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Chloroform

RTECS #: FS9100000

CAS #: 67-66-3


UPDATE: May 2009 MW: 119.37 MF: CHCl3


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA:
  3. MUTATION DATA:
  4. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA:
  5. TUMORIGENIC DATA:
  6. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  7. OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA:
  8. REVIEWS:
  9. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:
  10. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  11. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  12. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. Chloroforme (French)
  2. Chloroform (ACGIH:OSHA)
  3. Cloroformio (Italian)
  4. Formyl trichloride
  5. Methane trichloride
  6. Methane, trichloro -
  7. Methenyl trichloride
  8. Methyl trichloride
  9. NCI - C02686
  1. R 20
  2. R 20 (Refrigerant)
  3. RCRA waste number U044
  4. Trichloormethaan (Dutch)
  5. Trichlormethan (Czech)
  6. Trichloroform
  7. Trichloromethane (OSHA)
  8. Triclorometano (Italian)


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
eye
rabbit
148 mg N/R AIHAAP 37,697,1976
eye
rabbit
20 mg/24 hour moderate 85JCAE -,89,1986
skin
rabbit
10 mg/24 hour open irritation test mild AIHAAP 23,95,1962
skin
rabbit
500 mg/24 hour mild 85JCAE -,89,1986


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
cytogenetic analysis intraperitoneal
rat
1,200 µg/kg MUREAV 242,111,1990
cytogenetic analysis oral
rat
597 mg/kg/5 day- intermittent MUREAV 242,111,1990
DNA adduct mammal (species unspecified) lymphocyte 1 mmol/L TOLED5 11,243,1982
DNA damage human lung 100 µmol/L/3 hour MUREAV 538,41,2003
DNA damage mouse mammary gland 3.8 mmol/L/2 hour TOXID9 72,203,2003
DNA damage rat mammary gland 3.8 mmol/L/2 hour TOXID9 72,203,2003
DNA damage rat liver 8 mmol/L/2 hour TXCYAC 187,101,2003
DNA inhibition human HeLa cell 19 mmol/L CRNGDP 13,2389,1992
DNA repair Escherichia coli 500 mg/L PMRSDJ 1,195,1981
DNA repair Saccharomyes cerevisiae 100 mg/L PMRSDJ 1,502,1981
unscheduled DNA synthesis intraperitoneal
mouse
50 mg/kg TOLED5 21,357,1984
unscheduled DNA synthesis oral
rat
1 gm/kg MUREAV 320,189,1994
mutation in microorganisms Escherichia coli 0.5 pph/24 hour (+enzymatic activation step) EMMUEG 43,128,2004
mutation in microorganisms mouse lymphocyte 12 mg/L (+enzymatic activation step) EMMUEG 12(Suppl 13),103,1988
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 20 µg/plate (+/-enzymatic activation step) PMRSDJ 1,280,1981
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 0.1 pph/24 hour (-enzymatic activation step) EMMUEG 43,128,2004
mutation in microorganisms Schizosaccharomyces pombe 5 mg/L (+enzymatic activation step) PMRSDJ 1,424,1981
micronucleus test oral
rat
4 mmol/kg MUREAV 413,1,1998
gene conversion and mitotic recombination Saccharomyes cerevisiae 2,980 mg/L MUREAV 397,271,1998
mutation in mammalian somatic cells hamster lung 1 mg/L BLFSBY 39,359,1986
morphological transform hamster kidney 4,430 mg/L PMRSDJ 1,626,1981
morphological transform mouse fibroblast 0.1 pph/21 day (-enzymatic activation step) EMMUEG 35,300,2000
other mutation test systems inhalation
grasshopper
15 pph/16 hour MUREAV 113,467,1983
other mutation test systems hamster fibroblast 1 pph ANESAV 43,21,1975
sister chromatid exchange hamster embryo 100 µmol/L SHIGAZ 74,1385,1987
sister chromatid exchange human lymphocyte 10 mmol/L ENVRAL 32,72,1983
sister chromatid exchange inhalation
mouse
300 ppm/6 hour IGAYAY 122,978,1982
sister chromatid exchange oral
mouse
200 mg/kg/4 day- intermittent ENVRAL 32,72,1983
sister chromatid exchange rat leukocyte 1 mmol/L MUREAV 300,241,1993
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction hamster lung 60 mmol/L MUREAV 182,135,1987
specific locus test mouse other cell types 0.4 µmol/L MUREAV 608,29,2006
sperm morphology inhalation
mouse
400 ppm/4 hour/5 day- intermittent ANESAV 54,53,1981


