHE; Host-mediated assay
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NTP 10th Report on Carcinogens,2002:Reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen
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