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Acetic acid, lead (2+) salt

RTECS #: AI5250000

CAS #: 301-04-2


UPDATE: May 2009 MW: 325.29 MF: C4H6O4Pb


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. MUTATION DATA:
  3. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA:
  4. TUMORIGENIC DATA:
  5. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  6. OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA:
  7. REVIEWS:
  8. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:
  9. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  10. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  11. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. Acetate de plomb (French)
  2. Bleiacetat (German)
  3. Dibasic lead acetate
  4. Lead acetate
  5. Lead diacetate
  6. Lead dibasic acetate
  7. Lead (2+) acetate
  1. Lead (II) acetate
  2. Normal lead acetate
  3. Plumbous acetate
  4. RCRA waste number U144
  5. Salt of saturn
  6. Sugar of lead


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
cytogenetic analysis oral
domestic animal
364 mg/kg/52 week- continuous NICKA3 52,619,1981
cytogenetic analysis human lymphocyte 1 mmol/L/24 hour TXCYAC 10,67,1978
cytogenetic analysis oral
monkey
206 mg/kg/64 week- intermittent MUREAV 45,77,1977
cytogenetic analysis oral
mouse
16,800 mg/kg/4 week JTEHD6 2,619,1977
cytogenetic analysis oral
mouse
2,001 mg/kg/30 day- continuous BCLPT* 97,238,2005
cytogenetic analysis oral
rat
5,000 ppm TKIZAM 82,232,1974
cytogenetic analysis unreported route
rat
9 mg/kg/26 week- continuous GISAAA 49(3),15,1984
cytogenetic analysis intraperitoneal
rat
51,800 g/kg AEHLAU 40,144,1985
dominant lethal test unreported route
rat
1,825 g/kg/1 year- continuous GISAAA 49(3),15,1984
DNA adduct Escherichia coli 50 mol/L MUREAV 89,95,1981
DNA damage hamster lung 1,700 mol/L MUREAV 298,97,1992
DNA damage human lymphocyte 0.1 mmol/L/1 hour MUREAV 535,127,2003
DNA damage human other cell types 30 mol/L/72 hour EMS37* -,431,2006
DNA damage human other cell types 30 mol/L EMS37* -,431,2006
DNA damage mouse lung 0.1 mol/L/10 minute MUTAEX 16,265,2001
DNA damage mouse liver 0.1 mol/L/10 minute MUTAEX 16,265,2001
DNA damage mouse kidney 0.1 mol/L/10 minute MUTAEX 16,265,2001
DNA damage inhalation
mouse
0.408 mg/L/60 minute MUTAEX 16,265,2001
DNA damage inhalation
mouse
3.264 mg/L/4 week MUTAEX 17,55,2002
DNA damage oral
mouse
700 mg/kg/4 week- intermittent FCTOD7 46,1488,2008
DNA damage rat other cell types 0.1 mol/L/24 hour TOLED5 166,160,2006
unscheduled DNA synthesis hamster embryo 200 mol/L MUREAV 131,173,1984
unscheduled DNA synthesis intraperitoneal
rat
50 g/kg PSEBAA 143,446,1973
unscheduled DNA synthesis parenteral
rat
5 mg/kg LAINAW 30,647,1974
micronucleus test hamster fibroblast 0.6 mol/L/18 hour TOLED5 140-141,75,2003
micronucleus test hamster ovary 0.5 mol/L/18 hour EMMUEG 45,346,2005
micronucleus test intraperitoneal
mouse
7,500 g/kg GWZHEW 12,77,1986
micronucleus test oral
mouse
2,001 mg/kg/30 day- continuous BCLPT* 97,238,2005
micronucleus test intraperitoneal
rat
51,800 g/kg AEHLAU 40,144,1985
mutation in mammalian somatic cells hamster lung 1,700 mol/L MUREAV 298,97,1992
morphological transform hamster embryo 1 mg/L JJIND8 67,1303,1981
morphological transform mouse fibroblast 800 g/L JJIND8 67,1303,1981
morphological transform rat embryo 200 mg/L JJIND8 67,1303,1981
other mutation test systems intraperitoneal
rat
10,400 g/kg AEHLAU 40,144,1985
sister chromatid exchange intraperitoneal
mouse
100 mg/kg MUREAV 158,217,1985
sister chromatid exchange oral
mouse
19,200 mg/kg/48 day NAYXEW 5,114,1985
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction intraperitoneal
mouse
179 g/kg GNTKDF 18,147,1986
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction Saccharomyes cerevisiae 250 mol/L MUTAEX 1,21,1986
sperm morphology intratesticular
domestic animal
10 mg/kg IJEBA6 11,143,1973
sperm morphology parenteral
mouse
1 gm/kg ARTODN 46,159,1980
sperm morphology intraperitoneal
mouse
400 mg/kg/5 day- intermittent CMMUAO 5,257,1978


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
intraperitoneal
guinea pig
lowest published toxic dose: 12,500 g/kg (20 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system TJADAB 30,413,1984
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 35 mg/kg (8 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
BIMDB3 30,223,1979
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 180 mg/kg (10-16 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Eye, ear

