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Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

Acetic acid, dichloro-

RTECS #

AG6125000

CAS #

79-43-6; 42428-47-7

Updated

December 2013

Molecular Weight

128.94

Molecular Formula

C2H2Cl2O2

Synonyms

2,2-Dichloroacetic acid
Analytical grade dichloroacetic acid
Bichloracetic acid
DCA
DCA (acid)
Dichloracetic acid
Dichlorethanoic acid
Dichloroacetic acid
Dichloroacetic acid (IUPAC)
Dichloroethanoic acid
Kyselina dichloroctova (Czech)
Urner's liquid

Skin and Eye Irritation and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
eye /rabbit 1% severeHPV200 -,-,2004
skin /rabbit 2 mg/24H severe85JCAE -,570,1986
skin /rabbit 0.01 mLHPV200 -,-,2004
skin /rabbit 2 mg severeHPV200 -,-,2004

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
Cytogenetic Analysislymphocyte/mouse600 mg/LMUREAV 413,265,1998
Cytogenetic Analysisother cell types/mouse600000 µg/L/4HHPV200 -,-,2004
DNA Damageother cell types/human10 µmol/L/4HMUREAV 741,89,2012
DNA Damageoral/mouse35840 mg/kg/8W- intermittentTOSCF2 77,243,2004
DNA Damageoral/mouse300 mg/kgTOXID9 90,101,2006
DNA repair/Salmonella typhimurium58500 µg/L/2H (+enzymatic activation step)HPV200 -,-,2004
micronucleus testoral/mouse1800 mg/kg/9D-continuousEMMUEG 27,1,1996
mutation in mammalian somatic cellsother cell types/mouse100000 µg/L/4HHPV200 -,-,2004
mutation in mammalian somatic cellslymphocyte/mouse400 mg/LMUREAV 413,265,1998
mutation in mammalian somatic cellsoral/mouse84 gm/kg/60W- intermittentHPV200 -,-,2004
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium2000 mg/L (+enzymatic activation step)HPV200 -,-,2004
other mutation test systemsembryo/mouse11000 µmol/L/6HREPTED 22,443,2006
specific locus testovary/hamster1000 µmol/L/4HMUREAV 703,174,2010

Reproductive Effects Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
oral/rat 9 gm/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
TJADAB 46,217,1992
oral/rat 24 gm/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Sex ratioTJADAB 46,217,1992
oral/rat 4 gm/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Cardiovascular (circulatory) systemTJADAB 46,217,1992
oral/rat 14 gm/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital systemTJADAB 46,217,1992
oral/rat 3000 mg/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)TOXID9 66,24,2002
oral/Dog 1125 mg/kg (90D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm ductTOXID9 78,368,2004
oral/rat 1400 mg/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Cardiovascular (circulatory) system
HPV200 -,-,2004

Tumorigenic Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
oral/mouse toxic dose: 58800 mg/kg/2Y- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
JTEHF8 58,485,1999
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 166 gm/kg/46W- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Facilitates action of known carcinogens
CALEDQ 158,185,2000
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 60.9 gm/kg/87W- continuousTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
TOSCF2 59,178,2001
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 145.6 gm/kg/52W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Increased incidence of tumors in susceptible strains
TXAPA9 182,55,2002
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 197120 mg/kg/44W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Increased incidence of tumors in susceptible strains
TOSCF2 77,243,2004
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 5040 mg/kg/36W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Facilitates action of known carcinogens
TXCYAC 199,169,2004
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 18200 mg/kg/26W- continuousTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
TOXID9 66,183,2002
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 427 gm/kg/61W- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
TXAPA9 90,183,1987
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 101 gm/kg/60W- intermittentTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
CALEDQ 92,67,1995
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 100 gm/kg/2Y- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
TXCYAC 114,207,1996
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 35 mg/kg/100W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Increased incidence of tumors in susceptible strains
HPV200 -,-,2004

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
In Vitro/Human, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 24 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell protein synthesisTIVIEQ 3,189,1989
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 5520 mg/kgBehavioral: General anestheticHPV200 -,-,2004
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 4480 mg/kgBehavioral: General anestheticHPV200 -,-,2004
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2820 mg/kgHPV200 -,-,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1500 mg/kgReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
HPV200 -,-,2004
skin/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 0.51 mL/kgHPV200 -,-,2004

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 774 mg/kg/5D- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)TOSCF2 70,261,2002
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 232 mg/kg/3D- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine compositionTOSCF2 74,192,2003
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kg/6D- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on mitochondrial function
CNREA8 66,7824,2006
oral/Dog lowest published toxic dose: 4550 mg/kg/13W- intermittentEye: Corneal damageHPV200 -,-,2004
oral/Dog lowest published toxic dose: 9100 mg/kg/13W- intermittentEye: Corneal damage

