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Benzene

RTECS #: CY1400000

CAS #: 71-43-2


UPDATE: May 2009 MW: 78.12 MF: C6H6


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA:
  3. MUTATION DATA:
  4. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA:
  5. TUMORIGENIC DATA:
  6. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  7. OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA:
  8. REVIEWS:
  9. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:
  10. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  11. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  12. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. (6) Annulene
  2. Benzeen (Dutch)
  3. Benzen (Polish)
  4. Benzene (ACGIH:OSHA)
  5. Benzin (Obs.)
  6. Benzine (Obs.)
  7. Benzol (OSHA)
  8. Benzole
  9. Benzolene
  10. Benzolo (Italian)
  11. Bicarburet of hydrogen
  1. Carbon oil
  2. Coal naphtha
  3. Cyclohexatriene
  4. Fenzen (Czech)
  5. Mineral naphtha
  6. NCI - C55276
  7. Phene
  8. Phenyl hydride
  9. Pyrobenzol
  10. Pyrobenzole
  11. RCRA waste number U019


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
eye
rabbit
88 mg moderate AMIHAB 14,387,1956
eye
rabbit
2 mg/24 hour severe 85JCAE -,25,1986
skin
rat
60 L/8 hour open irritation test mild TOLED5 159,261,2005
skin
rabbit
15 mg/24 hour open irritation test mild AIHAAP 23,95,1962
skin
rabbit
20 mg/24 hour moderate 85JCAE -,25,1986