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
ZYDXEN 21,349,1992
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 25 mg/kg (9 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Eye, ear
FOMOAJ 33,23,1974
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 120 mg/kg (30 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands
CUSCAM 56,281,1987
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 60 mg/kg (13-19 day pregnant) Reproductive: Other effects to embryo or fetus ZYDXEN 21,349,1992
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,256 mg/kg (14 week male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
EXPADD 31,249,1987
intratesticular
domestic animal
lowest published toxic dose: 10 mg/kg (1 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
IJEBA6 11,143,1973
intravenous
hamster
lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kg (8 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Eye, ear
EXMPA6 7,208,1967
intravenous
hamster
lowest published toxic dose: 25 mg/kg (8 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
ANREAK 157,358,1967
intravenous
mammal (species unspecified)
lowest published toxic dose: 256 mg/kg (7-10 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants) VETODR 18(2),58,1976
intravenous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kg (11 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)
TJADAB 26(1),13A,1982
intravenous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kg (7-8 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants) TJADAB 24(1),18A,1981
multiple
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 900 mg/kg (1-30 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
NETEEC 29,188,2007
oral
guinea pig
lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kg (22-52 day pregnant) Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Blood and lymphatic systems (including spleen and marrow)
TXCYAC 59,81,1989
oral
guinea pig
lowest published toxic dose: 1,108 mg/kg (22-52 day pregnant) Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Endocrine system
TXCYAC 72,89,1992
oral
monkey
lowest published toxic dose: 765 mg/kg (90 day prior to copulation/1-23 week pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral NTOTDY 5,391,1983
oral
monkey
lowest published toxic dose: 1,557 mg/kg (62 week prior to copulation) Reproductive: Maternal effects: Menstrual cycle changes or disorders FAATDF 9,722,1987
oral
monkey
lowest published toxic dose: 600 mg/kg (57 week prior to copulation) Reproductive: Other effects on female

Endocrine: Change in LH
REPTED 6,123,1992
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 236 mg/kg (7-16 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) ARTODN 41,125,1978
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 4,800 mg/kg (1-8 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea) CRSBAW 172,1037,1978
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 9 gm/kg (7-21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Abortion CRSBAW 170,1319,1976
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 259 mg/kg (7-17 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Blood and lymphatic systems (including spleen and marrow) ARTODN 41,125,1978
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 11 gm/kg (1-22 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Weaning or lactation index (e.g., # alive at weaning per # alive at day 4)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
HETOEA 14,872,1995
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kg (multigenerations) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system
HETOEA 14,872,1995
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 8.4 mg/kg (21 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral TOXID9 78,183,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,257 L/kg (10 day prior to copulation/1-22 day pregnant) Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Blood and lymphatic systems (including spleen and marrow)

Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalities
TOSCF2 42,129,1998
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 600 g/kg (30 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Impotence
AJOGAH 115,1058,1973
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 97 mg/kg (5 week male/5 week prior to copulation-3 week after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral EVHPAZ 12,119,1975
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 14,700 mg/kg (1-21 day pregnant/21 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Live birth index (Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured after birth)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Weaning or lactation index (e.g., # alive at weaning per # alive at day 4)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
AHRTAN 47,245,1996
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,800 mg/kg (1-22 day pregnant/14 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic TOLED5 7,373,1981
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 460 mg/kg (49 day prior to copulation-21 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain) EVHPAZ 17,290,1976
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 230 mg/kg (49 day prior to copulation-21 day after birth) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Blood and lymphatic systems (including spleen and marrow)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects
CEXIAL 35,413,1979
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,950 mg/kg (6-18 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants) TJADAB 26,229,1982
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,413 mg/kg (1-18 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Maternal- fetal exchange

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
ENVRAL 30,152,1983
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2,380 mg/kg (17 week male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
KHZDAN 23(4),304,1980
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 322.5 mg/kg (1-22 day pregnant/21 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain) NETEEC 22,337,2000
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 660 mg/kg (1-22 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain) NETEEC 22,337,2000
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 30 mg/kg (multigeneration)) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
NETEEC 22,337,2000
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4,200 mg/kg (21 day after birth) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
NETEEC 22,41,2000
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 900 mg/kg (30 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
NETEEC 22,151,2000
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3,120 mg/kg (1-22 day pregnant/30 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
NETEEC 22,151,2000
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kg (multigenerations) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Viability index (e.g., # alive at day 4 per # born alive)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
FESTAS 22,755,1971
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 600 mg/kg (multigenerations) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Endocrine system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Physical
TXAPA9 136,361,1996
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 17,550 mg/kg (5-22 day pregnant/1-21 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
JTEHD6 54,101,1998
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 68 mg/kg (multigenerations) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic TOLED5 32,255,1986
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,275 mg/kg (5-22 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Physical JTEHF8 54,77,1998
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3,825 mg/kg (5-22 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Stillbirth JTEHF8 54,77,1998
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 25 mg/kg (multigenerations) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Physical JTEHF8 54,77,1998
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 75 mg/kg (multigenerations) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Endocrine system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
JTEHF8 54,77,1998
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.1 gm/kg (multigenerations) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Physical

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
EVHPAZ 110(Suppl 3),377,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 8.8 gm/kg (0-22 day pregnant/21 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Physical