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 100 ppm/7 hour (1-7 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Female fertility index (e.g., # females pregnant per # sperm positive females; # females pregnant per # females mated)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
TXAPA9 50,515,1979
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 100 ppm/7 hour (8-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue) TXAPA9 50,515,1979
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 30 ppm/7 hour (6-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Other measures of fertility

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
TXAPA9 28,442,1974
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 100 ppm/7 hour (6-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Gastrointestinal system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Homeostasis
TXAPA9 28,442,1974
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 300 ppm/7 hour (6-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Female fertility index (e.g., # females pregnant per # sperm positive females; # females pregnant per # females mated)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)
TXAPA9 28,442,1974
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 20,100 µg/m3/1 hour (7-14 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
NTIS** PB277-077
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 2,177 mg/kg (3 week male/3 week prior to copulation-7 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
NETOD7 1,199,1979
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 2,115 mg/kg (3 week male/3 week prior to copulation-5 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects EVHPAZ 46,127,1982
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,260 mg/kg (6-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
TXAPA9 29,348,1974
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4 gm/kg (6-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) JPFCD2 18,333,1983
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 41 mg/kg (multigenerations) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system NTIS** #PB89148639
oral
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 260 mg/kg (6-18 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
TXAPA9 29,348,1974


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 127 gm/kg/92 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
NCITR* NCI-TR-0,1976
oral
mouse
toxic dose : 18 gm/kg/17 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
JNCIAM 5,251,1945
oral
mouse
toxic dose : 24,752 mg/kg/2 year- continuous Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
FAATDF 5,760,1985
oral
mouse
toxic dose : 130 gm/kg/2 year- intermittent Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Bladder tumors
VOONAW 33(8),81,1987
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 13,832 mg/kg/2 year- continuous Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Blood: Leukemia
FAATDF 5,760,1985
oral
rat
toxic dose : 98 gm/kg/78 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Kidney tumors

Endocrine: Thyroid tumors
NCITR* NCI-TR-0,1976
oral
rat
toxic dose : 7,020 mg/kg/78 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Kidney tumors
EVHPAZ 31,171,1979
oral
rat
toxic dose : 70 gm/kg/78 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Kidney tumors

Endocrine: Thyroid tumors
NCITR* NCI-TR-0,1976
oral
rat
toxic dose : 58,968 mg/kg/2 year- continuous Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Endocrine: Thyroid tumors

Blood: Tumors
FAATDF 5,760,1985
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 88.2 gm/kg/100 week- continuous Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
TOXID9 72,84,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 48 gm/kg/16 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Kidney tumors

Tumorigenic: Increased incidence of tumors in susceptible strains
TXCYAC 187,1,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 216 gm/kg/16 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Kidney tumors

Tumorigenic: Increased incidence of tumors in susceptible strains
TXCYAC 187,1,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 675 gm/kg/40 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Kidney tumors

Tumorigenic: Increased incidence of tumors in susceptible strains
TXCYAC 187,1,2003


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
cat
lowest published lethal concentration: 35 gm/m3/4 hour Behavioral: General anesthetic

Gastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of salivary glands

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
AHBAAM 116,131,1936
inhalation
cat
lowest published toxic concentration: 30,000 mg/m3/3 hour Behavioral: General anesthetic VCVGH* -,330,1990
inhalation
cat
lowest published toxic concentration: 70,000 mg/m3/40 minute Behavioral: General anesthetic VCVGH* -,330,1990
inhalation
cat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 47 gm/m3/4 hour N/R ENTOX* -,561,2005
inhalation
dog
lowest published lethal concentration: 100 gm/m3 N/R PCOC** -,230,1966
inhalation
dog
lowest published toxic concentration: 80,000 mg/m3 Behavioral: General anesthetic VCVGH* -,330,1990
inhalation
frog
lowest published lethal concentration: 6 gm/m3 N/R AEXPBL 97,86,1923
inhalation
guinea pig
lowest published lethal concentration: 20,000 ppm/2 hour N/R FLCRAP 1,197,1967
inhalation
guinea pig
lowest published toxic concentration: 33,000 mg/m3 Behavioral: General anesthetic VCVGH* -,330,1990
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 10 mg/m3/1 year Behavioral: Anorexia (human)