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
cytogenetic analysis hamster lung 550 mg/L PMRSDJ 5,427,1985
cytogenetic analysis hamster ovary 600 mg/L PMRSDJ 5,443,1985
cytogenetic analysis inhalation
human
125 ppm/1 year AEHLAU 22,373,1971
cytogenetic analysis human leukocyte 1 mmol/L/72 hour MUREAV 47,75,1978
cytogenetic analysis human lymphocyte 1 mg/L BZARAZ 26(12),38,1973
cytogenetic analysis unreported route
human
10 ppm/4 week ENVRAL 19,33,1979
cytogenetic analysis inhalation
human
0.1 ppm MUTAEX 17,157,2002
cytogenetic analysis oral
mouse
20 mg/kg BEXBAN 96,1741,1984
cytogenetic analysis intraperitoneal
mouse
264 mg/kg/3 day- continuous ENMUDM 2,43,1980
cytogenetic analysis inhalation
mouse
3,000 ppm EVSRBT 25,257,1982
cytogenetic analysis skin
mouse
8.5 gm/kg EMMUEG 37,185,2001
cytogenetic analysis intraperitoneal
mouse
24 mg/kg TPKVAL 15,30,1979
cytogenetic analysis inhalation
rat
300 mg/m3/16 week- intermittent GISAAA 42(1),32,1977
cytogenetic analysis subcutaneous
rat
2,400 mg/kg/12 day- intermittent GISAAA 37(10),36,1972
cytogenetic analysis intraperitoneal
rat
234 mg/kg MUREAV 242,111,1990
cytogenetic analysis oral
rat
39,060 g/kg MUREAV 298,81,1992
cytogenetic analysis subcutaneous
rat
7.5 mL/kg/12 week- intermittent TCMUD8 20,329,2000
cytogenetic analysis subcutaneous
rabbit
8,400 mg/kg PSDTAP 15,275,1974
dominant lethal test oral
mouse
1 mg/kg ARTODN 39,173,1978
dominant lethal test intraperitoneal
mouse
5 mg/kg TPKVAL 15,30,1979
DNA adduct intraperitoneal
mouse
2,640 mg/kg/3 day- continuous CRNGDP 17,151,1996
DNA adduct intraperitoneal
mouse
5,000 mg/kg/5 day- intermittent MUREAV 566,99,2004
DNA adduct intraperitoneal
mouse
0.5 mg/kg/1 day MUREAV 566,99,2004
DNA adduct intraperitoneal
rat
0.5 mg/kg/1 day MUREAV 566,99,2004
DNA damage hamster ovary 17 mmol/L PMRSDJ 5,367,1985
DNA damage mouse lymphocyte 3,840 mol/L MUREAV 203,155,1988
DNA damage intraperitoneal
mouse
2,000 mg/kg MUREAV 493,39,2001
DNA damage oral
mouse
2,000 mg/kg MUREAV 493,39,2001
DNA damage inhalation
mouse
100 ppm/2 week TOXID9 66,72,2002
DNA damage subcutaneous
rabbit
2,344 mg/kg ARTODN 63,209,1989
DNA inhibition human leukocyte 2,200 mol/L INHEAO 12,23,1974
DNA inhibition human HeLa cell 2,200 mol/L INHEAO 12,23,1974
DNA inhibition oral
mouse
20 gm/kg ARGEAR 51,605,1981
DNA inhibition intraperitoneal
mouse
880 mg/kg RCOCB8 60,27,1988
DNA inhibition inhalation
mouse
3,000 ppm/4 hour- continuous RCOCB8 60,27,1988
DNA inhibition mouse bone marrow 3 mmol/L RCOCB8 60,27,1988
DNA inhibition inhalation
rat
400 ppm BLUTA9 21,250,1970
DNA inhibition subcutaneous
rabbit
2 gm/kg ACHAAH 38,104,1967
DNA repair inhalation
human
24.4 ppb/8 hour MUREAV 626,79,2007
unscheduled DNA synthesis rat liver 1 mmol/L PMRSDJ 5,371,1985
mutation in microorganisms mouse lymphocyte 62,500 g/L (+enzymatic activation step) PMRSDJ 5,587,1985
mutation in microorganisms mouse embryo 2,500 mg/L (+enzymatic activation step) PMRSDJ 5,639,1985
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 10 ppm (-enzymatic activation step) EVHPAZ 82,81,1989
mutation in microorganisms Saccharomyes cerevisiae 549 mg/L (+enzymatic activation step) PMRSDJ 5,271,1985
micronucleus test inhalation
human
21 ng/L/9 year- intermittent MUREAV 583,1,2005
micronucleus test mouse embryo 12,500 nmol/L EMMUEG 19(Suppl 20),21,1992
micronucleus test subcutaneous
mouse
440 mg/kg CBINA8 39,129,1982
micronucleus test oral
mouse
40 mg/kg MUREAV 147,294,1985
micronucleus test intraperitoneal
mouse
264 mg/kg/24 hour MUTAEX 2,111,1987
micronucleus test inhalation
mouse
10 ppm/6 hour ENMUDM 8,29,1986
micronucleus test inhalation
mouse
15,000 ppm/5 week MUTAEX 16,163,2001
micronucleus test inhalation
mouse
100 ppm/6 hour/2 week- intermittent TOXID9 72(Supp 1),228,2003
micronucleus test inhalation
mouse
100 ppm/2 week- intermittent TOSCF2 72,201,2003
micronucleus test inhalation
mouse
10 ppm/5 day/2 week- intermittent TOXID9 66,72,2002
micronucleus test inhalation
mouse
10 ppm/2 week TOXID9 66,72,2002
micronucleus test unreported route
mouse
10 mg/kg JAPTO* 25,514,2005
micronucleus test inhalation
mouse
100 ppm/6 hour/10 day MUREAV 549,195,2004
micronucleus test multiple
non-mammalian species
10 mg/L/36 hour MUREAV 534,93,2003
micronucleus test multiple
non-mammalian species
10 mg/L/90 minute MUREAV 534,93,2003
micronucleus test inhalation
rat
1 ppm/6 hour ENMUDM 8,29,1986
micronucleus test intraperitoneal
rat
0.3 mL/kg TCMUD8 21,181,2001
micronucleus test intratracheal
rat
0.3 mL/kg TCMUD8 21,181,2001
gene conversion and mitotic recombination Saccharomyes cerevisiae 275 mg/L PMRSDJ 5,271,1985
mutation in mammalian somatic cells hamster embryo 10 mol/L MUREAV 373,113,1997
mutation in mammalian somatic cells human lymphocyte 1 gm/L PMRSDJ 5,497,1985
mutation in mammalian somatic cells mouse lymphocyte 12,500 g/L PMRSDJ 5,525,1985
mutation in mammalian somatic cells inhalation
mouse
40 ppb/6 week- continuous MUREAV 268,49,1992
mutation in mammalian somatic cells oral
mouse
2 gm/kg/5 day- continuous EMMUEG 28,342,1996
morphological transform hamster embryo 100 g/L CRNGDP 4,291,1983
morphological transform mouse embryo 1 gm/L PMRSDJ 5,659,1985
morphological transform mouse fibroblast 150 gm/L CRNGDP 3,1235,1982
morphological transform mouse fibroblast 0.1 mg/L/21 day (-enzymatic activation step) EMMUEG 35,300,2000
other mutation test systems cat bone marrow 1 mmol/L CBINA8 42,353,1982
other mutation test systems inhalation
grasshopper
14 pph/16 hour MUREAV 113,467,1983
other mutation test systems human lymphocyte 5 mol/L CNREA8 45,2471,1985
other mutation test systems oral
mouse
2 gm/kg MUREAV 343,157,1995
other mutation test systems mouse other cell types 5 mmol/L CBTOE2 2,231,1986
other mutation test systems mouse lymphocyte 10 mmol/L TOLED5 29,161,1985
other mutation test systems intraperitoneal
non-mammalian species
75 gm/kg ACHAAH 26,281,1961
other mutation test systems rat liver 1 mmol/L CBINA8 42,353,1982
other mutation test systems rat bone marrow 1 mmol/L CBINA8 42,353,1982
other mutation test systems subcutaneous
rat
1 gm/L NJMSAG 28,204,1966
other mutation test systems subcutaneous
rat
2,200 mg/kg CBINA8 42,353,1982
other mutation test systems rabbit bone marrow 1 mmol/L CBINA8 42,353,1982
sister chromatid exchange hamster ovary 750 mg/L SCIEAS 236,933,1987
sister chromatid exchange human lymphocyte 200 mol/L CNREA8 43,1330,1983
sister chromatid exchange inhalation
mouse
10 ppm/6 hour ENMUDM 8,29,1986
sister chromatid exchange intraperitoneal
mouse
5 gm/kg ENMUDM 5,450,1983
sister chromatid exchange inhalation
rat
3 ppm/6 hour ENMUDM 8,29,1986
sister chromatid exchange rat leukocyte 1 mmol/L MUREAV 300,241,1993
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction Aspergillus nidulans 35,000 ppm MUREAV 147,288,1985
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction oral
Drosophila melanogaster
7,500 ppm CONAEL 1,35,1985
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction multiple
Drosophila melanogaster
27,000 ppm EMMUEG 25,211,1995
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction hamster liver 62,500 g/L PMRSDJ 5,397,1985
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction hamster embryo 30 mol/L MUREAV 373,113,1997
specific locus test oral
Drosophila melanogaster
11,250 mol/L PMRSDJ 5,325,1985


