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Hydrogen sulfide

RTECS #: MX1225000

CAS #: 7783-06-4


UPDATE: May 2009 MW: 34.08 MF: H2S


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA:
  3. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA:
  4. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  5. OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA:
  6. REVIEWS:
  7. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:
  8. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  9. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  10. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. Acide sulfhydrique (French)
  2. Hydrogen sulfide (ACGIH:OSHA)
  3. Hydrogen sulfuric acid
  4. Hydrogen sulphide
  5. Hydrogene sulfure (French)
  6. Idrogeno solforato (Italian)
  7. RCRA waste number U135
  1. Schwefelwasserstoff (German)
  2. Siarkowodor (Polish)
  3. Stink DAMP
  4. Sulfur hydride
  5. Sulfureted hydrogen
  6. Zwavelwaterstof (Dutch)


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
eye
human
0.125 ppm/5 hour N/R TOXID9 66,103,2002


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
N/R N/R N/R N/R


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 20 ppm (6-22 day pregnant/21 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Physical TIHEEC 6,389,1990
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 10 ppm (multigeneration)) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral NETEEC 22,71,2000
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 30 ppm (multigeneration)) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Skin and skin appendages NETEEC 22,71,2000
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 10 mg/m3 (48 day prior to copulation/1-22 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system
VCVN5* -,198,1989


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
dog
lowest published lethal concentration: 0.49 pph N/R VCVPS* -,20,1998
inhalation
human
lowest published lethal concentration: 600 ppm/30 minute N/R 29ZWAE -,207,1968
inhalation
human
lowest published lethal concentration: 800 ppm/5 minute N/R TABIA2 3,231,1933
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.14 mg/m3 Olfaction: Change in sensation of smell VCVN5* -,194,1993
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.12 mg/m3 Eye: Other eye effects VCVN5* -,194,1993
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,400 mg/m3/1 minute Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes VCVN5* -,195,1993
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 140 mg/m3 Eye: Conjunctiva irritation VCVN5* -,195,1993
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 225 mg/m3 Olfaction: Change in olfactory nerve VCVN5* -,195,1993
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 2,800 mg/m3 Behavioral: General anesthetic

Behavioral: Tetany

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory obstruction
VCVN5* -,195,1993
inhalation
human
lowest published lethal concentration: 1,500 mg/m3 Olfaction: Change in olfactory nerve

Behavioral: General anesthetic

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema
VCVN5* -,195,1993
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 2 ppm/30 minute Behavioral: Headache TOXID9 44,302,2005
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 125 g/m3/5 hour Olfaction: Other olfaction effects

Behavioral: Headache

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
TOXID9 66,103,2002
inhalation
mammal (species unspecified)
lowest published lethal concentration: 800 ppm/5 minute N/R AEPPAE 138,65,1928
inhalation
mammal (species unspecified)
lowest published toxic concentration: 150 mg/m3 Eye: Conjunctiva irritation VCVN5* -,194,1993
inhalation
mammal (species unspecified)
lowest published lethal concentration: 1,350 mg/m3/1 hour N/R VCVN5* -,194,1993
inhalation
mammal (species unspecified)
lowest published lethal concentration: 2,250 mg/m3/15 minute Vascular: BP lowering not characterized in autonomic section VCVN5* -,194,1993
inhalation
man
lowest published lethal concentration: 5,700 g/kg Behavioral: Coma

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Chronic pulmonary edema or congestion
AMPMAR 44,483,1983
inhalation
mouse
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 634 ppm/1 hour N/R AMRL** TR-72-62,1972
inhalation
mouse
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 1,200 mg/m3/2 hour N/R VCVN5* -,193,1993
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 444 ppm Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Urine volume increased
LacHB# 09JUN1978
inhalation
rat
lowest published lethal concentration: 0.7 pph/3 minute N/R VCVPS* -,19,1998
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 400 ppm/90 minute Olfaction: Other olfaction effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TOXID9 44,192,2005
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 200 ppm/4 hour Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema TOXID9 44,302,2005
inhalation
rat
lowest published lethal concentration: 504 ppm/1 hour N/R TOXID9 44,302,2005
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 820 mg/m3/3 hour N/R ENTOX* -,545,2005
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 700 mg/m3/4 hour N/R ENTOX* -,545,2005
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 470 mg/m3/6 hour N/R ENTOX* -,545,2005
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published toxic concentration: 3 mg/m3 N/R VCVPS* -,20,1998
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published toxic concentration: 3 mg/m3 Immunological Including Allergic: Uncharacterized (multiple organ involvement) VCVPS* -,20,1998
intraperitoneal
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 15.336 mg/kg N/R TXCYAC 242,16,2007
intraperitoneal
mouse
lethal dose (65 percent kill): 18.4 mg/kg N/R TXCYAC 242,16,2007
intraperitoneal
mouse
lethal dose (85 percent kill): 21.5 mg/kg N/R TXCYAC 242,16,2007
skin
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 1,000 mg/m3/2 hour Blood: Normocytic anemia VCVN5* -,194,1993