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting

Gastrointestinal: Other changes
IRGGAJ 24,127,1967
inhalation
human
lowest published lethal concentration: 25,000 ppm/5 minute N/R TABIA2 3,231,1933
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 5,000 mg/m3/7 minute Behavioral: Hallucinations, distorted perceptions AHBAAM 116,131,1936
inhalation
mammal (species unspecified)
lowest published lethal concentration: 25,000 ppm/5 minute N/R AEPPAE 138,65,1928
inhalation
mouse
lowest published lethal concentration: 23 gm/m3/56 minute Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Spastic paralysis with/without sensory change

Behavioral: General anesthetic

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)
BIZEA2 115,235,1921
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 20,000 mg/m3/2 hour Behavioral: General anesthetic VCVGH* -,307,1990
inhalation
mouse
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 17,200 mg/m3/2 hour N/R VCVGH* -,330,1990
inhalation
mouse
lethal concentration (16 percent kill): 16,000 mg/m3/2 hour N/R VCVGH* -,330,1990
inhalation
mouse
lethal concentration (84 percent kill): 29,000 mg/m3/2 hour N/R VCVGH* -,330,1990
inhalation
mouse
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 6,000 mg/m3/6 hour N/R VCVGH* -,330,1990
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 47,702 mg/m3/4 hour N/R ENVRAL 40,411,1986
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 6,000 mg/m3/6 hour N/R VCVGH* -,330,1990
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published lethal concentration: 59 gm/m3 N/R PCOC** -,230,1966
intraperitoneal
dog
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1 gm/kg Liver: Liver function tests impaired TXAPA9 10,119,1967
intraperitoneal
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 623 mg/kg N/R AGGHAR 18,109,1960
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 150 mg/kg Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TOXID9 60,259,2001
intraperitoneal
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 894 mg/kg N/R ENVRAL 40,411,1986
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.5 mL/kg Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TOXID9 72,96,2003
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 180 mg/kg Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
JAPTO* 24,203,2004
intravenous
dog
lowest published lethal dose: 75 mg/kg N/R QJPPAL 7,205,1934
oral
dog
lowest published lethal dose: 1 gm/kg N/R QJPPAL 7,205,1934
oral
guinea pig
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 820 mg/kg N/R ENTOX* -,561,2005
oral
man
lowest published lethal dose: 2,514 mg/kg Behavioral: Muscle contraction or spasticity

Cardiac: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)
AJEMEN 6,507,1988
oral
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 36 mg/kg N/R ATSUDG 2,371,1979
oral
mouse
lethal dose (16 percent kill): 620 mg/kg N/R VCVGH* -,330,1990
oral
mouse
lethal dose (84 percent kill): 1,650 mg/kg N/R VCVGH* -,330,1990
oral
mouse
lethal dose : 750 mg/kg Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
TOXID9 44,15,2005
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kg Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes TOXID9 66,289,2002
oral
mouse
lethal dose (90 percent kill): 750 mg/kg N/R TXAPA9 213,267,2006
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 150 mg/kg Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Renal function tests depressed

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TXAPA9 213,267,2006
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 225 mg/kg Liver: Other changes TXAPA9 213,267,2006
oral
mouse
lethal dose (90 percent kill): 750 mg/kg Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Renal function tests depressed
TXAPA9 216,108,2006
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 150 mg/kg Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases TXAPA9 227,48,2008
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 695 mg/kg Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Ataxia

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory stimulation
KHZDAN 29(5),39,1986
oral
rat
lethal dose (16 percent kill): 800 mg/kg N/R VCVGH* -,330,1990
oral
rat
lethal dose (84 percent kill): 985 mg/kg N/R VCVGH* -,330,1990
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.5 mL/kg Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)
VCVGH* -,331,1990
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 14.9 mg/kg Liver: Liver function tests impaired TOXID9 66,49,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 119.37 mg/kg Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
TOXID9 60,236,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 119.37 mg/kg Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases
TOXID9 60,236,2001
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 300 mg/kg N/R ENTOX* -,561,2005
oral
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 500 mg/kg N/R AEXPBL 97,86,1923
subcutaneous
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 704 mg/kg N/R ENTOX* -,561,2005
subcutaneous
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 800 mg/kg N/R QJPPAL 7,205,1934
skin
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): >20 gm/kg N/R ENTOX* -,561,2005
unreported route
human
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2.9 mL/kg N/R VCVGH* -,331,1990
unreported route
human
lowest published toxic dose: 6.3 mg/kg Gastrointestinal: Gastritis