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 500 ppm/7 hour (6-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
AIHAAP 40,993,1979
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 500 mg/m3/12 hour (6-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
ATSUDG 8,425,1985
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 5 ppm (6-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Cytological changes (including somatic cell genetic material)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Blood and lymphatic systems (including spleen and marrow)
TXCYAC 42,171,1986
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 20 ppm/6 hour (6-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Blood and lymphatic systems (including spleen and marrow) FAATDF 10,224,1988
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 670 mg/m3/24 hour (15 day prior to copulation/1-22 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Female fertility index (e.g., # females pregnant per # sperm positive females; # females pregnant per # females mated) HYSAAV 33(1-3),327,1968
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 56,600 g/m3/24 hour (1-22 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic HYSAAV 33(7-9),112,1968
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 50 ppm/24 hour (7-14 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
JHEMA2 24,363,1980
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 150 ppm/24 hour (7-14 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
JHEMA2 24,363,1980
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published toxic concentration: 1 gm/m3/24 hour (7-20 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Abortion

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
ATSUDG 8,425,1985
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published toxic concentration: 1 gm/m3/24 hour (7-20 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalities
ATSUDG 8,425,1985
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published toxic concentration: 500 ppm/7 hour (6-18 day pregnant) Reproductive: Other effects on female NTIS** OTS0545179
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kg (1 day male) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
TPKVAL 15,30,1979
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 219 mg/kg (14 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Blood and lymphatic systems (including spleen and marrow)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Hepatobiliary system
EMMUEG 18,1,1991
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1,600 mg/kg (10-11 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) TERM1* -,327,2006
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 800 mg/kg (8-14 day pregnant) Reproductive: Other effects to embryo or fetus

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Blood and lymphatic systems (including spleen and marrow)
TOXID9 -,312,2008
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 800 mg/kg (8-14 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Blood and lymphatic systems (including spleen and marrow)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects
TOXID9 -,312,2008
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1,600 mg/kg (10-11 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Hepatobiliary system TXAPA9 228,326,2008
intravenous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 13,200 g/kg (13-16 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Cytological changes (including somatic cell genetic material) ICHUDW 4(6),24,1982
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 9 gm/kg (6-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) TJADAB 19,41A,1979
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 12 gm/kg (6-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants) TJADAB 19,41A,1979
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 6,500 mg/kg (8-12 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain) TCMUD8 6,361,1986
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 16,880 mg/kg (6-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
NTIS** OTS0554056
parenteral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 4 gm/kg (12 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Weaning or lactation index (e.g., # alive at weaning per # alive at day 4) NEZAAQ 25,438,1970
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1,100 mg/kg (12 day pregnant) Reproductive: Other effects to embryo or fetus TOXID9 1,125,1981
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 7,030 mg/kg (12-13 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
SEIJBO 15,47,1975
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.1 mg/kg (15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other neonatal measures or effects

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
TXCYAC 223,227,2006


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 10 ppm/8 hour/10 year- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Blood: Leukemia
TRBMAV 37,153,1978
inhalation
human
toxic concentration (other than lowest) : 150 ppm/15 minute/8 year- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Blood: Leukemia
BLOOAW 52,285,1978
inhalation
man
lowest published toxic concentration: 200 mg/m3/78 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Blood: Leukemia

Blood: Thrombocytopenia
EJCAAH 7,83,1971
inhalation
man
toxic concentration (other than lowest) : 600 mg/m3/4 year- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Blood: Leukemia
NEJMAG 271,872,1964
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 300 ppm/6 hour/16 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Blood: Lymphoma including Hodgkin's disease
TXAPA9 75,358,1984
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,200 ppm/6 hour/10 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Ear: Tumors
PAACA3 25,75,1984
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1,200 mg/kg/8 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
TXAPA9 82,19,1986
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 18,250 mg/kg/2 year- continuous Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Endocrine: Tumors