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
EVHPAZ 110(Suppl 3),377,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,875 mg/kg (7 day prior to copulation-21 day after birth) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
NETEEC 24,805,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,199 mg/kg (1-22 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
NETEEC 24,149,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 6 gm/kg (30 day prior to copulation/22 day pregnant/21 day after birth) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
LIFSAK 74,1139,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4.4 gm/kg (30 day prior to copulation-21 day after birth) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects
TOSCF2 77,35,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5.8 gm/kg (30 day prior to copulation/22 day pregnant/3 week after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
PSCHDL 168,236,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5.84 gm/kg (30 day prior to copulation-21 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
PSCHDL 174,203,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,119.8 mg/kg (0-21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
TOLED5 143,331,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4,200 mg/kg (1-21 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
ETOPFR 13,187,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,554 mg/kg (1 day pregnant-21 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral NETEEC 26,291,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5.84 gm/kg (30 day prior to copulation-21 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects
NEROEW 23,444,2000
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 275 mg/kg (10-17 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic TOXID9 44,123,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3,700 mg/kg (6 day pregnant-21 day after birth) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
TOXID9 44,217,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2,150 mg/kg (1 day pregnant-21 day after birth) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system TOXID9 66,129,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4.2 mg/kg (21 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic TOXID9 78,184,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2,000 mg/kg (1 day pregnant-21 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
DCTODJ 28,67,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4.3 mg/kg (1-22 day pregnant/21 day after birth) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
TOXID9 78,230,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 16.8 mg/kg (21 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects TOXID9 78,273,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 245 mg/kg (3-9 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects
TOXID9 60,30,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 245 mg/kg (15-21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects
TOXID9 60,30,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4,200 mg/kg (21 day after birth) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system TOXID9 66,336,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5,850 mg/kg (4 day pregnant-21 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic TOXID9 60,228,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 10,800 mg/kg (1 day pregnant-50 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic TOXID9 60,187,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4,300 mg/kg (1 day pregnant-21 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic TOXID9 60,187,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2,000 mg/kg (2-21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic TOXID9 60,354,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 8,000 mg/kg (2 day pregnant-60 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic TOXID9 60,354,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 592 mg/kg (30 day prior to copulation-21 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral TXCYAC 211,49,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,272 mg/kg (30 day prior to copulation/1-22 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral TXCYAC 211,49,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,800 mg/kg (30 day prior to copulation) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system REPTED 21,104,2006
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4,200 mg/kg (multigeneration) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic NETOX* 27,39,2006
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 990 mg/kg (1 day pregnant-12 day after birth) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Hepatobiliary system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
EESADV 51,35,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 990 mg/kg (1 day pregnant-12 day after birth) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
EESADV 53,259,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5,600 mg/kg (15 day pregnant-21 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
TOLED5 164,63,2006
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2,100 mg/kg (1-21 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic NRTXDN 28,402,2007
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5,400 mg/kg (16 day pregnant-21 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects
NETEEC 29,385,2007
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 380.1 mg/kg (1-21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic TXCYAC 246,83,2008
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2,988.3 mg/kg (1-21 day pregnant/21 day after birth) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
FCTOD7 46,2089,2008
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2,988.3 mg/kg (1-21 day pregnant/21 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects FCTOD7 46,2089,2008
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 110 mg/kg (15 week male) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects
NETEEC 19,191,1997
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 800 mg/kg (9-22 day pregnant/14 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic JTEHD6 10,653,1982
unreported route
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2.92 gm/kg (30 day prior to copulation-21 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain) PSCHDL 158,165,2001


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 900 mg/kg/60 day- continuous Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Endocrine: Adrenal cortex tumors
ENVRAL 24,391,1981
oral
rat
toxic dose : 250 gm/kg/47 week- continuous Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Kidney tumors
BJCAAI 16,283,1962
oral
rat
toxic dose : 2,430 mg/kg/23 week- continuous Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Brain and Coverings: Tumors

Endocrine: Tumors
ENVRAL 24,391,1981
oral
rat
toxic dose : 4,605 mg/kg/44 week- continuous Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Endocrine: Adrenal cortex tumors
ENVRAL 24,391,1981
oral
rat
toxic dose : 7,560 mg/kg/72 week- continuous Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Endocrine: Tumors

Endocrine: Thyroid tumors
ENVRAL 24,391,1981
oral
rat
toxic dose : 9,150 mg/kg/44 week- continuous Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Kidney tumors
AJPAA4 50,571,1967
oral
rat
toxic dose : 218 gm/kg/1 year- continuous Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Kidney tumors
BECTA6 23,464,1979
oral
rat
toxic dose : 138 gm/kg/76 week- continuous Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Kidney tumors
TOPADD 13,50,1985
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 92.4 gm/kg/100 week- continuous Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Bladder tumors
TOXID9 72,84,2003


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
intracerebral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2,602 ng/kg Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases
TXAPA9 200,27,2004
intraperitoneal
wild bird
lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kg Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning
NETOX* 26,615,2005
intraperitoneal
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 140 mg/kg N/R TXCYAC 64,19,1990
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 12.5 mg/kg Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXCYAC 178,183,2002
intraperitoneal
pigeon
lowest published lethal dose: 150 mg/kg N/R ARTODN 46,265,1980
intraperitoneal
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 150 mg/kg N/R EQSSDX 1,1,1975
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kg Behavioral: Alteration of operant conditioning PHTOEH 92,88,2003
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 15 mg/kg Brain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNS FCTOD7 45,412,2007
intravenous
dog
lowest published lethal dose: 300 mg/kg N/R EQSSDX 1,1,1975
intravenous
man
lowest published toxic dose: 71 mg/kg Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Blood: Normocytic anemia

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
HUTODJ 4,301,1985
intravenous
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 104 mg/kg Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain IGSBAL 93,461,1977
intravenous
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 25 mg/kg Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Food intake (animal)

Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea
JIHTAB 31,301,1949
oral
dog
lowest published lethal dose: 300 mg/kg N/R HBAMAK 4,1289,1935
oral
human
lowest published lethal dose: 714 mg/kg Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
IPSTB3 3,93,1976
oral
mouse
lethal dose : 200 mg/kg N/R TPKVAL 2,148,1961
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kg Gastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of salivary glands TOXID9 44,236,2005
subcutaneous
cat
lowest published lethal dose: 100 mg/kg N/R HBAMAK 4,1289,1935
subcutaneous
dog
lowest published lethal dose: 80 mg/kg N/R HBAMAK 4,1289,1935
subcutaneous
frog
lowest published lethal dose: 1,600 mg/kg N/R HBAMAK 4,1289,1935
subcutaneous
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 300 mg/kg N/R HBAMAK 4,1289,1935


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 5.46 g/m3/15 day- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Endocrine: Differential effect of sex or castration on observed toxicity
TXCYAC 207,323,2005
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 5 mg/m3/6 hour/70 day- intermittent Reproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands HETOEA 12,165,1993
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 37,680 g/kg/5 day- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Blood: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Other metals
BECTA6 16,190,1976
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kg/20 day- intermittent Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesterase

Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Catecholamine levels in CNS
BPBLEO 28,490,2005
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 59 mg/kg/6 week- intermittent Gastrointestinal: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Na