Gastrointestinal: Necrotic changes
VCVGH* -,331,1990
unreported route
man
lowest published lethal dose: 546 mg/kg N/R 85DCAI 2,73,1970
unreported route
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kg Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TOXID9 44,472,2005


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
dog
lowest published toxic concentration: 25 ppm/7 hour/26 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis) AIHAAP 37,697,1976
inhalation
guinea pig
lowest published toxic concentration: 85 ppm/7 hour/26 week- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis, focal (pneumoconiosis) AIHAAP 37,697,1976
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 12 ppm/6 hour/13 week- intermittent Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field JTSCDR 18,423,1993
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 100 ppm/6 hour/7 day- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
FAATDF 22,431,1994
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 10 ppm/2 day- intermittent Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity) TOSCF2 66,201,2002
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 30 ppm/7 day- intermittent Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)
TOSCF2 66,201,2002
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 50 ppm/7 hour/26 week- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis, focal (pneumoconiosis)

Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight
AIHAAP 37,697,1976
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 90 ppm/6 hour/13 week- intermittent Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
FAATDF 32,109,1996
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 300 ppm/6 hour/7 day- intermittent Olfaction: Other olfaction effects

Musculoskeletal: Other changes
TXAPA9 125,214,1994
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 592 mg/m3/2.5 hour/2 week- intermittent Behavioral: Food intake (animal)

Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
WDZAEK 6,243,1992
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 25 ppm/104 week- intermittent Behavioral: Fluid intake

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
JTEHF8 69,1827,2006
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published toxic concentration: 85 ppm/7 hour/26 week- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis, focal (pneumoconiosis) AIHAAP 37,697,1976
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kg/3 day- intermittent Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes TOXID9 66,116,2002
multiple
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 72.8 gm/kg/104 week- intermittent Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Liver: Other changes
TOXID9 66,186,2002
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1,750 mg/kg/14 day- continuous Liver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
EVHPAZ 46,117,1982
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 560 mg/kg/4 day- intermittent Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
TOSCF2 50,90,1999
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 9,100 mg/kg/13 week- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight
TOSCF2 50,90,1999
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 4,500 mg/kg/30 day- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
TOXID9 78,104,2004
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 9,000 mg/kg/30 day- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TOXID9 78,104,2004
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kg/3 day- intermittent Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes TOXID9 66,116,2002
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 4,760 mg/kg/26 day- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TOXID9 78,353,2004
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1,000 mg/kg/5 day- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes TOXID9 66,265,2002
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 14,560 mg/kg/0.5 year- continuous Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
TOXID9 60,152,2001
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 10,920 mg/kg/13 week- intermittent Liver: Other changes TOXID9 60,286,2001
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 4,500 mg/kg/30 day- intermittent Behavioral: Tolerance

Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
TOXID9 78,314,2004
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 9,000 mg/kg/30 day- intermittent Behavioral: Tolerance

Liver: Other changes

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TOXID9 78,314,2004
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 900 mg/kg/3 day- intermittent Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field TXAPA9 213,267,2006
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1,050 mg/kg/7 day- intermittent Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXAPA9 213,267,2006
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 840 mg/kg/28 day- continuous Blood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified) JPFCD2 17,205,1982
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 7,560 mg/kg/21 day- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
GISAAA 48(3),10,1983
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kg/10 day- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases
TXCYAC 14,23,1979
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 37.1 gm/kg/100 week- continuous Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain TOXID9 72,84,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 88.2 gm/kg/100 week- continuous Liver: Other changes TOXID9 72,84,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 54 mg/kg/3 day- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TXCYAC 180,233,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 540 mg/kg/3 day- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TXCYAC 180,233,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3,600 mg/kg/28 day- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXCYAC 180,233,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 32,760 mg/kg/104 week- intermittent Behavioral: Fluid intake

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
JTEHF8 69,1827,2006
unreported route
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 540 mg/kg/3 day- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes TOXID9 66,62,2002