Blood: Lymphoma including Hodgkin's disease
NTPTR* NTP-TR-289,1986
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 52 gm/kg/52 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Endocrine: Tumors

Blood: Leukemia
MELAAD 70,352,1979
oral
rat
toxic dose : 52 gm/kg/1 year- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Ear: Tumors

Blood: Leukemia
AJIMD8 4,589,1983
oral
rat
toxic dose : 10 gm/kg/52 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Endocrine: Tumors

Blood: Leukemia
MELAAD 70,352,1979
parenteral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 670 mg/kg/19 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Blood: Leukemia

Blood: Lymphoma including Hodgkin's disease
KLWOAZ 12,109,1933
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 600 mg/kg/17 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Blood: Leukemia

Blood: Lymphoma including Hodgkin's disease
KRANAW 9,403,1932
skin
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1,200 gm/kg/49 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
BJCAAI 16,275,1962
mic
l p
oduction: 12.01 billions lbs in 1992, 11.4 op

50

che
9 billions in 1991
inhalation
human
toxic concentration (other than lowest) : 8 ppb/4 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Blood: Leukemia
NEJMAG 316,1044,1987
inhalation
human
toxic concentration (other than lowest) : 10 mg/m3/11 year- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Blood: Leukemia
BJIMAG 44,124,1987
inhalation
man
toxic concentration (other than lowest) : 150 ppm/11 year- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Blood: Lymphoma including Hodgkin's disease
BLUTA9 28,293,1974
inhalation
mouse
toxic concentration (other than lowest) : 1,200 ppm/6 hour/10 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Ear: Tumors

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
PAACA3 25,75,1984
inhalation
mouse
toxic concentration (other than lowest) : 300 ppm/6 hour/16 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Blood: Leukemia
IHRMEQ (3),156,1984
oral
mouse
toxic dose : 2,400 mg/kg/8 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
TXAPA9 82,19,1986
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 12,875 mg/kg/103 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Blood: Lymphoma including Hodgkin's disease
NTIS** PB86-216967/AS
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 51,500 mg/kg/103 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Endocrine: Tumors
NTIS** PB86-216967/AS
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 51,500 mg/kg/103 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Endocrine: Tumors
NTIS** PB86-216967/AS
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 103,000 mg/kg/103 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
NTIS** PB86-216967/AS
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 12,875 mg/kg/103 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Gastrointestinal: Tumors

Endocrine: Tumors
NTIS** PB86-216967/AS


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
cat
lowest published lethal concentration: 170,000 mg/m3 N/R HBTXAC 1,324,1955
inhalation
dog
lowest published lethal concentration: 146,000 mg/m3 N/R HBTXAC 1,324,1955
inhalation
human
lowest published lethal concentration: 2 pph/5 minute N/R TABIA2 3,231,1933
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 100 ppm Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting

Skin: After systemic exposure: Dermatitis, other
INMEAF 17,199,1948
inhalation
human
lowest published lethal concentration: 65 mg/m3/5 year Blood: Other changes ARGEAR 44,145,1974
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 50 mg/m3/2 hour Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests

Behavioral: Muscle weakness
VCVGH* -,120,1990
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 75 mg/m3/2 hour Blood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified)

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
VCVGH* -,120,1990
inhalation
human
lowest published lethal concentration: 2 pph/2 minute N/R VCVGH* -,121,1990
inhalation
human
lowest published lethal concentration: 5 mg/m3/5 hour N/R VCVGH* -,121,1990
inhalation
mammal (species unspecified)
lowest published lethal concentration: 20,000 ppm/5 minute N/R AEPPAE 138,65,1928
inhalation
man
lowest published toxic concentration: 150 ppm/1 year- intermittent Blood: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature increase
BLUTA9 28,293,1974
inhalation
mouse
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 9,980 ppm Behavioral: General anesthetic

Behavioral: Muscle weakness

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
JIHTAB 25,366,1943
inhalation
mouse
lethal concentration (10 percent kill): 15 mL/kg/2 hour N/R VCVGH* -,119,1990
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 2,000 ppm/30 minute Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay) TXAPA9 193,9,2003
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 3,013 ppm/30 minute Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning
TXAPA9 193,9,2003
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 10,000 ppm/7 hour N/R 28ZRAQ -,113,1960
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 4,000 ppm Behavioral: General anesthetic VCVGH* -,119,1990
inhalation
rat
lowest published lethal concentration: 10,000 ppm N/R VCVGH* -,119,1990
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 16.7 gm/m3/2 hour Gastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of exocrine pancreas VCVGH* -,120,1990
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 1 ppm/6 hour Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition FCTOD7 40,1799,2002
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published lethal concentration: 45,000 ppm/30 minute N/R JIHTAB 26,69,1944
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published lethal concentration: 35,000 ppm/22 minute Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Behavioral: Tremor

Eye: Other eye effects
VCVGH* -,119,1990
intramuscular
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 0.1 mL/kg Brain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNS

