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Hexane

RTECS #: MN9275000

CAS #: 110-54-3


UPDATE: May 2009 MW: 86.20 MF: C6H14


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA:
  3. MUTATION DATA:
  4. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA:
  5. TUMORIGENIC DATA:
  6. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  7. OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA:
  8. REVIEWS:
  9. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:
  10. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  11. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  12. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. Esani (Italian)
  2. Gettysolve - B
  3. Heksan (Polish)
  4. Hexanen (Dutch)
  1. Hexyl hydride
  2. NCI - C60571
  3. n - Hexane
  4. n - Hexane (ACGIH:OSHA)


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
eye
rabbit
10 mg mild TXAPA9 55,501,1980


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
cytogenetic analysis hamster fibroblast 500 mg/L FCTOD7 22,623,1984
cytogenetic analysis subcutaneous
rat
7.5 mL/kg/12 week- intermittent TCMUD8 20,329,2000
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction Saccharomyes cerevisiae 132 mmol/L MUREAV 341,83,1994


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 5,000 ppm (6-17 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) NTIS** #PNL6590
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 200 ppm (6-17 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants) NTIS** #PNL6590
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 10,000 ppm/7 hour (15 day prior to copulation/1-18 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral TOXID9 1,152,1981
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,000 ppm/6 hour (8-16 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain) TJADAB 19,22A,1979
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 5,000 ppm/20 hour (6-19 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) NTIS** DE88-006812
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,000 ppm (6-19 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) NTIS** #PNL6453
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 5,000 ppm (6-19 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system
NTIS** #PNL6453
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 238 gm/kg (6-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) DCTODJ 3,393,1980


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 9,018 ppm/6 hour/2 year- intermittent Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
NTIS** OTS0537874
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,000 ppm/4 hour/59 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Testicular tumors
JOCHFV 41,261,1999


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 190 ppm/8 week Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Structural change in nerve or sheath AJIMD8 10,111,1986
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 5,400 mg/m3/10 minute Behavioral: Headache

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory obstruction

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
VCVGH* -,31,1990
inhalation
mammal (species unspecified)
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 126 gm/m3 Behavioral: Excitement

Eye: Conjunctiva irritation
VCVPS* -,71,1998
inhalation
mouse
lowest published lethal concentration: 120 gm/m3 Behavioral: General anesthetic

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression

Cardiac: Other changes
AEPPAE 143,223,1929
inhalation
mouse
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 150,000 mg/m3/2 hour N/R VCVGH* -,31,1990
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 48,000 ppm/4 hour N/R ARPTDI 22,145,1982
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 5,000 ppm/24 hour Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
EXMPA6 46,199,1987
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 627,000 mg/m3/3 minute N/R VCVGH* -,30,1990
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published lethal dose: 9,100 mg/kg N/R TXAPA9 1,156,1959
intravenous
mouse
lowest published lethal dose: 831 mg/kg Behavioral: Altered sleep time (including change in righting reflex) APTOA6 37,56,1975
intravenous
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 132 mg/kg N/R HAEMAX 58,491,1973
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 25 gm/kg N/R INHEAO 32,145,1994
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 20,000 mg/kg Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands
REPTED 6,491,1992


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
guinea pig
lowest published toxic concentration: 150,000 mg/m3/1 hour/30 day- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Changes in surface EEG VCVGH* -,32,1990
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 190 mg/m3/6 year- intermittent Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Paresthesia VCVGH* -,32,1990
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 10,000 ppm/6 hour/13 week- intermittent Olfaction: Other olfaction effects

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Blood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified)
NTPTR* NIH-91-3121
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 2,000 ppm/12 hour/24 week- intermittent Spinal Cord: Other degenerative changes

Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerve

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
HETOEA 11,323,1992
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,000 ppm/24 hour/11 week- continuous Brain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNS