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value time-weighted average 10 ppm DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value Confirmed animal carcinogen DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Sufficient Evidence IMEMDT 20,401,1979
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Sufficient Evidence IMEMDT 73,131,1999
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT 20,401,1979
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT 73,131,1999
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Group 2B IMEMDT 73,131,1999
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ARZNAD 24,173,1974
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
AJMEAZ 38,409,1965
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
FNSCA6 2,67,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
DCTODJ 1,259,1978
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
BNYMAM 54,413,1978
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
EMMUEG 39,69,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
CTOXAO 13,231,1978
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 543,201,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 567,227,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 567,109,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 567,151,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TXCYAC 198,239,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
CHHSA* 12,36,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
DIMON* 39,678,1993
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 628,67,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ENTOX* -,546,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ENTOX* -,561,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ENTOX* -,389,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
BCLPT* 96,131,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HETOEA 25,413,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 636,242,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 658,124,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
JTEHD6 5,283,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HUTOX* -,493,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HUTOX* -,577,1996


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD air-ceiling concentration 50 ppm (240 mg/m3) DTLWS* 3,14,1973
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry) ceiling concentration 50 ppm (240 mg/m3) CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction) ceiling concentration 50 ppm (240 mg/m3) CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards) ceiling concentration 50 ppm (240 mg/m3) CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors) ceiling concentration 50 ppm (240 mg/m3) CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Exposure Limit - ARAB Republic of Egypt time-weighted average 10 ppm (50 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRALIA time-weighted average 2 ppm (10 mg/m3), Carcinogen, JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM time-weighted average 2 ppm (10 mg/m3), Skin, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - DENMARK time-weighted average 2 ppm (10 mg/m3), OCT 2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - EC time-weighted average 10 mg/m3 (2 ppm) (skin), FEB 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - FINLAND time-weighted average 10 ppm (50 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 20 ppm, Skin, Carcinogen, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - FRANCE VME 2 ppm (10 mg/m3), VLE 50 ppm (250 mg/m3), Skin, continuous3 Carcinogen, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - GERMANY MAK 2.5 mg/m3 (0.5 mL/m3), 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - HUNGARY time-weighted average 10 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 10 mg/m3, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit - INDIA time-weighted average 10 ppm (50 mg/m3), Carcinogen, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - JAPAN Occupational Exposure Limit 3 ppm (14.7 mg/m3), skin, 2B carcinogen, APR2007
Occupational Exposure Limit - KOREA time-weighted average 10 ppm (50 mg/m3), 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - MEXICO time-weighted average 10 ppm (50 mg/m3);
short term exposure limit 50 ppm (225 mg/m3), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE NETHERLANDS MAC-TGG 5 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - NEW ZEALAND time-weighted average 2 ppm (9.9 mg/m3), skin, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - NORWAY time-weighted average 2 ppm (10 mg/m3), JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE PHILIPPINES time-weighted average 50 ppm (240 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - POLAND MAC(time-weighted average) 50 mg/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) 225 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - RUSSIA time-weighted average 5 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 10 mg/m3, Skin, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWEDEN time-weighted average 2 ppm (10 mg/m3);
short term exposure limit 5 ppm (25 mg/m3), Carcinogen, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWITZERLAND MAK- week 0.5 ppm (2.5 mg/m3),KZG- week 1 ppm (5 mg/m3), Skin, DEC2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - THAILAND time-weighted average 50 ppm (240 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - TURKEY time-weighted average 50 ppm (240 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - UNITED KINGDOM time-weighted average 2 ppm (9.9 mg/m3) (skin), 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value;

Confirmed animal carcinogen
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value
Confirmed animal carcinogen


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO CHLOROFORM-air Carcinogen short term exposure limit 2 ppm/60 minute NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO WASTE ANESTHETIC GASES AND VAPORS-air ceiling concentration 2 ppm/1 hour MMWR** 37(S-7),28,1988
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974: Hazard Code: 18500;
Number of Industries 78;
Total Number of Facilities 5,120;
Number of Occupations 66;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 96,747
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: 18500;
Number of Industries 65;
Total Number of Facilities 4,890;
Number of Occupations 55;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 95,773;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 41,397