Blood: Other hemolysis with or without anemia
VCVGH* -,119,1990
intraperitoneal
guinea pig
lowest published lethal dose: 527 mg/kg N/R HBTXAC 1,42,1955
intraperitoneal
mammal (species unspecified)
lowest published lethal dose: 1,500 mg/kg Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Flaccid paralysis without anesthesia (usually neuromuscular blockage)

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Irritability
AJHYA2 7,276,1927
intraperitoneal
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 340 mg/kg N/R ANYAA9 243,104,1975
intraperitoneal
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,100 g/kg N/R APYPAY 12,173,1961
intravenous
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 88 mg/kg Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Spastic paralysis with/without sensory change

Eye: Hemorrhage

Gastrointestinal: Gastritis
JTEHD6 (Suppl 2),45,1977
oral
dog
lowest published lethal dose: 2 gm/kg N/R HBAMAK 4,1313,1935
oral
human
lowest published lethal dose: 0.7 mL/kg N/R VCVGH* -,122,1990
oral
mammal (species unspecified)
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 5,700 mg/kg N/R GISAAA 39(4),86,1974
oral
man
lowest published lethal dose: 50 mg/kg N/R YAKUD5 22,883,1980
oral
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 4,700 mg/kg N/R HYSAAV 32(3),349,1967
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 880 mg/kg/12 hour Blood: Changes in bone marrow not included in above MUREAV 208,61,1988
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 930 mg/kg Behavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold
TXAPA9 7,767,1965
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1 mL/kg N/R VCVGH* -,119,1990
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,800 mg/kg N/R VCVGH* -,119,1990
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 6,400 mg/kg Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerve

Blood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified)

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
TPKVAL 15,136,1979
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,280 mg/kg Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Tremor

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
TPKVAL 15,136,1979
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 320 mg/kg Vascular: BP lowering not characterized in autonomic section

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
TPKVAL 15,136,1979
subcutaneous
frog
lowest published lethal dose: 1,400 mg/kg N/R HBAMAK 4,1313,1935
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published lethal dose: 5 mg/kg Behavioral: Tremor NTIS** OTS0544815
skin
guinea pig
lethal dose (50 percent kill): >9,400 L/kg N/R TXAPA9 7,559,1965
skin
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 48 mg/kg N/R NPIRI* 1,5,1974
skin
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 920 L/kg/1 hour Skin: After topical application: Primary irritation TOXID9 44,449,2005
skin
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.92 mL/kg Skin: After topical application: Primary irritation

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
ARTODN 79,294,2005
skin
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): >9,400 L/kg N/R TXAPA9 7,559,1965
unreported route
man
lowest published lethal dose: 194 mg/kg N/R 85DCAI 2,73,1970


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 300 ppm/6 hour/13 week- intermittent Blood: Normocytic anemia

Blood: Thrombocytopenia

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
AJIMD8 7,457,1985
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 25 ppm/6 hour/5 day- intermittent Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
TOLED5 56,159,1991
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 10 ppm/6 hour/10 week- intermittent Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Blood: Changes in spleen
TXAPA9 58,492,1981
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 10 ppm/6 hour/26 week- intermittent Blood: Changes in spleen

Blood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified)

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count
TOLED5 20,337,1984
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 300 ppm/6 hour/16 week- intermittent Blood: Changes in bone marrow not included in above

Blood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified)

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
AJIMD8 7,447,1985
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 48 ppm/6 hour/14 day- intermittent Blood: Luekopenia

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune response
TXAPA9 85,92,1986
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 100 ppm/6 hour/72 week- intermittent Blood: Normocytic anemia

Blood: Luekopenia

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TXAPA9 54,323,1980
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 100 ppm/6 hour/2 week- intermittent Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count TOXID9 72,228,2003
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 100 ppm/2 week- intermittent Endocrine: Differential effect of sex or castration on observed toxicity

Blood: Luekopenia

Blood: Changes in bone marrow not included in above
TOSCF2 72,201,2003
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 50 ppm/6 hour/14 day- intermittent Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count CNREA8 63,929,2003
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 100 ppm/6 hour/14 day- intermittent Blood: Changes in bone marrow not included in above

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
CNREA8 63,929,2003
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 300 ppm/26 week- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXCYAC 195,19,2004
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 10 ppm/2 week- intermittent Blood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified)

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
TOXID9 66,72,2002
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 100 ppm/6 hour/10 day- intermittent Blood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified)

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count
MUREAV 549,195,2004
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 100 ppm/6 hour/10 day- intermittent Blood: Changes in bone marrow not included in above

Blood: Changes in platelet count
MUREAV 549,195,2004
inhalation
pig
lowest published toxic concentration: 100 ppm/6 hour/3 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Blood: Pigmented or nucleated red blood cells

Blood: Changes in bone marrow not included in above
JTEHD6 5,1025,1979
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 300 ppm/6 hour/13 week- intermittent Blood: Luekopenia AJIMD8 7,457,1985
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 300 ppm/6 hour/99 week- intermittent Blood: Luekopenia