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
FEPRA7 36,1116,1977
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 30 mg/kg/30 day- intermittent Blood: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
INHEAO 25,55,1987
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 152 mg/kg/4 day- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Changes in surface EEG

Blood: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
INHEAO 22,189,1984
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 69 mg/kg/22 week- intermittent Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from afferent nerve

Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerve

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition
INHEAO 24,163,1986
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 280 mg/kg/35 day- intermittent Endocrine: Change in LH

Endocrine: Androgenic

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)
TXCYAC 100,101,1995
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 60 mg/kg/6 week- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Other measures of fertility
TXCYAC 122,133,1997
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 120 mg/kg/6 week- intermittent Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Other measures of fertility

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
JTEHF8 55,45,1998
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kg/6 week- intermittent Endocrine: Androgenic

Blood: Other changes
JTEHF8 55,45,1998
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 58.33 mg/kg/70 day- intermittent Endocrine: Changes in adrenal weight RCOCB8 14,689,1976
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4.554 mg/kg/3 day- intermittent Blood: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Amino acids (including renal excretion)
ARTODN -,227,1987
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 90 mg/kg/9 week- intermittent Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count) TXCYAC 122,133,1997
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kg/5 week- intermittent Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
TXCYAC 103,53,1995
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 30 mg/kg/30 day- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
FHICY* 24,233,1986
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 120 mg/kg/30 day- intermittent Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct FHICY* 24,233,1986
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 180 mg/kg/30 day- intermittent Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count) FHICY* 24,233,1986
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 140 mg/kg/1 week- intermittent Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count TXCYAC 191,245,2003
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 560 mg/kg/4 week- intermittent Blood: Changes in spleen

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other hydrolases
TXCYAC 191,245,2003
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.75 mg/kg/15 day- intermittent Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Catecholamine levels in CNS FCTOD7 41,379,2003
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.75 mg/kg/15 day- intermittent Endocrine: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
ARTODN 76,671,2002
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 75 mg/kg/3 day- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TXCYAC 212,185,2005
intraperitoneal
rat
: 280 mg/kg/35 day- intermittent Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in prostate weight

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
FCTOD7 44,1114,2006
intraperitoneal
rat
: 560 mg/kg/35 day- intermittent Reproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands FCTOD7 44,1114,2006
oral
dog
lowest published toxic dose: 286 mg/kg/13 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Blood: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
JEPTDQ 3(5-6),465,1980
oral
domestic animal
lowest published toxic dose: 105 mg/kg/7 day- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNS

Eye: Other eye effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Glycolytic
AJVRAH 54,808,1993
oral
guinea pig
lowest published toxic dose: 1,250 mg/kg/25 day- intermittent Endocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunction

Endocrine: Adrenal cortex hyperplasia

Reproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubes
MTPEEI -,6,1993
oral
guinea pig
lowest published toxic dose: 750 mg/kg/75 day- intermittent Endocrine: Adrenal cortex hyperplasia

Endocrine: Effect on menstrual cycle

Endocrine: Other changes
MTPEEI -,6,1993
oral
guinea pig
lowest published toxic dose: 900 mg/kg/30 day- intermittent Blood: Other changes

Blood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified)

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count
TPKVAL 2,148,1961
oral
guinea pig
lowest published toxic dose: 600 mg/kg/15 day- intermittent Blood: Other changes

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count
TPKVAL 2,172,1961
oral
guinea pig
lowest published toxic dose: 6,080 mg/kg/152 day- intermittent Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Flaccid paralysis with appropriate anesthesia

Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerve

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TPKVAL 2,172,1961
oral
guinea pig
lowest published toxic dose: 2,600 mg/kg/65 day- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain TPKVAL 2,172,1961
oral
monkey
lowest published toxic dose: 600,000 g/kg/400 day- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis) REPTED 6,123,1992
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1,120 mg/kg/16 week- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Brain and Coverings: Changes in brain weight

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
JTEMEM 3,235,1990
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 880 mg/kg/14 day- continuous Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other hydrolases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
ARTODN 63,23,1989
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 11,087 mg/kg/26 week- continuous Blood: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
BECTA6 42,476,1989
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 4,710 mg/kg/30 day- continuous Blood: Other changes

Blood: Changes in bone marrow not included in above

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other hydrolases
ARTODN 63,23,1989
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 28 gm/kg/16 week- continuous Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field BECTA6 19,266,1978
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 58.8 gm/kg/14 week- continuous Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field BECTA6 19,266,1978
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 33.6 gm/kg/8 week- continuous Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count) BECTA6 19,266,1978
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 16.8 gm/kg/4 week- continuous Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain BECTA6 19,266,1978
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 2,001 mg/kg/30 day- continuous Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
BCLPT* 97,238,2005
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 34.16 gm/kg/15 week- continuous Blood: Changes in spleen

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXAPA9 218,215,2007
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 700 mg/kg/4 week- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
FCTOD7 46,1488,2008
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 140 mg/kg/4 week- intermittent Liver: Other changes FCTOD7 46,1488,2008
oral
pigeon
lowest published toxic dose: 4,396 mg/kg/64 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Blood: Normocytic anemia

Blood: Other changes
ENVRAL 28,344,1982
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 240 mg/kg/17 week- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
KHZDAN 17,21,1974
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 122 gm/kg/90 day- continuous Cardiac: EKG changes not diagnostic of above

Vascular: BP elevation not characterized in autonomic section

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Ca
DCTODJ 14,305,1991
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2,006 mg/kg/61 week- continuous Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Vascular: BP elevation not characterized in autonomic section

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Other metals
TOLED5 63,135,1992
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 43 mg/kg/1.5 year- continuous Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
GISAAA 44(2),9,1979
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 923 gm/kg/28 week- continuous Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Sensory change involving peripheral nerve

Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerve

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
ENVRAL 62,148,1993
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 192 gm/kg/5 week- continuous Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TXAPA9 41,361,1977
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 126 gm/kg/30 week- continuous Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight

Endocrine: Hypoglycemia
TXAPA9 25,84,1973
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 344 gm/kg/1 year- continuous Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Brain and Coverings: Changes in brain weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TOLED5 42,55,1988
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2,907 mg/kg/36 week- continuous Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight
TXAPA9 56,59,1980
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4,404 mg/kg/8 week- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesterase

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
PHTOEH 74,66,1994
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 70 gm/kg/10 week- continuous Reproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands AEHLAU 47,370,1992
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 280 mg/kg/2 week- intermittent Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct JAPTO* 21,275,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 150 mg/kg/60 day- continuous Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Catecholamine levels in CNS

Cardiac: Other changes

Blood: Other changes
ETOPFR 2,69,1996
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 42,000 mg/kg/7 day- continuous Blood: Other changes JOAND3 11,521,1990
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 8,400 mg/kg/14 day- continuous Endocrine: Change in LH

Endocrine: Androgenic
TXAPA9 136,361,1996
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 9,000 mg/kg/30 day- continuous Endocrine: Change in LH

Endocrine: Androgenic
BIREBV 37,1135,1987
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,500 mg/kg/60 day- continuous Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
BBIADT 43,95,1984
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3,000 mg/kg/60 day- continuous Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count) BBIADT 43,95,1984
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 6,000 mg/kg/60 day- continuous Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight BBIADT 43,95,1984
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 18,000 mg/kg/30 day- continuous Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain JOAND3 11,521,1990
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 36,000 mg/kg/60 day- continuous Reproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in prostate weight
JOAND3 11,521,1990
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 84,000 mg/kg/14 day- continuous Endocrine: Androgenic

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)
JOAND3 11,521,1990
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3,000 mg/kg/30 day- continuous Endocrine: Androgenic

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)
TXCYAC 69,269,1991
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 9,000 mg/kg/30 day- continuous Related to Chronic Data: Changes in prostate weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXCYAC 69,269,1991
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 475 mg/kg/19 day- intermittent Endocrine: Change in gonadotropins

Endocrine: Other changes
ENVRAL 19,383,1979
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,400 mg/kg/14 day- intermittent Endocrine: Change in gonadotropins

Endocrine: Other changes
ENVRAL 19,383,1979
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 30,000 mg/kg/50 day- continuous Endocrine: Change in LH

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in prostate weight
TXAPA9 136,361,1996
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 21,600 mg/kg/36 day- continuous Endocrine: Effect on menstrual cycle

Endocrine: Other changes
TXAPA9 136,361,1996
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3,600 mg/kg/6 day- continuous Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain TXAPA9 136,361,1996
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4,200 mg/kg/14 day- continuous Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Other measures of fertility
TXAPA9 124,310,1994
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3 mg/kg/30 day- continuous Endocrine: Change in gonadotropins

Endocrine: Androgenic

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in prostate weight
BIREBV 33,722,1985
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 9 mg/kg/30 day- continuous Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
BIREBV 33,722,1985
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 16.42 gm/kg/78 week- continuous Vascular: BP elevation not characterized in autonomic section TOLED5 41,129,1988
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 92.4 gm/kg/100 week- continuous Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis) TOXID9 72,84,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 259.84 mg/kg/1 week- continuous Behavioral: Fluid intake EVHPAZ 110,871,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 529.2 mg/kg/1 week- continuous Behavioral: Fluid intake

Endocrine: Change in gonadotropins

Endocrine: Other changes
EVHPAZ 110,871,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2,093.28 mg/kg/4 week- continuous Behavioral: Fluid intake

Endocrine: Change in gonadotropins

Endocrine: Other changes
EVHPAZ 110,871,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4,216.8 mg/kg/8 week- continuous Behavioral: Fluid intake

Endocrine: Change in gonadotropins

Endocrine: Other changes
EVHPAZ 110,871,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 977.2 mg/kg/1 week- continuous Behavioral: Fluid intake

Endocrine: Change in gonadotropins

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
EVHPAZ 110,871,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 14,869.12 mg/kg/16 week- continuous Behavioral: Fluid intake

Endocrine: Change in gonadotropins

Endocrine: Other changes
EVHPAZ 110,871,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 25 gm/kg/25 day- intermittent Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold TXCYAC 173,249,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 14 mg/kg/4 week- intermittent Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Catalases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TXCYAC 177,187,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 560 mg/kg/4 week- intermittent Blood: Changes in spleen

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other hydrolases
TXCYAC 191,245,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 225 mg/kg/90 day- continuous Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
TOXID9 72,271,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 9,100 mg/kg/91 day- continuous Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Liver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
CBINA8 145,267,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 9,100 mg/kg/91 day- continuous Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Porphyrin including bile pigments
CBINA8 145,267,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 8,400 mg/kg/6 week- continuous Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Inflammation, necrosis or scarring of bladder

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
CBINA8 147,259,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 420 mg/kg/2 week- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TXCYAC 206,1,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 840 mg/kg/2 week- intermittent Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TXCYAC 206,1,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 120 gm/kg/60 day- intermittent Cardiac: Cardiomyopathy including infarction

Vascular: BP lowering not characterized in autonomic section

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TXCYAC 207,73,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3,000 mg/kg/30 day- intermittent Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Dopamine at other sites
TXCYAC 207,363,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2,625 mg/kg/3 week- continuous Brain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNS TOXID9 66,25,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 225 mg/kg/90 day- continuous Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Proteinuria

