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Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

Acetamide, thio-

RTECS #

AC8925000

CAS #

62-55-5

Updated

December 2013

Molecular Weight

75.14

Molecular Formula

C2H5NS

Synonyms

Acetothioamide
Ethanethioamide
RCRA waste number U218
Thiacetamide
Thioacetamide
Thioacetimidic acid
USAF CB-21
USAF EK-1719

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
Cytogenetic Analysisintraperitoneal/rat150 mg/kgJNCIAM 46,49,1971
Cytogenetic Analysisparenteral/rat150 mg/kgECREAL 55,435,1969
Cytogenetic Analysiskidney/monkey50 mg/LECREAL 57,193,1969
DNA adductintraperitoneal/rat60 mg/kgCNREA8 36,4647,1976
DNA adduct/Escherichia coli50 µmol/LMUREAV 89,95,1981
DNA Damageliver/rat300 mmol/LSinJF# 26OCT1982
DNA inhibitionHeLa cell/human150 mmol/LCRNGDP 13,2389,1992
DNA inhibitionfibroblast/mouse1 mmol/LJOUOD4 5,147,1983
DNA repair/Escherichia coli400 µg/wellMUREAV 46,53,1977
gene conversion and mitotic recombination/Saccharomyes cerevisiae2 pphJJIND8 62,901,1979
host-mediated assaySalmonella typhimurium/mouse125 mg/kgJJIND8 62,911,1979
host-mediated assayEscherichia coli/mouse300 mg/kgMUREAV 272,161,1992
micronucleus testkidney/monkey100 mg/LECREAL 57,193,1969
micronucleus testoral/mouse670 µmol/kgMUREAV 192,141,1987
morphological transformfibroblast/mouse1 mg/L/21D (-enzymatic activation step)EMMUEG 35,300,2000
morphological transformembryo/hamster100 µg/LIJCNAW 19,642,1977
morphological transformoral/rat1512 mg/kg/6WCRNGDP 9,387,1988
morphological transformembryo/rat30 mg/LJJIND8 67,1303,1981
morphological transformembryo/mouse500 µg/LJNCIAM 52,1167,1974
mutation in mammalian somatic cellslymphocyte/mouse623 mg/LEMMUEG 12(Suppl 13),37,1988
mutation in microorganismslymphocyte/mouse3200 mg/L (+enzymatic activation step)EMMUEG 12(Suppl 13),37,1988
mutation in microorganisms/Saccharomyes cerevisiae19900 µmol/L (-enzymatic activation step)MGGEAE 174,39,1979
other mutation test systemsfibroblast/human100 mg/LBJCAAI 42,112,1980
other mutation test systems/Other microorganisms10 mg/LCYTZAM 11,392,1975
other mutation test systemsintraperitoneal/rat5 mg/kgRCOCB8 23,639,1979
other mutation test systemssubcutaneous/rat100 mg/kgPLMEAA 57,25,1991
other mutation test systemskidney/monkey25 mg/L/48HECREAL 57,193,1969
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctionoral/Drosophila melanogaster100 ppm/24HMUREAV 58,259,1978
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctionparenteral/Drosophila melanogaster2500 ppmMUREAV 58,259,1978
specific locus testoral/mouse10240 µmol/LMUREAV 608,29,2006
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisintraperitoneal/mouse50 µg/kgCHBIE4 3,1,1986
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisoral/rat2940 mg/kg/12W- intermittentCNREA8 29,2039,1969
Unscheduled DNA Synthesissubcutaneous/rat100 mg/kgPLMEAA 57,25,1991

Reproductive Effects Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
intraperitoneal/rat 1 gm/kg (7D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)85DJA5 -,95,1971
intraperitoneal/rat 150 mg/kg (9-11D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Cytological changes (including somatic cell genetic material)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Hepatobiliary system
FHCYAI 8,11,1970
subcutaneous/mouse 1935 mg/kg (6-14D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)NTIS** PB223-160