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
dog
lowest published toxic concentration: 60 mg/m3/26 week- intermittent Gastrointestinal: Alteration in gastric secretion VCVPS* -,21,1998
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 80 ppm/6 hour/90 day- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TOXID9 3,63,1983
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 150 mg/m3/2 hour/16 day- intermittent Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation) VCVN5* -,197,1989
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 30 ppm/6 hour/10 week- intermittent Olfaction: Change in olfactory nerve

Olfaction: Other olfaction effects
TOPADD 27,697,1999
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,200 mg/m3/2 hour/5 day- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesterase
GTPZAB 14(1),54,1970
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 100 ppm/8 hour/5 week- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)
TOXID9 13,270,1993
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 80 ppm/6 hour/90 day- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Changes in brain weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TOXID9 3,63,1983
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 125 ppm/4 hour/11 week- intermittent Behavioral: Alteration of operant conditioning

Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests
NRTXDN 22,177,2001
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 80 ppm/3 hour/5 day- intermittent Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay) NRTXDN 22,375,2001
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 200 ppm/3 hour/5 day- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decrease NRTXDN 22,375,2001
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 400 ppm/3 hour/5 day- intermittent Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field

Behavioral: Alteration of operant conditioning

Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests
NRTXDN 22,375,2001
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 80 ppm/7 day- intermittent Behavioral: Food intake (animal) NETEEC 22,71,2000
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 3 mg/m3/17 week- intermittent Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune response VCVPS* -,21,1998
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 60 mg/m3/26 week- intermittent Endocrine: Adrenal cortex hypoplasia

Blood: Luekopenia

Liver: Other changes
VCVPS* -,21,1998
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 16 pph/26 week- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes VCVPS* -,21,1998
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 3 mg/m3/39 week- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes VCVPS* -,21,1998
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 10 mg/m3/12 hour/8 week- intermittent Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerve

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
VCVN5* -,197,1989
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 30 ppm/90 day- intermittent Olfaction: Other olfaction effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXAPA9 198,29,2004
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 80 ppm/1 week- intermittent Behavioral: Food intake (animal) TXAPA9 198,29,2004
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 80 ppm/90 day- intermittent Olfaction: Other olfaction effects

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXAPA9 198,29,2004
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published toxic concentration: 40 mg/m3/5 hour/30 week- intermittent Eye: Conjunctiva irritation VEOFA6 78(1),36,1965
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published toxic concentration: 60 mg/m3/26 week- intermittent Endocrine: Adrenal cortex hypoplasia

Blood: Luekopenia

Liver: Other changes
VCVPS* -,21,1998
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published toxic concentration: 16 pph/39 week- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes VCVPS* -,21,1998
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published toxic concentration: 105 mg/m3/90 minute/5 day- intermittent Cardiac: EKG changes not diagnostic of above VCVN5* -,197,1989


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value time-weighted average 10 ppm;short term exposure limit 15 ppm DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
CMTVAS 10(3),49,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
JOCMA7 4,431,1962
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 137,103,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TPHSDY 24,609,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
DIMON* 46,551,2000
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ENTOX* -,545,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HUTOX* -,661,1996


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD - air time-weighted average 10 ppm (15 mg/m3) DTLVS* 3,132,1971
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry) ceiling concentration 20 ppm;
peak concentration 50/10 minute
CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction) 8 hour time-weighted average 10 ppm (15 mg/m3) CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards) 8 hour time-weighted average 10 ppm (15 mg/m3) CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors) 8 hour time-weighted average 10 ppm (15 mg/m3) CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Exposure Limit - ARAB Republic of Egypt time-weighted average 10 ppm (14 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM time-weighted average 10 ppm (14 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 15 ppm (21 mg/m3), MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - DENMARK time-weighted average 10 ppm (15 mg/m3), OCT 2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - FINLAND time-weighted average 10 ppm (15 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 15 ppm (20 mg/m3), Skin, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - FRANCE VME 5 ppm (7 mg/m3), VLE 10 ppm (14 mg/m3), FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - GERMANY MAK 14 mg/m3 (10 mL/m3), 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - HUNGARY time-weighted average 14 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 14 mg/m3, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit - JAPAN Occupational Exposure Limit 5 ppm (7 mg/m3), APR2007
Occupational Exposure Limit - KOREA time-weighted average 10 ppm (14 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 15 ppm (21 mg/m3), 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - MEXICO time-weighted average 10 ppm (14 mg/m3);
short term exposure limit 15 ppm (21 mg/m3), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE NETHERLANDS MAC-TGG 15 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - NEW ZEALAND time-weighted average 10 ppm (14 mg/m3);
short term exposure limit 15 ppm (21 mg/m3), JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - NORWAY time-weighted average 10 ppm (15 mg/m3), JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE PHILIPPINES time-weighted average 10 ppm (15 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - POLAND MAC(time-weighted average) 10 mg/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) 20 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - RUSSIA short term exposure limit 10 mg/m3, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWEDEN time-weighted average 10 ppm (14 mg/m3);
short term exposure limit 15 ppm (20 mg/m3), JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWITZERLAND MAK- week 5 ppm (7.1 mg/m3),KZG- week 10 ppm (14.2 mg/m3), DEC2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - THAILAND short term exposure limit 20 ppm, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - TURKEY time-weighted average 10 ppm (15 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - UNITED KINGDOM time-weighted average 5 ppm (7 mg/m3);
short term exposure limit 10 ppm (14 mg/m3), 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value;

time-weighted average 10 ppm;
short term exposure limit 15 ppm
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value
time-weighted average 10 ppm;
short term exposure limit 15 ppm