Blood: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
TOXID9 66,31,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 75 mg/kg/30 day- continuous Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis) TOXID9 66,31,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 12 gm/kg/60 day- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
ARTODN 79,1,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 7 gm/kg/5 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
ARTODN 76,437,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 350 mg/kg/4 week- continuous Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes TOXID9 66,128,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 525 mg/kg/3 week- continuous Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Dopamine in striatum TOXID9 78,230,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 89.6 mg/kg/16 week- continuous Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes TOXID9 78,273,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 350 mg/kg/7 day- continuous Gastrointestinal: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
JAPTO* 25,361,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 7,500 mg/kg/50 day- continuous Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TOXID9 60,186,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 900 mg/kg/30 day- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
MUREAV 577S,1,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 455 mg/kg/91 day- continuous Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning TOXID9 60,354,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 35 gm/kg/5 week- intermittent Eye: Other eye effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TXCYAC 212,1,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 14 gm/kg/20 week- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Other metals
TXCYAC 214,39,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2,940 mg/kg/12 week- continuous Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
TXCYAC 219,11,2006
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 280 mg/kg/4 week- continuous Vascular: BP elevation not characterized in autonomic section

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
TOLED5 166,88,2006
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 560 mg/kg/8 week- continuous Vascular: Contraction (isolated tissue) TOLED5 166,88,2006
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3,591 mg/kg/6 week- continuous Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Blood: Other changes
TXAPA9 219,33,2007
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 119 mg/kg/7 day- continuous Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain TOSCF2 92,286,2006
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 357 mg/kg/3 week- continuous Behavioral: Food intake (animal)

Liver: Other changes

Musculoskeletal: Other changes
TOSCF2 92,286,2006
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5,600 mg/kg/8 week- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Plasma proteins not involving coagulation
DCTODJ 1,11,2006
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 6,100 mg/kg/61 day- continuous Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Catalases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
HETOEA 23,157,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 40 mg/kg/40 day- intermittent Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct TPKVAL 10,64,1968
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4 mg/kg/40 day- intermittent Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count) TPKVAL 10,64,1968
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,456 mg/kg/0.5 year- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Spinal Cord: Other degenerative changes

Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from afferent nerve
TPKVAL 2,115,1961
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 420 mg/kg/2 week- continuous Liver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
JTCTDW 42,798,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,260 mg/kg/6 week- continuous Liver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
JTCTDW 42,798,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 7,000 mg/kg/28 day- continuous Behavioral: Alteration of operant conditioning PHTOEH 92,88,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5,599 mg/kg/6 week- continuous Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
NRTXDN 28,850,2007
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3,973.2 mg/kg/12 week- continuous Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Conditioned vitamin deficiency
FCTOD7 45,1478,2007
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3 mg/kg/30 day- continuous Liver: Other changes EMS37* -,438,
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 450 mg/kg/6 week- intermittent Blood: Normocytic anemia

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other hydrolases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Porphyrin including bile pigments
GTPZAB 24(4),51,1980
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,920 mg/kg/14 week- intermittent Blood: Pigmented or nucleated red blood cells

Blood: Methemoglobinemia- Carboxhemoglobinemia

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count
GISAAA 46(8),75,1981
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3,000 mg/kg/30 day- intermittent Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
TXCYAC 213,25,2005
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,456 mg/kg/0.5 year- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Spinal Cord: Other degenerative changes

Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from afferent nerve
TPKVAL 2,115,1961
subcutaneous
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 117 mg/kg/33 week- intermittent Blood: Normocytic anemia

Blood: Other changes
ARTODN 64,522,1990
unreported route
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 0.25 pph/3 week- intermittent Behavioral: Aggression TOXID9 66,207,2002


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value time-weighted average 0.05 mg(Pb)/m3 DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Inadequate Evidence IMSUDL 7,230,1987
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human Inadequate Evidence IMSUDL 7,230,1987
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Group 3 IMSUDL 7,230,1987
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ADTEAS 5,51,1972
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ENVRAL 13,36,1977
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
85DHAX Pb,256,1972
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ARPTDI 44,87,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 148,153,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
EMCPT* 2,67,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
NUREA8 38,129,1980
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 584,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
NETEEC 29,425,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 533,92,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
JTEHD6 9,1,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 654,114,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 654,114,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HTOPA* 1,501,2002


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM time-weighted average 0.15 mg(Pb)/m3 (dust, fume), MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - DENMARK time-weighted average 0.05 mg(Pb)/m3, OCT 2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - EC time-weighted average 0.15 mg(Pb)/m3, APR 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit - HUNGARY time-weighted average 0.05 mg(Pb)/m3, short term exposure limit 0.2 mg(Pb)/m3 (resp), SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit - HUNGARY time-weighted average 0.15 mg(Pb)/m3, short term exposure limit 0.6 mg(Pb)/m3, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit - MEXICO time-weighted average 0.15 mg(Pb)/m3, 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit - RUSSIA time-weighted average 0.05 mg(Pb)/m3, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWITZERLAND MAK- week 0.1 mg(Pb)/m3;
KZG- week 0.8 mg(Pb)/m3, DEC2006


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO LEAD, INORGANIC-air 10 hour time-weighted average <0.1 mg(Pb)/m3 NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: X8211;
Number of Industries 4;
Total Number of Facilities 156;
Number of Occupations 5;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 2,145;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 50


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Cell transform.-RLV F344 rat embryo
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Cell transform.-SA7/SHE; Host-mediated assay
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive/dose response: Cell transform.-BALB/c-3T3
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: In vitro cytogenetics-human lymphocyte
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: In vivo cytogenetics-human lymphocyte
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: B subtilis rec assay; In vitro UDS-human fibroblast
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: S cerevisiae-homozygosis
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: SHE-clonal assay; Mammalian micronucleus
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: E coli polA without S9
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
Used as a color additive in hair dyes
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NTP 10th Report on Carcinogens,2002:Reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