Tumorigenic Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 10 gm/kg/39W- continuousTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
BJCAAI 24,498,1970
oral/mouse toxic dose: 7956 mg/kg/32W- continuousTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
JNCIAM 56,493,1976
oral/mouse toxic dose: 18360 mg/kg/73W- continuousTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
IJCAAR 9,154,1972
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1008 mg/kg/6W- continuousTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Facilitates action of known carcinogens
TXAPA9 246,128,2010
oral/rat toxic dose: 4320 mg/kg/34W- continuousTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
ECEBDI 45,34,1977
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 7350 mg/kg/40W- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
JJIND8 79,1047,1987
oral/rat toxic dose: 6000 mg/kg/43W- continuousTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Liver: Tumors
ONCOBS 38,249,1981
oral/rat toxic dose: 7200 mg/kg/51W- continuousTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
ONCOBS 38,249,1981
oral/rat toxic dose: 1008 mg/kg/9W- continuousTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
NATUAS 175,257,1955
oral/rat toxic dose: 9900 mg/kg/71W- continuousTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Liver: Tumors
ONCOBS 38,249,1981
oral/rat toxic dose: 1600 mg/kg/12W- continuousTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
CNREA8 28,1703,1968
oral/rat toxic dose: 5140 mg/kg/47W- continuousTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Prostate tumors
JPBAA7 72,415,1956
oral/rat toxic dose: 7665 mg/kg/1Y- continuousTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
JJIND8 71,553,1983

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
In Vitro/Rat, liver Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): >2000 mg/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)TIVIEQ 5,543,1991
In Vitro/Rat, liver Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): >2000 mg/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 5,543,1991
In Vitro/Rat, liver Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): >2000 mg/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell protein synthesisTIVIEQ 5,543,1991
In Vitro/Rat, liver Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): >2000 mg/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.TIVIEQ 5,543,1991
In Vitro/Rat, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): >2000 mg/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)TIVIEQ 5,543,1991
In Vitro/Rat, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): >2000 mg/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 5,543,1991
In Vitro/Rat, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): >2000 mg/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell protein synthesisTIVIEQ 5,543,1991
In Vitro/Rat, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): >2000 mg/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.TIVIEQ 5,543,1991
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kgBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXAPA9 228,295,2008
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kgBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning

Liver: Liver function tests impaired
BJPCBM 158,896,2009
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published lethal dose: 65 mg/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphokinase

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TXAPA9 248,277,2010
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 65 mg/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphokinase

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TXAPA9 248,277,2010
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kgLiver: Liver function tests impairedTOXID9 72,322,2003
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published lethal dose: 1000 mg/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TXAPA9 188,122,2003
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kgImmunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune responseTOLED5 136,163,2003
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 150 mg/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
TOXID9 44,329,2005
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 150 mg/kgBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: TransaminasesTOXID9 44,329,2005
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonalTOXID9 44,329,2005
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 150 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TOXID9 44,329,2005
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
TXAPA9 200,219,2004
intraperitoneal/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 300 mg/kgENTOX* -,172,2005
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TXAPA9 224,81,2007
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
ARTODN 81,201,2007
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kgLiver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)

Liver: Other changes
JTPAE7 17,231,2004
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kgBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: TransaminasesMUREAV 603,64,2006
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published lethal dose: 600 mg/kgLiver: Liver function tests impaired

Liver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
TOXID9 66,365,2002
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 30 mg/kgBlood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TXAPA9 207,89,2005
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published lethal dose: 300 mg/kgBlood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TXAPA9 207,89,2005
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TXAPA9 211,221,2006
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TXAPA9 207,89,2005
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published lethal dose: 300 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TOXID9 44,390,2005
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published lethal dose: 300 mg/kgLiver: Jaundice (or hyperbilirubinemia) hepatocellular

Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TOXID9 44,390,2005
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
ARTODN 78,86,2004
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published lethal dose: 50 mg/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOSCF2 72,272,2003
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 496 mg/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
BCPCA6 66,917,2003
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TXCYAC 199,97,2004
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kgLiver: Other changesTOXID9 44,149,2005
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kgLiver: Liver function tests impairedTOXID9 72,199,2003
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published lethal dose: 600 mg/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases
TOSCF2 45,233,1998
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published lethal dose: 600 mg/kgETOPFR 18,149,2004
intravenous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 150 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
BCPCA6 67,2141,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Endocrine: Change in GH

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
JTSCDR 26,25,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 150 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
CRTOEC 18,639,2005
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 301 mg/kgENTOX* -,172,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 45 mg/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
JTSCDR 32,469,2007
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 45 mg/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Liver: Other changes
TXCYAC 250,15,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 45 mg/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TXAPA9 247,211,2010
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published lethal dose: 2 gm/kgAIPTAK 12,447,1904
subcutaneous/rat Lethal dose: >200 mg/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases
JOGAET 29,293,1994
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kgBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
JOETD7 49,119,1995
unreported route/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kgBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteinsTOXID9 72,81,2003
unreported route/rat lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kgKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine compositionTOXID9 44,104,2005
unreported route/rat lowest published toxic dose: 30 mg/kgBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymesTOXID9 72,107,2003