Blood: Changes in bone marrow not included in above

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
JTEHD6 4,605,1978
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,000 ppm/7 hour/28 week- intermittent Blood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified) JIHTAB 26,37,1944
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 500 ppm/6 hour/3 week- intermittent Blood: Pigmented or nucleated red blood cells

Blood: Changes in bone marrow not included in above

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
JTEHD6 5,1025,1979
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,172 mg/m3/2 week- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
TXCYAC 188,161,2003
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 10 ppm/2 week- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
JAPTO* 25,74,2005
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 23 mg/m3/4 hour/8 day- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Changes in pituitary weight
TPKVAL 12,5,1971
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.585 gm/m3/8 day- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain TPKVAL 12,100,1971
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.23 gm/m3/8 day- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight

Endocrine: Other changes
TPKVAL 12,100,1971
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.585 gm/m3/4 day- intermittent Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Endocrine: Changes in adrenal weight
TPKVAL 12,100,1971
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.23 gm/m3/2 day- intermittent Blood: Changes in cell count (unspecified)

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count
TPKVAL 12,100,1971
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.23 gm/m3/4 day- intermittent Blood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified) TPKVAL 12,100,1971
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.585 gm/m3/2 day- intermittent Endocrine: Other changes

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
TPKVAL 12,100,1971
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published toxic concentration: 500 mg/m3/3 hour/13 week- intermittent Blood: Hemorrhage

Blood: Other changes

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
GISAAA 24(1),80,1959
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1,600 mg/kg/2 day- intermittent Behavioral: Stiffness TXAPA9 228,326,2008
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5 mL/kg/10 day- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Fe
IJEBA6 36,283,1998
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 159.9 g/kg/3 day- intermittent Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)
TOLED5 144,55,2003
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 24.97 g/kg/2 day- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)
TOLED5 144,55,2003
multiple
non-mammalian species
lowest published toxic dose: 560 gm/m3/4 day- continuous Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field REPTED 22,263,2006
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 4,250 mg/kg/17 week- intermittent Blood: Other changes

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
NTPTR* NTP-TR-289,1986
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 211 ppm/6 hour/7 day- intermittent Blood: Luekopenia

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
TXAPA9 85,92,1986
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 929.6 mg/kg/4 week- continuous Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Blood: Changes in spleen

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response
IMMPH* 21,23,1991
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 232.4 mg/kg/7 day- continuous Endocrine: Adrenal cortex hyperplasia IMMPH* 21,23,1991
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 6,600 mg/kg/27 week- intermittent Blood: Luekopenia

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count
AMIHAB 14,387,1956
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 17 gm/kg/17 week- intermittent Blood: Changes in spleen

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
NTPTR* NTP-TR-289,1986
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5,600 mg/kg/28 day- intermittent Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Blood: Changes in cell count (unspecified)

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
MUREAV 575,85,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 22,400 mg/kg/28 day- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
MUREAV 575,85,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 22,400 mg/kg/28 day- intermittent Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Isomerases MUREAV 575,85,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 280 mg/kg/28 day- intermittent Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
MUREAV 575,85,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 280 mg/kg/28 day- intermittent Blood: Other hemolysis with or without anemia

Biochemical: Effect on specific coenzyme: Proportion of isoenzymes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
MUREAV 575,85,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 280 mg/kg/28 day- intermittent Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
MUREAV 575,85,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2,800 mg/kg/14 day- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXAPA9 225,171,2007
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5,600 mg/kg/14 day- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TXAPA9 225,171,2007
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 2,197 mg/kg/5 day- intermittent Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
INHEAO 3,91,1965
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 4,000 mg/kg/5 day- intermittent Blood: Other changes

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response
TXAPA9 103,198,1990
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 12 gm/kg/6 week- intermittent Blood: Changes in bone marrow not included in above

Blood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified)

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
TOLED5 109(Suppl 1),32,1999
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 18 mg/kg/21 day- intermittent Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
AJHYA2 7,276,1927
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2,197 mg/kg/5 day- intermittent Blood: Pigmented or nucleated red blood cells

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
INHEAO 3,91,1965
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 13,536 mg/kg/12 week- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other hydrolases
BCTKAG 17,101,1984
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 7.5 mL/kg/12 week- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Blood: Luekopenia

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TCMUD8 20,329,2000
skin
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 960 L/kg/4 day- intermittent Skin: After topical application: Primary irritation TOXID9 44,449,2005
skin
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.96 mL/kg/4 day- intermittent Skin: After topical application: Primary irritation

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
ARTODN 79,294,2005
skin
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 960 L/kg/4 day- intermittent Skin: After topical application: Primary irritation

