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Section 4.3

 

PERPETRATOR OF MOST RECENT VIOLENT EPISODE

A perpetrator is a person who inflicts the violence or abuse or causes the violence or abuse to be inflicted on the victim.

A violent episode is a single act or series of acts of violence that are perceived to be connected to each other and that may persist over a period of minutes, hours, or days. A violent episode may involve single or multiple types of violence (e.g., physical violence, sexual violence, threat of physical or sexual violence, psychological/emotional abuse).

For victims who have had only one violent intimate partner, the most recent violent episode perpetrated by any intimate partner refers to the most recent violent episode perpetrated by that intimate partner. For victims who have had more than one violent intimate partner, the most recent violent episode perpetrated by any intimate partner refers to the violent episode perpetrated most recently by whichever one of those violent intimate partners committed it. Thus, the most recent violent episode perpetrated by any intimate partner may have been perpetrated by someone other than the victim’s current intimate partner. For example, if a woman has been victimized by both her ex-husband and her current boyfriend, questions about the most recent violent episode would refer to the episode involving whichever intimate partner victimized her most recently, not necessarily the one with whom she is currently in a relationship.

 

4.301 Birth Date of Perpetrator of Most Recent Violent Episode

4.302 Sex of Perpetrator of Most Recent Violent Episode

4.303 Race of Perpetrator of Most Recent Violent Episode

4.304 Hispanic or Latino Ethnicity of Perpetrator of Most Recent Violent Episode

4.305 City, State, and County of Residence of Perpetrator of Most Recent Violent Episode

4.306 Alcohol Use by Perpetrator of Most Recent Violent Episode

4.307 Drug Use by Perpetrator of Most Recent Violent Episode

4.308 Weapons Used by Perpetrator in Most Recent Violent Episode

 

4.301 BIRTH DATE OF PERPETRATOR OF MOST RECENT VIOLENT EPISODE

Description/Definition

Date of birth of the perpetrator of the most recent violent episode perpetrated by any intimate partner.

Uses

Can be used to calculate the perpetrator’s age.

Discussion

None.

Data Type (and Field Length)

TS–time stamp (26).

Repetition

No.

Field Values/Coding Instructions

Year, month, and day of birth are entered in the format YYYYMMDD. For example, a birth date of August 12, 1946, would be encoded as 19460812.

See method recommended under TS–time stamp in the Technical Notes at the end of this document for estimating age of perpetrator of the most recent violent episode.

If date of birth is not known, it can be estimated from the perpetrator’s age. (See also Technical Notes at the end of this document.)

If there was more than one perpetrator (see data element 4.106 Number of perpetrators), code data on the victim’s intimate partner who perpetrated the most recent violent episode.

Data Standards or Guidelines E1384-96 (ASTM, 1996) and Health Level 7, Version 2.3 (HL7, 1996).

Other References

None.

 

4.302  SEX OF PERPETRATOR OF MOST RECENT VIOLENT EPISODE

Description/Definition

Sex of the perpetrator of the most recent violent episode.

Uses

Allows identification of the gender of the perpetrator, and can be used to identify same-sex and heterosexual relationships.

Discussion

None.

Data Type (and Field Length)

CE — coded element (60).

Repetition

No.

Field Values/Coding Instructions

Code Description

M Male

F Female

O Other (Hermaphrodite, Transsexual)

U Unknown or undetermined

If there was more than one perpetrator (see data element 4.106 Number of perpetrators), code data on the victim’s intimate partner who perpetrated the most recent violent episode.

Data Standards or Guidelines

CDC HISSB Common Data Elements Implementation Guide. http://www.cdc.gov/data/index.htm

Other References

None.

 

4.303  Race of Perpetrator of Most Recent Violent Episode

Description/Definition

Race of the perpetrator of the most recent violent episode.

Uses

Data on race are used in public health surveillance and in epidemiologic, clinical, and health services research.

Discussion

For more than 20 years, the Federal government has promoted the use of a common language to promote uniformity and comparability of data on race and ethnicity for population groups. Development of the data standards stemmed in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws. Data were needed to monitor equal access in housing, education, employment, and other areas for populations that historically had experienced discrimination and differential treatment because of their race or ethnicity. The standards are used not only in the decennial census (which provides the data for the "denominator" for many measures), but also in household surveys, on administrative forms (e.g., school registration and mortgage-lending applications), and in medical and other research. The categories represent a social-political construct designed for collecting data on the race and ethnicity of broad population groups in the United States.

Race is a concept used to differentiate population groups largely on the basis of physical characteristics transmitted by descent. Racial categories are neither precise nor mutually exclusive, and the concept of race lacks clear scientific definition. The common use of race in the United States draws upon differences not only in physical attributes, but also in ancestry and geographic origins. Since 1977, the Federal government has sought to standardize data on race and ethnicity among its agencies. The Office of Management and Budget’s (OMB) Statistical Policy Directive Number 15: Race and Ethnic Standards for Federal Statistics and Administrative Reporting (OMB, 1997) was developed to meet Federal legislative and program requirements, and these standards are used widely in the public and private sectors. The directive provides five basic racial categories but states that the collection of race data need not be limited to these categories. However, any additional reporting that uses more detail must be organized in such a way that the additional categories can be aggregated into the five basic groups. Although the directive does not specify a method of determining an individual’s race, OMB prefers self-identification to identification by an observer whenever possible. The directive states that persons of mixed racial origins should be coded using multiple categories, and not a multiracial category.

