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Acetic acid, dichloro -

RTECS #: AG6125000

CAS #: 79-43-6


UPDATE: May 2009 MW: 128.94 MF: C2H2Cl2O2


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA:
  3. MUTATION DATA:
  4. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA:
  5. TUMORIGENIC DATA:
  6. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  7. OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA:
  8. REVIEWS:
  9. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:
  10. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  11. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  12. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. 2,2 - Dichloroacetic acid
  2. Analytical grade dichloroacetic acid
  3. Bichloracetic acid
  4. DCA
  5. DCA (acid)
  6. Dichloracetic acid
  1. Dichlorethanoic acid
  2. Dichloroacetic acid
  3. Dichloroacetic acid (IUPAC)
  4. Dichloroethanoic acid
  5. Kyselina dichloroctova (Czech)
  6. Urner's liquid


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
skin
rabbit
2 mg/24 hour severe 85JCAE -,570,1986


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
cytogenetic analysis mouse lymphocyte 600 mg/L MUREAV 413,265,1998
DNA damage oral
mouse
35,840 mg/kg/8 week- intermittent TOSCF2 77,243,2004
DNA damage oral
mouse
300 mg/kg TOXID9 90,101,2006
micronucleus test oral
mouse
1,800 mg/kg/9 day- continuous EMMUEG 27,1,1996
mutation in mammalian somatic cells mouse lymphocyte 400 mg/L MUREAV 413,265,1998
other mutation test systems mouse embryo 11,000 Ámol/L/6 hour REPTED 22,443,2006


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
oral
dog
lowest published toxic dose: 1,125 mg/kg (90 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct TOXID9 78,368,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 9 gm/kg (6-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
TJADAB 46,217,1992
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 24 gm/kg (6-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Sex ratio TJADAB 46,217,1992
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4 gm/kg (6-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Cardiovascular (circulatory) system TJADAB 46,217,1992
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 14 gm/kg (6-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system TJADAB 46,217,1992
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3,000 mg/kg (6-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) TOXID9 66,24,2002


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 427 gm/kg/61 week- continuous Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
TXAPA9 90,183,1987
oral
mouse
toxic dose : 58,800 mg/kg/2 year- continuous Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
JTEHF8 58,485,1999
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 166 gm/kg/46 week- continuous Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Facilitates action of known carcinogens
CALEDQ 158,185,2000
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 60.9 gm/kg/87 week- continuous Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
TOSCF2 59,178,2001
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 145.6 gm/kg/52 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Increased incidence of tumors in susceptible strains
TXAPA9 182,55,2002
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 197,120 mg/kg/44 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Increased incidence of tumors in susceptible strains
TOSCF2 77,243,2004
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 5,040 mg/kg/36 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Facilitates action of known carcinogens
TXCYAC 199,169,2004
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 18,200 mg/kg/26 week- continuous Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
TOXID9 66,183,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 100 gm/kg/2 year- continuous Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
TXCYAC 114,207,1996
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 101 gm/kg/60 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
CALEDQ 92,67,1995


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2,820 mg/kg N/R AMIHBC 4,119,1951
skin
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 510 ÁL/kg N/R AMIHBC 4,119,1951


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 774 mg/kg/5 day- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis) TOSCF2 70,261,2002
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 232 mg/kg/3 day- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition TOSCF2 74,192,2003
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kg/6 day- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on mitochondrial function
CNREA8 66,7824,2006
oral
dog
lowest published toxic dose: 1,125 mg/kg/90 day- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Liver: Changes in liver weight
TOXID9 78,368,2004
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 7,100 mg/kg/10 week- continuous Liver: Other changes

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Biochemical: Effect on specific coenzyme: CoA
TXCYAC 110,103,1996
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 5.6 gm/kg/2 week- continuous Endocrine: Diabetes mellitus TOSCF2 59,178,2001
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1.4 gm/kg/2 week- continuous Liver: Other changes TOSCF2 59,178,2001
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 7 gm/kg/10 week- continuous Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphokinase
TOSCF2 59,178,2001
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1.4 gm/kg/2 week- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Isomerases
TXCYAC 173,229,2002
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 5,600 mg/kg/100 week- continuous Liver: Other changes

Liver: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Increased incidence of tumors in susceptible strains
EVHPAZ 111,53,2003
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 30,576 mg/kg/52 week- continuous Liver: Other changes EVHPAZ 111,53,2003
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 30,576 mg/kg/26 week- continuous Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse EVHPAZ 111,53,2003
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 57,330 mg/kg/26 week- continuous Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Liver: Other changes

Liver: Tumors
EVHPAZ 111,53,2003
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 115 gm/kg/52 week- continuous Liver: Other changes