85DHAX "Medical and Biologic Effects of Environmental Pollutants Series," Washington, DC, National Academy of Sciences, 1972-77
ADTEAS Advances in Teratology. (New York, NY) V.1-5, 1966-72. Discontinued.
AEHLAU Archives of Environmental Health. (Heldref Pub., 4000 Albemarle St., NW, Washington, DC 20016) V.1- 1960-
AHRTAN Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju. Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. (Jugoslovenska Knjiga, POB 36, YU-11001 Belgrade, Yugoslavia) V.7- 1956-
AJOGAH American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. (C.V. Mosby Co., 11830 Westline Industrial Dr., St. Louis, MO 63146) V.1- 1920-
AJPAA4 American Journal of Pathology. (Lippincott/Harper, Journal Fulfillment Dept., 2350 Virginia Ave., Hagerstown, MD 21740) V.1- 1925-
AJVRAH American Journal of Veterinary Research. (American Veterinary Medical Assoc., 930 N. Meacham Rd., Schaumburg, IL 60196) V.1- 1940-
ANREAK Anatomical Record. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.1- 1906/08-
ARPTDI Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology. (Annual Reviews, Inc., POB 10139, Palo Alto, CA 94303) V.16- 1976-
ARTODN Archives of Toxicology. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberger Pl. 3, D-1000 Berlin 33, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.32- 1974-
BBIADT Biomedica Biochimica Acta. (Akademie-Verlag GmbH, Postfach 1233, Berlin DDR-1086, Ger. Dem. Rep.) V.42- 1983-
BCLPT* Basic & clinical pharmacology & toxicology (Copenhagen, Denmark : Nordic Pharmacological Society Oxford, UK : Distributed by Blackwell Munksgaard) V.94- 2004-
BECTA6 Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. (Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., Service Center, 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, NJ 07094) V.1- 1966-
BIMDB3 Biomedicine. (Paris, France) V.18-34, 1973-81.
BIREBV Biology of Reproduction. (Soc. for the Study of Reproduction, 309 W. Clark St., Champaign, IL 61820) V.1- 1969-
BJCAAI British Journal of Cancer. (Macmillan Press Ltd., Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hants. RG21 2XS, UK) V.1- 1947-
BPBLEO Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. (Pharmaceutical Society of Japan, 2-12-15-201 Shibuya Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150, Japan) V.16- 1993-
CBINA8 Chemico-Biological Interactions. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1969-
CEXIAL Clinical and Experimental Immunology. (Blackwell Scientific Pub. Ltd., POB 88, Oxford, UK) V.1- 1966-
CMMUAO Chemical Mutagens. Principles and Methods for Their Detection. (Plenum Pub. Corp., 233 Spring St., New York, NY 10013) V.1- 1971-
CRSBAW Comptes Rendus des Seances de la Societe de Biologie et de Ses Filiales. (SPPIF, B.P.22, F-41353 Vineuil, France) V.1- 1849-
CUSCAM Current Science. (Current Science Assoc., Sadashivanagar P.O., Bangalore 560 080, India) V.1- 1932-
DCTODJ Drug and Chemical Toxicology. (Marcel Dekker, 270 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10016) V.1- 1977/78-
DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996
EESADV Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1977-
EMCPT* EMC-Toxicologie Pathologie (Elsevier) V.1- 2004-
EMMUEG Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 1987-
EMS37*
ENVRAL Environmental Research. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1967-
EQSSDX Environmental Quality and Safety, Supplement. (Stuttgart, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.1-5, 1975-76. Discontinued.
ETOPFR Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology (Elsevier Science, P.O.Box 7247-7682,Philadelphia,PA 19170 -7682,USA OR Elsevier Science B.V.,P.O.Box 1270,1000 BG Amsterdam,The Netherlands) V.1- Feb.1996-
EVHPAZ EHP, Environmental Health Perspectives. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) No.1- 1972-
EXMPA6 Experimental and Molecular Pathology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1962-
EXPADD Experimental Pathology (1981). (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.19- 1981-
FAATDF Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1-40, 1981-97. For publisher information, see TOSCF2
FCTOD7 Food and Chemical Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.20- 1982-
FEPRA7 Federation Proceedings, Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. (Bethesda, MD) V.1-46, 1942-87.
FESTAS Fertility and Sterility. (American Fertility Soc., 608 13th Ave. S, Birmingham, AL 35282) V.1- 1950-
FHICY* Folia histochemica et cytobiologica. (Polish Academy of Sciences, Polish Histochemical and Cytochemical Society, Krakow Polish Histochemical And Cytochemical Society And Foundation For Cell And Molecular Biology At Vesalius University Medical Publisher)V1- 1984-
FOMOAJ Folia Morphologica (Warsaw). (Panstwowy Zaklad Wydawnictw Lekarskich, ul. Dluga 38-40, 00 238 Warsaw, Poland) V.1- 1929-
GISAAA Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1- 1936-
GNTKDF Genetika (Zemun, Yugoslavia). (Unija Bioloskih Naucnih Drustava Jugoslavije, Postanski fah 12 7, Zemun, Yugoslavia) V.1- 1969-
GTPZAB Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya. Labor Hygiene and Occupational Diseases. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1-36, 1957-1992. For publisher information, see MTPEEI
GWZHEW Gongye Weisheng Yu Zhiyebing. Industrial Health and Occupational Diseases. (China International Book Trading Corp., POB 2820, Beijing, Peop. Rep. China) V.1- 1973-
HBAMAK "Abdernalden's Handbuch der Biologischen Arbeitsmethoden." (Leipzig, Ger. Dem. Rep.)
HETOEA Human & Experimental Toxicology. (Macmillan Press Ltd., Brunel Road, Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire, RG21 2XS, UK) V.9- 1990-
HTOPA*
HUTODJ Human Toxicology. (Macmillan Press Ltd., Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hants., RG 21 2XS, UK) V.1- 1981-