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

ATSDR TOXICOLOGY PROFILE (NTIS** PB/98/101140/AS)
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat; S cerevisiae gene conversion
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: S cerevisiae-homozygosis; S cerevisiae-reversion
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Cell transform.-SA7/SHE; V79 cell culture-gene mutation
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: Mammalian micronucleus; Sperm morphology-mouse
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
Used in the synthesis of FLUOROCARBON 22 for refrigerants, propellants and plastics
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
On EPA IRIS database
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH CURRENT INTELLIGENCE BULLETIN 9, 1976
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Hydrocarbons, halogenated, 1003
NCI Carcinogenesis Bioassay (gavage);clear evidence:mouse,rat NCITR* NCI-TR,1976
NTP 11th Report on Carcinogens,2004:Reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #05


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

85DCAI "Poisoning; Toxicology, Symptoms, Treatments," 2nd ed., Arena, J.M., Springfield, IL, C.C. Thomas, 1970
85JCAE "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J., Prague, Czechoslovakia, Avicenum, 1986
AEPPAE Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archiv fuer Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie. (Berlin, Ger.) V.110-253, 1925-66. For publisher information, see NSAPCC.
AEXPBL Archiv fuer Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie. (Leipzig, Ger. Dem. Rep.) V.1-109, 1873-1925. For publisher information, see NSAPCC.
AGGHAR Archiv fuer Gewerbepathologie und Gewerbehygiene. (Berlin, Ger.) V.1-18, 1930-61. For publisher information, see IAEHDW.
AHBAAM Archiv fuer Hygiene und Bakteriologie. (Munich, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.101-154, 1929-71. For publisher information, see ZHPMAT.
AIHAAP American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. (AIHA, 475 Wolf Ledges Pkwy., Akron, OH 44311) V.19- 1958-
AJEMEN American Journal of Emergency Medicine. (WB Saunders, Philadelphia, PA) V.1- 1983-
AJMEAZ American Journal of Medicine. (Technical Pub., 875 Third Ave., New York, NY 10022) V.1- 1946-
ANESAV Anesthesiology. (Lippincott/Harper, Journal Fulfillment Dept., 2350 Virginia Ave., Hagerstown, MD 21740) V.1- 1940-
ARZNAD Arzneimittel-Forschung. Drug Research. (Editio Cantor Verlag, Postfach 1255, W-7960 Aulendorf, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.1- 1951-
ATSUDG Archives of Toxicology, Supplement. (Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., Service Center, 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, NJ 07094) No.1- 1978-
BCLPT* Basic & clinical pharmacology & toxicology (Copenhagen, Denmark : Nordic Pharmacological Society Oxford, UK : Distributed by Blackwell Munksgaard) V.94- 2004-
BIZEA2 Biochemische Zeitschrift. (Berlin, Ger.) V.1-346, 1906-67. For publisher information, see EJBCAI.
BLFSBY Basic Life Sciences. (Plenum Pub. Corp., 223 Spring St., New York, NY 10003) V.1- 1973-
BNYMAM Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine. (New York Academy of Medicine, 2 E. 103rd St., New York, NY 10029) Ser 2: V.1- 1925-
CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402)
CHHSA* Chemical Health & Safety (Orlando, FL : Published by Elsevier Inc. for the ACS Division of Chemical Health and Safety) V.1- 1994-
CRNGDP Carcinogenesis (London). (Oxford Univ. Press, Pinkhill House, Southfield Road, Eynsham, Oxford OX8 1JJ, UK) V.1- 1980-
CTOXAO Clinical Toxicology. (New York, NY) V.1-18, 1968-81. For publisher information, see JTCTDW.
DCTODJ Drug and Chemical Toxicology. (Marcel Dekker, 270 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10016) V.1- 1977/78-
DIMON* Disease-a Month (Chicago : Year Book Publishers) V. 24- 1978-
DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996
DTLWS* "Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values for Substances in Workroom Air," Supplements. For publisher information, see 85INA8.
EMMUEG Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 1987-
ENTOX* Encyclopedia of Toxicology: Reference Book, Elsevier, 2005
ENVRAL Environmental Research. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1967-
EVHPAZ EHP, Environmental Health Perspectives. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) No.1- 1972-
FAATDF Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1-40, 1981-97. For publisher information, see TOSCF2