Liver: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Increased incidence of tumors in susceptible strains
EVHPAZ 111,53,2003
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 300 gm/kg/100 week- continuous Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Liver: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Increased incidence of tumors in susceptible strains
EVHPAZ 111,53,2003
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 3 gm/kg/1 week- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
TXCYAC 203,83,2004
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 3 gm/kg/1 week- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight TXCYAC 203,83,2004
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 17.92 mg/kg/28 day- continuous Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes TOXID9 66,62,2002
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 18,200 mg/kg/26 week- continuous Behavioral: Fluid intake

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TOXID9 66,183,2002
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 8.4 gm/kg/12 week- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight

Immunological Including Allergic: Increase in humoral response

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TOXID9 90,59,2006
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 11,200 mg/kg/28 day- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight

Blood: Changes in cell count (unspecified)
NTPTR* IMM-98003
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 5,600 mg/kg/28 day- intermittent Blood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified) NTPTR* IMM-98003
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 700 mg/kg/28 day- intermittent Blood: Changes in cell count (unspecified) NTPTR* IMM-98003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3,195 mg/kg/90 day- continuous Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
TXCYAC 64,71,1990
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3,588 mg/kg/5 week- intermittent Gastrointestinal: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
TOSCF2 56,282,2000
skin
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 5,687.5 mg/kg/26 week- continuous Liver: Changes in liver weight

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
TOXID9 66,183,2002


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value time-weighted average 0.5 ppm (skin) DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value Confirmed animal carcinogen DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Limited Evidence IMEMDT 63,271,1995
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT 63,271,1995
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Group 3 IMEMDT 63,271,1995
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 135,167,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 564,179,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
IMEMDT 84,359,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TXCYAC 198,239,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ENTOX* -,546,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
BCLPT* 96,131,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUTAEX 20,245,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 636,242,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 658,124,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 672,10,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 672,17,2009


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM time-weighted average 0.5 ppm (2.7 mg/m3), Skin, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - RUSSIA short term exposure limit 4 mg/m3, JUN2003


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974: Hazard Code: 84531;
Number of Industries 3;
Total Number of Facilities 44;
Number of Occupations 5;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 164
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: 84531;
Number of Industries 1;
Total Number of Facilities 39;
Number of Occupations 2;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 1,592;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 579


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
Used as starting material for the production of glyoxylic, dialkyloxy acids and sulfonamides
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
On EPA IRIS database
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NTP Carcinogenesis studies; on test (prechronic studies), October 2000


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

85JCAE "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J., Prague, Czechoslovakia, Avicenum, 1986
AMIHBC AMA Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Medicine. (Chicago, IL) V.2-10, 1950-54. For publisher information, see AEHLAU.
BCLPT* Basic & clinical pharmacology & toxicology (Copenhagen, Denmark : Nordic Pharmacological Society Oxford, UK : Distributed by Blackwell Munksgaard) V.94- 2004-
CALEDQ Cancer Letters (Shannon, Ireland). (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1975-
CNREA8 Cancer Research. (Public Ledger Building, Suit 816, 6th & Chestnut Sts., Philadelphia, PA 19106) V.1- 1941-
DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996
EMMUEG Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 1987-
ENTOX* Encyclopedia of Toxicology: Reference Book, Elsevier, 2005
EVHPAZ EHP, Environmental Health Perspectives. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) No.1- 1972-
IMEMDT IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) V.1- 1972-
JTEHF8 Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A. (Taylor & Francis, 47 Runway Rd., Suite G, Levittown, PA 19057) V.53- 1998-
MUREAV Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1964-
MUTAEX Mutagenesis. (Oxford Univ. Press, Pinkhill House, Southfield Road, Eynsham, Oxford OX8 1JJ, UK) V.1- 1986-
NTPTR* National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series. (Research Triangle Park, NC 27709) No.206-
REPTED Reproductive Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.1- 1987-
TJADAB Teratology, The International Journal of Abnormal Development. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.1- 1968-
TOLED5 Toxicology Letters. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1977-
TOSCF2 Toxicological Sciences (Oxford University Press, 6277 Sea Harbor Drive, Orlando, FL 32887 ) V. 41, Jan. 1998-
TOXID9 Toxicologist. (Soc. of Toxicology, Inc., 475 Wolf Ledge Parkway, Akron, OH 44311) V.1- 1981-
TXAPA9 Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1959-
TXCYAC Toxicology. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland, Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1973-

Used as starting material for the production of glyoxylic, dialkyloxy acids and sulfonamides

RTECS Compound Description:
   Agricultural Chemical
   Tumorigen
   Mutagen
   Reproductive Effector
   Primary Irritant

ALT CAS #: 42428-47-7
Click Here for Additional Information about RTECS

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