IGSBAL Igaku to Seibutsugaku. Medicine and Biology. (c/o Ogato Igaku Kagaku Kenkyusho, 2-3-5 Bakuro-cho, Nihonbashi, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 103, Japan) V.1- 1942-
IJEBA6 Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. (Publications & Information Directorate, CSIR, Hillside Rd., New Delhi 110 012, India) V.1- 1963-
IMSUDL IARC Monographs, Supplement. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) No.1- 1979-
INHEAO Industrial Health. (National Institute of Industrial Health, 6-21-1 Nagao, Tama-ku, Kawasaki, 213 Japan) V.1- 1963-
IPSTB3 International Polymer Science and Technology. (Rapra Technology Ltd., Shawbury, Shrewsbury, Shropshire SY4 4NR, UK)
JAPTO* Journal of Applied Toxicology (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Oldlands Way Bognor Regis West Sussex, PO22 9SA England) V.1- 1981-
JEPTDQ Journal of Environmental Pathology and Toxicology. (Park Forest South, IL) V.1-5(3), 1977-81(?). For publisher information, see JEPOEC.
JIHTAB Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. (Cambridge, MA) V.18-31, 1936-49. For publisher information, see AEHLAU.
JJIND8 JNCI, Journal of the National Cancer Institute. (Washington, DC) V.61-79, 1978-87. For publisher information, see JNCIEQ.
JOAND3 Journal of Andrology. (Lippincott/Harper, Journal Fulfillment Dept., 2350 Virginia Ave., Hagerstown, MD 21740) V.1- 1980-
JTCTDW Journal of Toxicology, Clinical Toxicology. (Marcel Dekker, 270 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10016) V.19- 1982-
JTEHD6 Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. (Hemisphere Pub., 1025 Vermont Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20005) V.1- 1975/76-
JTEHF8 Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A. (Taylor & Francis, 47 Runway Rd., Suite G, Levittown, PA 19057) V.53- 1998-
JTEMEM Journal of Trace Elements in Experimental Medicine. (Wiley-Liss, Inc., 605 Third Ave., New York, NY 10158-0012) V.1- 1988-
KHZDAN Khigiena i Zdraveopazvane. Hygiene and Sanitation. (Hemus, Blvd. Russki 6, Sofia, Bulgaria) V.9- 1966-
LAINAW Laboratory Investigation. (Williams & Wilkins Co., 428 E. Preston St., Baltimore, MD 21202) V.1- 1952-
LIFSAK Life Sciences. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.1-8, 1962-69; V.14- 1974-
MTPEEI Meditsina Truda i Promyshlennaya Ekologiya. Industrial Medicine and Ecology. (Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, ul.B. Yakimanka, 39 117049 Moscow, Russia) No.1- 1993-
MUREAV Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1964-
MUTAEX Mutagenesis. (Oxford Univ. Press, Pinkhill House, Southfield Road, Eynsham, Oxford OX8 1JJ, UK) V.1- 1986-
NAYXEW Nanjing Yixueyuan Xuebao. Journal of Nanjing Medical College. (Nanjing Yixueyuan, 140 Hanzhonglu, Nanjing, Peop. Rep. China) V.1- 1981(?)-
NEROEW Neuropsychopharmacology. (Elsevier Science, 655 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10010) V.1- 1987-
NETEEC Neurotoxicology and Teratology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.9- 1987-
NETOX* NeuroToxicology (Amsterdam : Elsevier Science) V.1- 1979-
NICKA3 Nippon Chikusan Gakkaiho. Journal of the Japanese Society of Zootechnical Science. (Nippon Chikusan Gakkai, 201 Nagatani Koporasu, 2-9-4 Ikenohata, Taito-ku, Tokyo 110, Japan) V.1- 1924-
NIOSH* National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda.
NRTXDN Neurotoxicology. (Intox Press, Inc., POB 34075, Little Rock, AR 72203) V.1- 1979-
NTOTDY Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology. (Fayetteville, NY) V.3-8, 1981-86. For publisher information, see NETEEC.
NUREA8 Nutrition Reviews. (Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., Service Center, 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, NJ 07094) V.1- 1942-
PHTOEH Pharmacology and Toxicology (Copenhagen). (Munksgaard International Pub., POB 2148, DK-1016 Copenhagen K, Denmark) V.60- 1987-
PSCHDL Psychopharmacology (Berlin). (Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., Service Center, 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, NJ 07094) V.47- 1976-
PSEBAA Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1903/04-
RCOCB8 Research Communications in Chemical Pathology and Pharmacology. (PJD Pub. Ltd., P.O. Box 966, Westbury, NY 11590) V.1- 1970-
REPTED Reproductive Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.1- 1987-
TJADAB Teratology, The International Journal of Abnormal Development. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.1- 1968-
TKIZAM Tokyo Igaku Zasshi. Tokyo Journal of Medical Sciences. (Tokyo, Japan) V.59-76, 1951-68.
TOLED5 Toxicology Letters. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1977-
TOPADD Toxicologic Pathology. (c/o Dr. F.A. de la Iglesia, Warner-Lambert Co., Pharmaceutical Research Div., POB 1047, Ann Arbor, MI 48106) V.6(3/4)- 1978-
TOSCF2 Toxicological Sciences (Oxford University Press, 6277 Sea Harbor Drive, Orlando, FL 32887 ) V. 41, Jan. 1998-
TOXID9 Toxicologist. (Soc. of Toxicology, Inc., 475 Wolf Ledge Parkway, Akron, OH 44311) V.1- 1981-
TPKVAL Toksikologiya Novykh Promyshlennykh Khimicheskikh Veshchestv. Toxicology of New Industrial Chemical Substances. For English translation, see TNICS*. (Izdatel'stvo Meditsina, Moscow, USSR) No.1- 1961-
TXAPA9 Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1959-
TXCYAC Toxicology. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland, Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1973-
VETODR Veterinary Toxicology. (Manhattan, KS) V.15-18, 1973-76. For publisher information, see VHTODE
ZYDXEN Zhongguo Yike Daxue Xuebao. Journal of China Medical University. (China International Book Trading Corp. POB 399, Beijing 100044, Peop. Rep. China) V.1- 19??-

Used as a color additive in hair dyes

FDA-over the counter drug

RTECS Compound Description:
   Agricultural Chemical
   Tumorigen
   Organometallic
   Mutagen
   Reproductive Effector
   Human Data

Click Here for Additional Information about RTECS

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