Blood: Normocytic anemia

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
HPV200 -,-,2004
oral/Dog lowest published toxic dose: 1125 mg/kg/90D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Vascular: Other changes
HPV200 -,-,2004
oral/Dog lowest published toxic dose: 6480 mg/kg/90D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Vascular: Other changes

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
HPV200 -,-,2004
oral/Dog lowest published toxic dose: 1125 mg/kg/90D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Liver: Changes in liver weight
TOXID9 78,368,2004
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 8.4 gm/kg/12W- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Immunological Including Allergic: Increase in humoral response

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TOXID9 90,59,2006
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 11200 mg/kg/28D- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Blood: Changes in cell count (unspecified)
NTPTR* IMM-98003
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 5600 mg/kg/28D- intermittentBlood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified)NTPTR* IMM-98003
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 700 mg/kg/28D- intermittentBlood: Changes in cell count (unspecified)NTPTR* IMM-98003
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 3 gm/kg/1W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
TXCYAC 203,83,2004
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 3 gm/kg/1W- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weightTXCYAC 203,83,2004
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 17.92 mg/kg/28D- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changesTOXID9 66,62,2002
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 18200 mg/kg/26W- continuousBehavioral: Fluid intake

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TOXID9 66,183,2002
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 5.6 gm/kg/2W- continuousEndocrine: Diabetes mellitusTOSCF2 59,178,2001
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1.4 gm/kg/2W- continuousLiver: Other changesTOSCF2 59,178,2001
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 7 gm/kg/10W- continuousLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphokinase
TOSCF2 59,178,2001
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1.4 gm/kg/2W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Isomerases
TXCYAC 173,229,2002
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 5600 mg/kg/100W- continuousLiver: Other changes

Liver: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Increased incidence of tumors in susceptible strains
EVHPAZ 111,53,2003
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 30576 mg/kg/52W- continuousLiver: Other changesEVHPAZ 111,53,2003
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 30576 mg/kg/26W- continuousLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuseEVHPAZ 111,53,2003
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 57330 mg/kg/26W- continuousLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Liver: Other changes

Liver: Tumors
EVHPAZ 111,53,2003
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 115 gm/kg/52W- continuousLiver: Other changes

Liver: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Increased incidence of tumors in susceptible strains
EVHPAZ 111,53,2003
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 300 gm/kg/100W- continuousLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Liver: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Increased incidence of tumors in susceptible strains
EVHPAZ 111,53,2003
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 7007 mg/kg/13W- intermittentBlood: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
FCTOD7 50,701,2012
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2156 mg/kg/4W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
TOXID9 -,66,2009
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 7100 mg/kg/10W- continuousLiver: Other changes

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Biochemical: Effect on specific coenzyme: CoA
TXCYAC 110,103,1996
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3588 mg/kg/5W- intermittentGastrointestinal: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
TOSCF2 56,282,2000
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3195 mg/kg/90D- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
TXCYAC 64,71,1990
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 11375 mg/kg/13W- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Blood: Normocytic anemia

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
HPV200 -,-,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 182000 mg/kg/13W- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
HPV200 -,-,2004
skin/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 5687.5 mg/kg/26W- continuousLiver: Changes in liver weight

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
TOXID9 66,183,2002

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-time-weighted average 0.5 ppm (skin)DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-Confirmed animal carcinogenDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Limited EvidenceIMEMDT 63,271,1995
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 63,271,1995
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review: Group 2BIMEMDT 84,392,2004
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Group 3IMEMDT 63,271,1995
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 135,167,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 564,179,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWIMEMDT 84,359,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXCYAC 198,239,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,546,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWBCLPT* 96,131,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 20,245,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 636,242,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 658,124,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 672,10,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 672,17,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 590,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWIMEMDT 84,359,
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 23,271,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 723,121,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEMMUEG 49,9,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEMMUEG 50,68,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 721,27,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 751,49,2012
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEMMUEG 50,68,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEMMUEG 49,9,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNRTXDN 33,605,2012

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMtime-weighted average 0.5 ppm (2.7 mg/m3), Skin, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-RUSSIAshort term exposure limit 4 mg/m3, JUN2003

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code 84531; Number of Industries 1; Total Number of Facilities 39; Number of Occupations 2; Total Number of Employees Exposed 1592; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 579
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code 84531; Number of Industries 3; Total Number of Facilities 44; Number of Occupations 5; Total Number of Employees Exposed 164

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NTP Carcinogenesis studies; on test (prechronic studies), October 2000
On EPA IRIS database
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