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Hydrochloric acid

RTECS #: MW4025000

CAS #: 7647-01-0


UPDATE: May 2009 MW: 36.46 MF: ClH


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA:
  3. MUTATION DATA:
  4. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA:
  5. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  6. OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA:
  7. REVIEWS:
  8. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:
  9. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  10. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  11. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. Acide chlorhydrique (French)
  2. Acido cloridrico (Italian)
  3. Anhydrous hydrochloric acid
  4. Chloorwaterstof (Dutch)
  5. Chlorohydric acid
  6. Chlorowodor (Polish)
  1. Chlorwasserstoff (German)
  2. Hydrochloride
  3. Hydrogen chloride
  4. Hydrogen chloride (ACGIH:OSHA)
  5. Muriatic acid
  6. Spirits of salt


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
eye
rabbit
5 mg/30S rinse mild TXCYAC 23,281,1982
skin
human
4%/24 hour mild BJDEAZ 68,192,1988


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
cytogenetic analysis parenteral
grasshopper
20 mg NULSAK 9,119,1966
cytogenetic analysis hamster lung 30 mmol/L CYTBAI 55,167,1988
cytogenetic analysis hamster ovary 8 mmol/L MUREAV 225,55,1989
DNA repair Escherichia coli 25 g/well ENMUDM 3,429,1981
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction inhalation
Drosophila melanogaster
100 ppm/24 hour THAGA6 39,330,1969
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction oral
Drosophila melanogaster
100 ppm THAGA6 39,330,1969


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 450 mg/m3/1 hour (1 day prior to copulation) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Homeostasis
AKGIAO 53(6),69,1977


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
guinea pig
lowest published lethal concentration: 4,413 ppm/30 minute Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Liver: Other changes
JIHTAB 24,222,1942
inhalation
guinea pig
lowest published lethal concentration: 5,066 mg/m3/90 minute N/R VCVN5* -,383,1989
inhalation
guinea pig
lowest published lethal concentration: 6,400 mg/m3/30 minute Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema VCVN5* -,383,1989
inhalation
human
lowest published lethal concentration: 1,300 ppm/30 minute N/R 29ZWAE -,207,1968
inhalation
human
lowest published lethal concentration: 3,000 ppm/5 minute N/R TABIA2 3,231,1933
inhalation
human
lowest published lethal concentration: 75 mg/m3 N/R VCVN5* -,383,1989
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 50 mg/m3 Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cough

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
VCVN5* -,383,1989
inhalation
mammal (species unspecified)
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 0.1 gm/m3 N/R VCVN1* -,440,1988
inhalation
mammal (species unspecified)
lowest published toxic concentration: 450 mg/m3/6 hour Eye: Corneal damage

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
VCVN5* -,383,1989
inhalation
mouse
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 1,108 ppm/1 hour Eye: Other eye effects

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory stimulation

Skin: After systemic exposure: Dermatitis, other
JCTODH 3,61,1976
inhalation
mouse
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 8,300 mg/m3/30 minute Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema VCVN5* -,383,1989
inhalation
mouse
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 20,487 mg/m3/5 minute Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema VCVN5* -,383,1989
inhalation
mouse
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 3,940 mg/m3/30 minute Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema VCVN5* -,383,1989
inhalation
mouse
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 2,644 ppm/30 minute N/R ENTOX* -,538,2005
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 3,124 ppm/1 hour Olfaction: Other olfaction effects

Eye: Iritis
AMRL** TR-74-78,1974
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 45,000 mg/m3/5 minute Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema VCVN5* -,383,1989
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 8,300 mg/m3/30 minute Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema VCVN5* -,383,1989
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 60,938 mg/m3/5 minute Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema VCVN5* -,383,1989
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 7,004 mg/m3/30 minute Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema VCVN5* -,383,1989
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 3,700 ppm/30 minute N/R ENTOX* -,639,2005
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published lethal concentration: 4,413 ppm/30 minute Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration
JIHTAB 24,222,1942
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published lethal concentration: 5,066 mg/m3/90 minute N/R VCVN5* -,383,1989
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published lethal concentration: 6,400 mg/m3/30 minute Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema VCVN5* -,383,1989
intraperitoneal
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 40,142 g/kg N/R COREAF 256,1043,1963
intratracheal
dog
lowest published lethal dose: 7.3 mg/kg Cardiac: Pulse rate increased without fall in BP

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
VCVN5* -,383,1989
intratracheal
hamster
lethal dose : 146 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
EJPHAZ 488,173,2004
oral
man
lowest published lethal dose: 2,857 g/kg Vascular: BP lowering not characterized in autonomic section

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression

Gastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of esophagus
MJAUAJ 158,28,1993
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 0.243 gm/kg Gastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from stomach BMCPH* 2,21,2002
oral
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 900 mg/kg N/R BIZEA2 134,437,1923
oral
woman
lowest published lethal dose: 420 L/kg Behavioral: Excitement