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO HYDROGEN SULFIDE-air ceiling concentration 10 ppm/10 minute NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974: Hazard Code: 38620;
Number of Industries 17;
Total Number of Facilities 745;
Number of Occupations 30;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 15,422
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: 38620;
Number of Industries 31;
Total Number of Facilities 1,524;
Number of Occupations 77;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 94,923;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 6,515


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

ATSDR TOXICOLOGY PROFILE (NTIS** PB/99/166696)
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
Used in natural gas processing operations
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
On EPA IRIS database
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Hydrogen sulfide, 6013
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #ID-141


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

29ZWAE "Practical Toxicology of Plastics," Lefaux, R., Cleveland, OH, Chemical Rubber Co., 1968
AEPPAE Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archiv fuer Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie. (Berlin, Ger.) V.110-253, 1925-66. For publisher information, see NSAPCC.
AMPMAR Archives des Maladies Professionnelles de Medecine du Travail et de Securite Sociale. (SPPIF, B.P.22, F-41353 Vineuil, France) V.7- 1946-
AMRL** Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory Report. (Aerospace Technical Div., Air Force Systems Command, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433)
CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402)
CMTVAS Cahiers de Medecine du Travail. (Association Professionnelle Belge des Medecine du Travail, rue du Bultia, 6280 Gerpinnes, Belgium) V.1- 1963-
DIMON* Disease-a Month (Chicago : Year Book Publishers) V. 24- 1978-
DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996
ENTOX* Encyclopedia of Toxicology: Reference Book, Elsevier, 2005
GTPZAB Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya. Labor Hygiene and Occupational Diseases. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1-36, 1957-1992. For publisher information, see MTPEEI
HUTOX*
JOCMA7 Journal of Occupational Medicine. (Chicago, IL) V.1-9, 1957-67. For publisher information, see:JJOMDZ
LacHB# Personal Communication from H.B. Lackey, Chemical Products Div., Crown Zellerbach, Camas, WA 98607, June 9, 1978
NETEEC Neurotoxicology and Teratology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.9- 1987-
NIOSH* National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda.
NRTXDN Neurotoxicology. (Intox Press, Inc., POB 34075, Little Rock, AR 72203) V.1- 1979-
TABIA2 Tabulae Biologicae. (The Hague, Netherlands) V.1-22, 1925-63. Discontinued.
TIHEEC Toxicology and Industrial Health. (Princeton Scientific Pub. Co., POB 2155, Princeton, NJ 08540) V.1- 1985-
TOLED5 Toxicology Letters. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1977-
TOPADD Toxicologic Pathology. (c/o Dr. F.A. de la Iglesia, Warner-Lambert Co., Pharmaceutical Research Div., POB 1047, Ann Arbor, MI 48106) V.6(3/4)- 1978-
TOXID9 Toxicologist. (Soc. of Toxicology, Inc., 475 Wolf Ledge Parkway, Akron, OH 44311) V.1- 1981-
TPHSDY Trends in Pharmacological Sciences. (Elsevier Science Pub. Co., Inc., 52 Vanderbilt Ave., New York, NY 10017) V.1- 1979-
TXAPA9 Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1959-
TXCYAC Toxicology. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland, Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1973-
VCVN5* "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva. Neorganicheskie soedinenia elementov V-VII groopp" (Hazardous substances. Inornanic substances containing V-VII group elements), Bandman A.L. et al., Chimia, 1989.
VCVPS* "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva. Prirodnie organicheskie soedinenia" (Hazardous substances. Nature products.) Volkova N.V. et al., Sankt-Peterburg, 1998.
VEOFA6 Vestnik Oftal'mologii. (Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, ul. B. Yakimanka, 39, 117049 Moscow, Russia) V.1-34, 1884-1917; New Series V.1- 1932-

Used in natural gas processing operations

NIOSH PROFILE (INCINERATION), FIRL, 4/78

NIOSH PROFILE (LEATHER TANNING), SRI, 2/77

NIOSH PROFILE (OIL WELL DRILLING AND OIL FIELDS), SRC,

NIOSH PROFILE (PETROCHEMICAL PLANTS), FIRL, 4/78

NIOSH PROFILE (PETROLEUM REFINING), FIRL, 4/78

NIOSH PROFILE (PULP AND PAPER MILLS), SRI, 2/77

NIOSH PROFILE (SEWAGE TREATMENT), FIRL, 4/78

NIOSH PROFILE (SLAUGHTERING AND RENDERING PLANTS), SRC, 10/77

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