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 350 mg/kg/7D- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight
TOLED5 114,225,2000
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 600 mg/kg/7D- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changesTXAPA9 224,81,2007
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1200 mg/kg/3W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)TXAPA9 224,81,2007
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2000 mg/kg/30D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
FCTOD7 45,2228,2007
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 600 mg/kg/3W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TOPADD 15,19,2002
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1400 mg/kg/7W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TOPADD 15,19,2002
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kg/1W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TOPADD 15,19,2002
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3000 mg/kg/5W- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in prostate weight
JTPAE7 17,177,2004
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1200 mg/kg/4W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
JTPAE7 17,219,2004
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2400 mg/kg/4W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
JTPAE7 17,219,2004
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kg/1W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)

Liver: Other changes
JTPAE7 17,231,2004
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4800 mg/kg/12W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Liver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)
TXCYAC 246,148,2008
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2400 mg/kg/6W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TOLED5 176,223,2008
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1600 mg/kg/4W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Catalases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
CHMED* 4,-,2009
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1600 mg/kg/4W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)

Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Liver: Changes in liver weight
CHMED* 4,-,2009
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1050 mg/kg/3W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
TXAPA9 159,161,1999
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2400 mg/kg/4W- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainREPTED 21,253,2006
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5600 mg/kg/14W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
JOETD7 135,344,2011
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4800 mg/kg/12W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TXCYAC 282,39,2011
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 135 mg/kg/3D- intermittentBlood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)HETOEA 28,231,2009
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 210 mg/kg/14D- intermittentBlood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)HETOEA 28,231,2009
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 126 mg/kg/28D- intermittentBlood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)HETOEA 28,231,2009
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 420 mg/kg/28D- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Liver: Other changes
TXCYAC 250,15,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4500 mg/kg/90D- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
CYLPDN 21,777,2000
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 26.6 mg/kg/14D- intermittentBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TOXID9 72,8,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2520 µL/kg/12W- continuousLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Liver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Urine volume decreased or anuria
JTSCDR 24,369,1999
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 933 mg/kg/10W- continuousLiver: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
VAAZA2 32,57,1979
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 240 mg/kg/4D- intermittentBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other hydrolases
TXAPA9 16,626,1970
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1890 mg/kg/4W- continuousBlood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
TXCYAC 48,81,1988
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3648 mg/kg/27W- continuousLiver: Other changesJIHTAB 31(3),158,1949
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4032 mg/kg/28D- continuousLiver: Other changesTOXID9 72,235,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2520 mg/kg/12W- continuousLiver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)TXAPA9 197,302,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 900 mg/kg/30D- continuousLiver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)

Liver: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
DCTODJ 1,91,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 900 mg/kg/30D- continuousBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
DCTODJ 1,91,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1680 mg/kg/8W- continuousNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainCRNGDP 25,631,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1890 mg/kg/9W- continuousLiver: Other changesCRNGDP 25,631,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3360 mg/kg/16W- continuousLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Liver: Tumors
CRNGDP 25,631,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4200 mg/kg/20W- continuousLiver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)CRNGDP 25,631,2004

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 7,77,1974
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human No Adequate DataIMEMDT 7,77,1974
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Group 2BIMSUDL 7,56,1987
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCRTXB2 1(1),93,1971
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWDIMON* 39,678,1993
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,172,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 584,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJTPAE7 19,1,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 705,184,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNRTXDN 31,562,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 721,27,2011

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWEDENGroup B Carcinogen, JUN2005

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code 83086; Number of Industries 3; Total Number of Facilities 53; Number of Occupations 6; Total Number of Employees Exposed 786; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 592
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code 83086; Number of Industries 2; Total Number of Facilities 47; Number of Occupations 2; Total Number of Employees Exposed 1130

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: E coli polA without S9
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: E coli polA with S9; Histidine reversion-Ames test
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Sperm morphology-mouse
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat; SHE-clonal assay
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Cell transform.-mouse embryo
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Cell transform.-RLV F344 rat embryo; Host-mediated assay
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: D melanogaster Sex-linked lethal
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Weakly Positive: S cerevisiae-homozygosis
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
NTP 10th Report on Carcinogens,2002:Reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen
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