Cardiac: Pulse rate decreased with fall in BP

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Hematuria
JJTOEX 9,351,1996
subcutaneous
human
lowest published toxic dose: 0.43 mL/kg Vascular: Acute arterial occulsion

Musculoskeletal: Other changes
AJEMEN 23,394,2005
unreported route
man
lowest published lethal dose: 81 mg/kg N/R 85DCAI 2,73,1970


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
cat
lowest published toxic concentration: 150 mg/m3/6 hour/50 day- intermittent Behavioral: Irritability

Blood: Other changes
VCVN5* -,383,1989
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 685 g/m3/24 hour/84 day- continuous Behavioral: Muscle contraction or spasticity

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesterase
GISAAA 38(3),6,1973
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published toxic concentration: 149 mg/m3/6 hour/5 day- intermittent Olfaction: Other olfaction effects

Eye: Conjunctiva irritation

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
VCVN5* -,383,1989
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published toxic concentration: 150 mg/m3/6 hour/50 day- intermittent Behavioral: Irritability

Blood: Other changes
VCVN5* -,383,1989


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value ceiling concentration 2 ppm DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value Not classifiable as human carcinogen DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT 54,189,1992
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT 54,189,1992
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Group 3 IMEMDT 54,189,1992
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ARTODN 39,299,1978
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
AOHYA3 17,159,1974
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
EVHPAZ 11,163,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
CHHSA* 9,6,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
DIMON* 46,551,2000
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ENTOX* -,639,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ENTOX* -,538,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HUTOX* -,661,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HUTOX* -,671,1996


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1988 PESTICIDE SUBJECT TO REGISTRATION OR RE-REGISTRATION FEREAC 54,7740,1989
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1998 STATUS OF PESTICIDES: RED Completed RBREV* -,324,1998
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD air-ceiling concentration 5 ppm (7 mg/m3) DTLVS* 3,129,1971
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry) ceiling concentration 5 ppm (7 mg/m3) CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction) ceiling concentration 5 ppm (7 mg/m3) CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards) ceiling concentration 5 ppm (7 mg/m3) CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors) ceiling concentration 5 ppm (7 mg/m3) CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRALIA ceiling concentration 5 ppm (7.5 mg/m3), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM time-weighted average 5 ppm (8 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 10 ppm (15 mg/m3), MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - DENMARK ceiling concentration 5 ppm (7 mg/m3), OCT 2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - EC time-weighted average 5 ppm (8 mg/m3);
short term exposure limit 10 ppm (15 mg/m3), FEB 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - FINLAND short term exposure limit 5 ppm (7 mg/m3), Skin, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - FRANCE VLE 5 ppm (7.6 mg/m3), FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - GERMANY MAK 3 mg/m3 (2 mL/m3), 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - HUNGARY time-weighted average 8 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 16 mg/m3, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit - JAPAN Occupational Exposure Limit- continuous 5 ppm (7.5 mg/m3), APR2007
Occupational Exposure Limit - KOREA ceiling concentration 5 ppm (7.5 mg/m3), 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - MEXICO peak 5 ppm (7 mg/m3), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE NETHERLANDS MAC-TGG 8 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - NEW ZEALAND ceiling concentration 5 ppm (7.5 mg/m3), JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - NORWAY time-weighted average 5 ppm (7 mg/m3), JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE PHILIPPINES time-weighted average 5 ppm (7 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - POLAND MAC(time-weighted average) 5 mg/m3, CEILING 7 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - RUSSIA short term exposure limit 5 mg/m3, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWEDEN ceiling concentration 5 ppm (8 mg/m3), JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWITZERLAND MAK- week 2 ppm (3.0 mg/m3);
KZG- week 4 ppm (6 mg/m3), DEC2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - THAILAND time-weighted average 5 ppm (7 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - TURKEY time-weighted average 5 ppm (7 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - UNITED KINGDOM time-weighted average 1 ppm (2 mg/m3);
short term exposure limit 5 ppm (gas, mist), 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value;

Not classifiable as human carcinogen
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value
Not classifiable as human carcinogen


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO HYDROGEN CHLORIDE-air ceiling concentration 5 ppm NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974: Hazard Code: 38580;
Number of Industries 360;
Total Number of Facilities 87,434;
Number of Occupations 156;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 824,985
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: 38580;
Number of Industries 321;
Total Number of Facilities 60,309;
Number of Occupations 183;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 1,238,572;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 388,130


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Cell transform.-SA7/SHE
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
Used as an industrial chemical
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA Section 8(e) Risk Notification, 8EHQ-0892-9246
On EPA IRIS database
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Acids, inorganic, 7903