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOLED5 159,261,2005


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value time-weighted average 0.5 ppm;short term exposure limit 2.5 ppm (skin) DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value Confirmed human carcinogen DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human Limited Evidence IMEMDT 7,203,1974
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Sufficient Evidence IMSUDL 7,120,1987
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Limited Evidence IMEMDT 29,93,1982
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human Sufficient Evidence IMEMDT 29,93,1982
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT 7,203,1974
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Group 1 IMSUDL 7,120,1987
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
CRTXB2 32,1,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 566,99,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 566,21,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 127,111,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
FNSCA6 2,67,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 47,75,1978
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
AMSVAZ 118,354,1944
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ZHPMAT 166,113,1978
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
JTEHD6 (Suppl 2),69,1977
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
PHRPA6 41,1357,1926
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
AIHAAP 41,616,1980
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
CTOXAO 11,531,1977
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
BNYMAM 54,413,1978
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
KRANAW 9,403,1932
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
JTEHD6 61,339,2000
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
JTEHD6 61,353,2000
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 134,3,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 543,201,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TXAPA9 197,144,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 140-141,353,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 543,201,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 567,227,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 567,109,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 567,151,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUTAEX 14,5,1999
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
EMMUEG 39,69,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUTAEX 14,141,1999
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
IMMPH* 46,103,2000
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 582,61,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
EMMUEG 45,271,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
CBINA8 153-154,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
CBINA8 153-154,9,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
CRTXB2 32,1,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
CRTXB2 32,155,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 566,209,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
CHHSA* 9,6,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ENTOX* -,251,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
FCTOD7 44,1699,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 627,10,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 635,81,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 584,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
BCLPT* 96,131,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 636,95,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOPADD 32(Suppl. 2),12,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 545,1,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 658,124,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 540,165,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
REPTED 23,428,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 659,93,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 544,313,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HUTOX* -,577,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HUTOX* -,577,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 672,1,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 608,136,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HTOPA* 1,501,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 182,7,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 681,93,2009


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD air-ceiling concentration 25 ppm (80 mg/m3) (skin) DTLVS* 3,22,1971
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction) see Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 29,1926.1128 CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors) ceiling concentration 25 ppm (80 mg/m3) (skin) CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) cancer hazard FEREAC 52,34460,1987
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRIA TRK 3.25 mg/m3 (1 mL/m3), JAN 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM time-weighted average 1 ppm (3.25 mg/m3), Skin, Carcinogen, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - DENMARK time-weighted average 0.5 ppm (1.6 mg/m3), OCT 2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - EC time-weighted average 3.25 mg/m3 (1 ppm) (skin), APR 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit - FINLAND time-weighted average 5 ppm (15 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 10 ppm (30 mg/m3), Skin, Carcinogen, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - FRANCE VME 1 ppm (3.25 mg/m3), continuous1 Carcinogen, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - HUNGARY ceiling concentration 3 mg/m3, Skin, Carcinogen, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit - JAPAN Occupational Exposure Limit 1 ppm, skin, group 1 carcinogen, APR2007
Occupational Exposure Limit - KOREA time-weighted average 1 ppm (3 mg/m3), 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - MEXICO time-weighted average 1 ppm (3.2 mg/m3);
short term exposure limit 5 ppm (16 mg/m3), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE NETHERLANDS MAC-TGG 3.25 mg/m3, Skin, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - NEW ZEALAND time-weighted average 5 ppm (16 mg/m3), carcinogen, skin, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - NORWAY time-weighted average 1 ppm (3 mg/m3), JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE PHILIPPINES time-weighted average 25 ppm (80 mg/m3), Skin, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - POLAND MAC(time-weighted average) 10 mg/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) 40 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - RUSSIA time-weighted average 5 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 15 mg/m3, Skin, Carcinogen, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWEDEN time-weighted average 0.5 ppm (1.5 mg/m3);
short term exposure limit 3 ppm (9 mg/m3), Skin, Carcinogen, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWITZERLAND MAK- week 0.5 ppm (1,6 mg/m3), Skin, Carcinogen, DEC2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - THAILAND time-weighted average 10 ppm (30 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 25 ppm (75 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - TURKEY time-weighted average 20 ppm (64 mg/m3), Skin, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - UNITED KINGDOM time-weighted average 1 ppm (skin), 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value;

Confirmed human carcinogen
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value
Confirmed human carcinogen


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO BENZENE-air Carcinogen;
8 hour time-weighted average 0.1 ppm;
ceiling concentration 1 ppm/15 minute
NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974: Hazard Code: 09070;
Number of Industries 126;
Total Number of Facilities 11,184;
Number of Occupations 106;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 147,583
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: 09070;
Number of Industries 92;
Total Number of Facilities 10,054;
Number of Occupations 117;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 272,275;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 143,066


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

ATSDR TOXICOLOGY PROFILE (NTIS** PB/98/101157/AS)
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: In vitro cytogenetics-human lymphocyte
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: In vivo cytogenetics-human lymphocyte
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Mammalian micronucleus; Sperm morphology-mouse
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Cell transform.-SA7/SHE; In vitro SCE-human lymphocytes
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: In vitro SCE-human
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
Used in blends with gasoline, and in the manufacture of CYCLOHEXANE and ETHYLBENZENE
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
On EPA IRIS database
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Hydrocarbons, BP 36-126 degree C, 1500
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Benzene, by portable GC, 3700
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Hydrocarbons, aromatic, 1501
NCI Carcinogenesis Studies (gavage);clear evidence:mouse,rat
NTP 11th Report on Carcinogens,2004:Known to be human carcinogen
NTP Carcinogenesis studies; on test (prechronic studies), October 2000
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #12