Behavioral: Muscle weakness

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NTOTDY 5,69,1983
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 1 pph/6 hour/13 week- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Changes in brain weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
FAATDF 4,191,1984
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 476 ppm/6 hour/4 week- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
TOLED5 12,13,1982
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 3,000 ppm/6 hour/2 year- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain TOXID9 14,317,1994
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 500 ppm/24 hour/9 week- continuous Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Spastic paralysis with/without sensory change

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
JNSCAG 57,209,1982
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,200 ppm/12 hour/16 week- intermittent Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerve

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
ARTODN 63,381,1989
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,700 mg/m3/6 hour/4 week- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
VCVGH* -,31,1990
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 5,000 ppm/14 day- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain NTIS** #PNL6453
intraperitoneal
chicken
lowest published toxic dose: 18 gm/kg/90 day- intermittent Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Structural change in nerve or sheath

Behavioral: Ataxia

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TXAPA9 62,369,1982
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 18,900 mg/kg/35 day- intermittent Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from afferent nerve

Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerve

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
JTEHD6 13,835,1984
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4,788 mg/kg/7 day- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TOLED5 14,169,1982
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 40 gm/kg/4 week- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain TIHEEC 1(3),67,1985
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 100,000 mg/kg/5 day- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain REPTED 6,491,1992
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 7.5 mL/kg/12 week- intermittent Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Blood: Microcytosis with or without anemia

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TCMUD8 20,329,2000


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value time-weighted average 50 ppm (skin) DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 135,167,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
CHHSA* 9,6,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ENTOX* -,522,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
REPTED 25,192,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 659,93,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HUTOX* -,577,1996


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD - air time-weighted average 500 ppm (1800 mg/m3) DTLVS* 3,126,1971
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry) 8 hour time-weighted average 500 ppm (1800 mg/m3) CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction) 8 hour time-weighted average 500 ppm (1800 mg/m3) CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards) 8 hour time-weighted average 500 ppm (1800 mg/m3) CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors) 8 hour time-weighted average 500 ppm (1800 mg/m3) CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRALIA time-weighted average 20 ppm (72 mg/m3), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM time-weighted average 20 ppm (72 mg/m3), MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - DENMARK time-weighted average 25 ppm (90 mg/m3), OCT 2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - EC time-weighted average 72 mg/m3 (20 ppm), FEB 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - FINLAND time-weighted average 50 ppm (180 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 150 ppm (530 mg/m3), JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - FRANCE VME 50 ppm (170 mg/m3), FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - GERMANY MAK 180 mg/m3 (50 mL/m3), 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - HUNGARY time-weighted average 180 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 720 mg/m3, Skin, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit - JAPAN Occupational Exposure Limit 40 ppm (140 mg/m3), skin, APR2007
Occupational Exposure Limit - KOREA time-weighted average 50 ppm (180 mg/m3), 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - MEXICO time-weighted average 50 ppm (176 mg/m3), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE NETHERLANDS MAC-TGG 90 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - NEW ZEALAND time-weighted average 20 ppm (72 mg/m3), JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - NORWAY time-weighted average 25 ppm (90 mg/m3), JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE PHILIPPINES time-weighted average 500 ppm (1800 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - POLAND MAC(time-weighted average) 100 mg/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) 400 mg/me, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - RUSSIA time-weighted average 300 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 900 mg/m3, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWEDEN time-weighted average 25 ppm (90 mg/m3);
short term exposure limit 50 ppm (180 mg/m3), JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWITZERLAND MAK- week 50 ppm (180 mg/m3),KZG- week 400 ppm (1440 mg/m3),Skin, DEC2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - TURKEY time-weighted average 500 ppm (1800 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - UNITED KINGDOM time-weighted average 20 ppm (72 mg/m3), 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value;

time-weighted average 50 ppm (skin)
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value
time-weighted average 50 ppm (skin)


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO HEXANE-air 10 hour time-weighted average 50 ppm NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974: Hazard Code: 36955;
Number of Industries 281;
Total Number of Facilities 72,257;
Number of Occupations 168;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 763,261
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: 36955;
Number of Industries 221;
Total Number of Facilities 40,256;
Number of Occupations 161;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 643,101;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 138,726