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

29ZWAE "Practical Toxicology of Plastics," Lefaux, R., Cleveland, OH, Chemical Rubber Co., 1968
85DCAI "Poisoning; Toxicology, Symptoms, Treatments," 2nd ed., Arena, J.M., Springfield, IL, C.C. Thomas, 1970
AJEMEN American Journal of Emergency Medicine. (WB Saunders, Philadelphia, PA) V.1- 1983-
AKGIAO Akushcherstvo i Ginekologiya (Moscow). (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) No.1- 1936-
AMRL** Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory Report. (Aerospace Technical Div., Air Force Systems Command, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433)
AOHYA3 Annals of Occupational Hygiene. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.1- 1958-
ARTODN Archives of Toxicology. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberger Pl. 3, D-1000 Berlin 33, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.32- 1974-
BIZEA2 Biochemische Zeitschrift. (Berlin, Ger.) V.1-346, 1906-67. For publisher information, see EJBCAI.
BJDEAZ British Journal of Dermatology. (Blackwell Scientific Pub. Ltd., POB 88, Oxford, UK) V.63- 1951-
BMCPH* BioMedCentral Pharmacology (Biomed Central Ltd) -
CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402)
CHHSA* Chemical Health & Safety (Orlando, FL : Published by Elsevier Inc. for the ACS Division of Chemical Health and Safety) V.1- 1994-
COREAF Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances, Academie des Sciences. (Paris, France) V.1-261, 1835-1965. For publisher information, see CRASEV.
CYTBAI Cytobios. (Faculty Press, 88 Regent St., Cambridge, UK) V.1- 1969-
DIMON* Disease-a Month (Chicago : Year Book Publishers) V. 24- 1978-
DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996
EJPHAZ European Journal of Pharmacology. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1967-
ENMUDM Environmental Mutagenesis. (New York, NY) V.1-9, 1979-87. For publisher information, see EMMUEG.
ENTOX* Encyclopedia of Toxicology: Reference Book, Elsevier, 2005
EVHPAZ EHP, Environmental Health Perspectives. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) No.1- 1972-
FEREAC Federal Register. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) V.1- 1936-
GISAAA Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1- 1936-
HUTOX*
IMEMDT IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) V.1- 1972-
JCTODH Journal of Combustion Toxicology. (Westport, CT) V.3-9, 1976-82.
JIHTAB Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. (Cambridge, MA) V.18-31, 1936-49. For publisher information, see AEHLAU.
JJTOEX Japanese Journal of Toxicology. (Yakugyo Jihosha, Hokushin Bldg., 2-36 Jinbo-cho, Kanda, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 101, Japan) V.1- 1988-
MJAUAJ Medical Journal of Australia. (Australasian Medical Pub. Co. Ltd., 71-79 Arundel St., Glebe, N.S.W., Australia) V.1- 1914-
MUREAV Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1964-
NIOSH* National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda.
NULSAK Nucleus (Calcutta). (Dr. A.K. Sharma, Centre of Advanced Studies in Cell and Chromosome Research, Calcutta, 35 Baliygunge Circular Rd., Calcutta 700 019, India) V.1- 1958-
RBREV* Status of Pesticides in Registration, Reregistration, and Special Review (Rainbow Report), Special Review and Reregistration Division Office of Pesticide Programs U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 401 M. Street, S.W., Washington, D.C. 20460, Spring 1998
TABIA2 Tabulae Biologicae. (The Hague, Netherlands) V.1-22, 1925-63. Discontinued.
THAGA6 Theoretical & Applied Genetics. (Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., Service Center, 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, NJ 07094) V.38- 1968-
TXCYAC Toxicology. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland, Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1973-
VCVN1* "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva. Neorganicheskie soedinenia elementov I-IV groopp" (Hazardous substances. Inornanic substances containing I-IV group elements), Filov V.A., Chimia, 1988.
VCVN5* "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva. Neorganicheskie soedinenia elementov V-VII groopp" (Hazardous substances. Inornanic substances containing V-VII group elements), Bandman A.L. et al., Chimia, 1989.

Used as an industrial chemical

Top 50 chemical production: 5.75 billions lbs in 1992, 6.60 billions in 1991

NIOSH PROFILE (CORROSION INHIBITORS, MANUFACTURE and USE), FIRL,

NIOSH PROFILE (ELECTROPLATING), FIRL, 4/78

NIOSH PROFILE (FIREFIGHTING), FIRL, 4/78

NIOSH PROFILE (HYDROGEN CHLORIDE), SRC, 10/77

NIOSH PROFILE (PETROLEUM REFINING), FIRL, 4/78

NIOSH PROFILE (PHOTOGRAPHIC PROCESSING), FIRL, 4178

NIOSH PROFILE (PRINTING INDUSTRY), SRC, 10/77

NIOSH PROFILE (SMELTERS, SECONDARY NON-FERROUS), SRI, 2/77

FDA-over the counter drug

RTECS Compound Description:
   Tumorigen
   Mutagen
   Reproductive Effector
   Human Data
   Primary Irritant

ALT CAS #: 51005-19-7
ALT CAS #: 61674-62-2
ALT CAS #: 113962-65-5
Click Here for Additional Information about RTECS

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