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

28ZRAQ "Toxicology and Biochemistry of Aromatic Hydrocarbons," Gerarde, H., New York, Elsevier, 1960
85DCAI "Poisoning; Toxicology, Symptoms, Treatments," 2nd ed., Arena, J.M., Springfield, IL, C.C. Thomas, 1970
85JCAE "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J., Prague, Czechoslovakia, Avicenum, 1986
9 BILL
ACHAAH Acta Haematologica. (S. Karger Pub., Inc., 79 Fifth Ave., New York, NY 10003) V.1- 1948-
AEHLAU Archives of Environmental Health. (Heldref Pub., 4000 Albemarle St., NW, Washington, DC 20016) V.1- 1960-
AEPPAE Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archiv fuer Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie. (Berlin, Ger.) V.110-253, 1925-66. For publisher information, see NSAPCC.
AIHAAP American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. (AIHA, 475 Wolf Ledges Pkwy., Akron, OH 44311) V.19- 1958-
AJHYA2 American Journal of Hygiene. (Baltimore, MD) V.1-80, 1921-64. For publisher information, see AJEPAS.
AJIMD8 American Journal of Industrial Medicine. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.1- 1980-
AMIHAB AMA Archives of Industrial Health. (Chicago, IL) V.11-21, 1955-60. For publisher information, see AEHLAU.
AMSVAZ Acta Medica Scandinavica. (Almqvist & Wiksell, POB 45150, S-10430 Stockholm, Sweden) V.52-224, 1919-88.
ANYAA9 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. (New York Academy of Sciences, 2 E. 63rd St., New York, NY 10021) V.1- 1877-
APYPAY Acta Physiologica Polonica. (Karger-Libri, POB CH-4009, Warszawa, Switzerland) V.1-41, 1950-90.
ARGEAR Archiv fuer Geschwulstforschung. (VEB Verlag Volk und Gesundheit Neue Gruenstr. 18, Berlin DDR-1020, Ger. Dem. Rep.) V.1- 1949-
ARTODN Archives of Toxicology. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberger Pl. 3, D-1000 Berlin 33, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.32- 1974-
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EJCAAH European Journal of Cancer (Elsevier Science, P.O.Box 7247-7682,Philadelphia,PA 19170 -7682,USA OR Elsevier Science B.V.,P.O.Box 1270,1000 BG Amsterdam,The Netherlands) V. 1- 1965-
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HTOPA*
HUTOX*
HYSAAV Hygiene and Sanitation (USSR). English translation of GISAAA. (Springfield, VA) 1964-71. Discontinued.
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Used in blends with gasoline, and in the manufacture of CYCLOHEXANE and ETHYLBENZENE

Top 50 chemical production: 12.01 billions lbs in 1992, 11.49 billions in 1991

2V01P61 ihl-hmn TC :8 ppb/4W-I NEJMAG 316,1044,1987

2V01P61 ihl-hmn TC :10 mg/m3/11Y-I BJIMAG 44,124,1987

2V01P62 ihl-man TC :150 ppm/11Y-I BLUTA9 28,293,1974

3V03D45J60ihl-mus TC :1200 ppm/6H/10W-I PAACA3 25,75,1984

2V01P61 ihl-mus TC :300 ppm/6H/16W-I IHRMEQ (3),156,1984

2V02J60 orl-mus TD :2400 mg/kg/8W-I TXAPA9 82,19,1986

3V01L60P62orl-mus TDLo:12875 mg/kg/103W-I NTIS** PB86-216967/AS

2V01N60 orl-mus TDLo:51500 mg/kg/103W-I NTIS** PB86-216967/AS

2V01N60 orl-rat TDLo:51500 mg/kg/103W-I NTIS** PB86-216967/AS

2V01R60 orl-rat TDLo:103000 mg/kg/103W-I NTIS** PB86-216967/AS

3V01K60N60orl-rat TDLo:12875 mg/kg/103W-I NTIS** PB86-216967/AS

NIOSH PROFILE (PAINT AND ALLIED PRODUCTS MANUFACTURING), FIRL, 4/78

NIOSH PROFILE (PETROCHEMICAL PLANTS), FIRL, 4/78

NIOSH PROFILE (PETROLEUM REFINING), FIRL, 4/78

NIOSH PROFILE (SPRAY PAINTING), FIRL, 4/78

NIOSH PROFILE (PAINT AND ALLIED PRODUCTS MANUFACTURING), SRI, 2/7

RTECS Compound Description:
   Agricultural Chemical
   Tumorigen
   Drug
   Mutagen
   Reproductive Effector
   Human Data
   Primary Irritant

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