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

ATSDR TOXICOLOGY PROFILE (NTIS** PB/99/166688)
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
Used as an industrial chemical, solvent, emulsifier, in manufacture of plastics, resins
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA Section 8(e) Risk Notification, 8EHQ-1292-8628;8EHQ-0893-8628
On EPA IRIS database
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Hydrocarbons, BP 36-126 degree C, 1500
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1996: Volatile organic compound, 2549
NTP Toxicity studies, RPT# TOX-02, October 2000


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

AEPPAE Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archiv fuer Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie. (Berlin, Ger.) V.110-253, 1925-66. For publisher information, see NSAPCC.
AJIMD8 American Journal of Industrial Medicine. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.1- 1980-
APTOA6 Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica. (Copenhagen, Denmark) V.1-59, 1945-86. For publisher information, see PHTOEH
ARPTDI Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology. (Annual Reviews, Inc., POB 10139, Palo Alto, CA 94303) V.16- 1976-
ARTODN Archives of Toxicology. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberger Pl. 3, D-1000 Berlin 33, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.32- 1974-
CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402)
CHHSA* Chemical Health & Safety (Orlando, FL : Published by Elsevier Inc. for the ACS Division of Chemical Health and Safety) V.1- 1994-
DCTODJ Drug and Chemical Toxicology. (Marcel Dekker, 270 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10016) V.1- 1977/78-
DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996
ENTOX* Encyclopedia of Toxicology: Reference Book, Elsevier, 2005
EXMPA6 Experimental and Molecular Pathology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1962-
FAATDF Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1-40, 1981-97. For publisher information, see TOSCF2
FCTOD7 Food and Chemical Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.20- 1982-
HAEMAX Haematologica. (Il Pensiero Scientifico Editore, Via Panama 48, I-00198, Rome, Italy) V.1- 1920-
HETOEA Human & Experimental Toxicology. (Macmillan Press Ltd., Brunel Road, Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire, RG21 2XS, UK) V.9- 1990-
HUTOX*
INHEAO Industrial Health. (National Institute of Industrial Health, 6-21-1 Nagao, Tama-ku, Kawasaki, 213 Japan) V.1- 1963-
JNSCAG Journal of the Neurological Sciences. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) No.1- 1964-
JOCHFV Journal of Occupational Health. (Japan Society for Occupational Health, 1-29-8 Shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 160, Japan) V.38- 1996-
JTEHD6 Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. (Hemisphere Pub., 1025 Vermont Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20005) V.1- 1975/76-
MUREAV Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1964-
NIOSH* National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda.
NTIS** National Technical Information Service. (Springfield, VA 22161) Formerly U.S. Clearinghouse for Scientific & Technical Information.
NTOTDY Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology. (Fayetteville, NY) V.3-8, 1981-86. For publisher information, see NETEEC.
NTPTR* National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series. (Research Triangle Park, NC 27709) No.206-
REPTED Reproductive Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.1- 1987-
TCMUD8 Teratogenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.1- 1980-
TIHEEC Toxicology and Industrial Health. (Princeton Scientific Pub. Co., POB 2155, Princeton, NJ 08540) V.1- 1985-
TJADAB Teratology, The International Journal of Abnormal Development. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.1- 1968-
TOLED5 Toxicology Letters. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1977-
TOXID9 Toxicologist. (Soc. of Toxicology, Inc., 475 Wolf Ledge Parkway, Akron, OH 44311) V.1- 1981-
TXAPA9 Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1959-
VCVGH* "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva, galogenproisvodnie uglevodorodov". (Hazardous substances: Galogenated hydrocarbons) Bandman A.L. et al., Chimia, 1990.
VCVPS* "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva. Prirodnie organicheskie soedinenia" (Hazardous substances. Nature products.) Volkova N.V. et al., Sankt-Peterburg, 1998.

Used as an industrial chemical, solvent, emulsifier, in manufacture of plastics, resins

RTECS Compound Description:
   Tumorigen
   Mutagen
   Reproductive Effector
   Human Data
   Primary Irritant

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