FLCRAP Fluorine Chemistry Reviews. (Marcel Dekker, 270 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10016) V.1- 1967-
FNSCA6 Forensic Science. (Lausanne, Switzerland) V.1-11, 1972-78. For pub lisher information, see FSINDR.
GISAAA Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1- 1936-
HETOEA Human & Experimental Toxicology. (Macmillan Press Ltd., Brunel Road, Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire, RG21 2XS, UK) V.9- 1990-
HUTOX*
IGAYAY Igaku No Ayumi. Progress in Medicine. (Ishiyaku Shuppan K.K., 1-7-10, Honkomagom, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan) V.1- 1946-
IMEMDT IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) V.1- 1972-
IRGGAJ Internationales Archiv fuer Gewerbepathologie und Gewerbehygiene. (Heidelberg, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.19-25, 1962-69. For publisher information, see IAEHDW.
JAPTO* Journal of Applied Toxicology (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Oldlands Way Bognor Regis West Sussex, PO22 9SA England) V.1- 1981-
JNCIAM Journal of the National Cancer Institute. (Washington, DC) V.1-60, 1940-78. For publisher information, see JJIND8.
JPFCD2 Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part B: Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes. (Marcel Dekker, 270 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10016) V.B11- 1976-
JTEHD6 Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. (Hemisphere Pub., 1025 Vermont Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20005) V.1- 1975/76-
JTEHF8 Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A. (Taylor & Francis, 47 Runway Rd., Suite G, Levittown, PA 19057) V.53- 1998-
JTSCDR Journal of Toxicological Sciences. (Japanese Soc. of Toxicological Sciences, 4th Floor, Gakkai Center Bldg., 4-16, Yayoi 2-chome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113, Japan) V.1- 1976-
KHZDAN Khigiena i Zdraveopazvane. Hygiene and Sanitation. (Hemus, Blvd. Russki 6, Sofia, Bulgaria) V.9- 1966-
MMWR** MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. (Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333) V.25(10)- 1976- for RTECS citation, only V.34(Suppl 1S), 1985 is used.
MUREAV Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1964-
NCITR* National Cancer Institute Carcinogenesis Technical Report Series. (Bethesda, MD) No.0-205. For publisher information, see NTPTR*.
NETOD7 Neurobehavioral Toxicology. (Fayetteville, NY) V.1-2, 1979-80. For publisher information, see NTOTDY.
NIOSH* National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda.
NTIS** National Technical Information Service. (Springfield, VA 22161) Formerly U.S. Clearinghouse for Scientific & Technical Information.
PCOC** Pesticide Chemicals Official Compendium, Association of the American Pesticide Control Officials, Inc., 1966. (Topeka, KS)
PMRSDJ Progress in Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. Co., Inc., 52 Vanderbilt Ave., New York, NY 10017) V.1- 1981-
QJPPAL Quarterly Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacology. (London, UK) V.2-21, 1929-48. For publisher information, see JPPMAB.
SHIGAZ Shigaku. Ondotology. (Nippon Shika Daigaku Shigakkai, 1-9-20 Fujimi, Chiyodaku, Tokyo 102, Japan) V.38- 1949-
TABIA2 Tabulae Biologicae. (The Hague, Netherlands) V.1-22, 1925-63. Discontinued.
TOLED5 Toxicology Letters. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1977-
TOSCF2 Toxicological Sciences (Oxford University Press, 6277 Sea Harbor Drive, Orlando, FL 32887 ) V. 41, Jan. 1998-
TOXID9 Toxicologist. (Soc. of Toxicology, Inc., 475 Wolf Ledge Parkway, Akron, OH 44311) V.1- 1981-
TXAPA9 Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1959-
TXCYAC Toxicology. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland, Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1973-
VCVGH* "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva, galogenproisvodnie uglevodorodov". (Hazardous substances: Galogenated hydrocarbons) Bandman A.L. et al., Chimia, 1990.
VOONAW Voprosy Onkologii. Problems of Oncology. For English translation, see PONCAU. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1-10, 1928-37; V.1- 1955-
WDZAEK Weisheng Dulixue Zazhi. Journal of Health Toxicology. (Weisheng Dulixue Zazhi Bianjibu, Dongdaqiao, Chaoyang Menwai, Beijing, Peop. Rep. China) V.1- 1987

Used in the synthesis of FLUOROCARBON 22 for refrigerants, propellants and plastics

RTECS Compound Description:
   Agricultural Chemical
   Tumorigen
   Drug
   Mutagen
   Reproductive Effector
   Human Data
   Primary Irritant

ALT CAS #: 8013-54-5
Click Here for Additional Information about RTECS

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