Data Type (and Field Length)

CE — coded element (60).

Repetition

Yes; if the agency providing the data to the IPV surveillance system uses multiple racial categories, the IPV surveillance system also allows for multiple racial categories to be coded.

 

4.304  Hispanic or Latino Ethnicity of Perpetrator of Most Recent Violent Episode

Field Values/Coding Instructions

Code Description

1 American Indian/Alaskan Native. A person having origins in any of the original peoples of North and South America (including Central America), and who maintains tribal affiliation or community attachment.

2 Asian. A person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Thailand, and Vietnam.

3 Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander. A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific Islands.

4 Black or African American. A person having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa. Terms such as "Haitian" or "Negro" can be used in addition to "Black or African American."

5 White. A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa.

9 Unknown. A person’s race is unknown.

If there was more than one perpetrator (see data element 4.106 Number of perpetrators), code data on the victim’s intimate partner who perpetrated the most recent violent episode.

Data Standards or Guidelines

Statistical Policy Directive Number 15: Race and Ethnic Standards for Federal Statistics and Administrative Reporting (OMB, 1997).

Other References

Core Health Data Elements (National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics, 1996).

Description/Definition

Ethnicity of perpetrator of the most recent violent episode. A person of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race. The term "Spanish origin" can be used in addition to "Hispanic or Latino."

Uses

Data on ethnicity are used in public health surveillance, and epidemiologic, clinical, and health services research.

Discussion

Ethnicity is a concept used to differentiate population groups on the basis of shared cultural characteristics or geographic origins. A variety of cultural attributes contribute to ethnic differentiation, including language, patterns of social interaction, religion, and styles of dress. However, ethnic differentiation is imprecise and fluid. It is contingent on a sense of group identity that can change over time and that involves subjective and attitudinal influences. Since 1977, the Federal government has sought to standardize data on race and ethnicity among its agencies. The Office of Management and Budget’s (OMB) Statistical Policy Directive Number 15: Race and Ethnic Standards for Federal Statistics and Administrative Reporting (OMB, 1997) was developed to meet Federal legislative and program requirements, and these standards are used widely in the public and private sectors. The directive provides two basic ethnic categories — Hispanic or Latino and Not of Hispanic or Latino Origin — but states that collection of ethnicity data need not be limited to these categories. However, any additional reporting that uses more detail must be organized in such a way that the additional categories can be aggregated into the two basic groups. OMB prefers that data on race and ethnicity be collected separately. The use of the Hispanic category in a combined race/ethnicity data element makes it impossible to distribute persons of Hispanic ethnicity by race and, therefore, reduces the utility of the five basic racial categories by excluding from them persons who would otherwise be included.

Repetition

No.

Data Type (and Field Length)

CE — coded element (60).

Field Values/Coding Instructions

Code Description

1 Of Hispanic or Latino origin.

2 Not of Hispanic or Latino origin.

9 Unknown if perpetrator is of Hispanic or Latino origin.

If there was more than one perpetrator (see data element 4.106 Number of perpetrators), code data on the victim’s intimate partner who perpetrated the most recent violent episode.

Data Standards or Guidelines

Statistical Policy Directive Number 15: Race and Ethnic Standards for Federal Statistics and Administrative Reporting

(OMB, 1997).

Other References

Core Health Data Elements (National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics, 1996).

 

4.305  City, State, and County of Residence of Perpetrator of Most Recent Violent Episode

Description/Definition

City, state, and county of residence of the perpetrator of the most recent violent episode, at the time of the event.

Uses

Allows examination of the correspondence between the location of the victim’s residence, the perpetrator’s residence, and the location of the most recent violent episode perpetrated by any intimate partner, and may have implications for intervention strategies.

Discussion

Additional information (e.g., street address, zip code) can easily be added as components of this element if data linkage across data sources is desired. However, to protect privacy and confidentiality, access to this level of detail must be limited to authorized personnel. Surveillance system users who do not convert street address to census block groups or encrypt addresses need to be aware that they may be acquiring the victim’s street address when they acquire the perpetrator’s street address. The need for victim safety and confidentiality must be taken into account if the full extended version of this data element is used.

In conjunction with data elements 2.105 City, state, and county of victim’s residence and 4.104 City, state, and county of occurrence, this data element allows examination of the correspondence between the victim’s residence, the perpetrator’s residence, and the location of the most recent violent episode.

Data Type (and Field Length)

XAD — extended address (106).

Repetition

No.

Field Values

Component 3 is the city.

Component 4 is the state or province.

Component 9 is the county/parish code.

Example: Component 3 = Lima

Component 4 = OH

Component 9 = 019

The state or province code entered in Component 4 should be entered as a two-letter postal abbreviation. The county/parish code should be entered in Component 9 as the 3-digit Federal Information Processing Standards code. See XAD — extended address in the Technical Notes at the end of this document for additional information on other possible components of this data element. The numbering of these components (3, 4, and 9) is consistent with the numbering of components used elsewhere for full XAD coding.

If there was more than one perpetrator (see data element 4.106 Number of perpetrators), code data on the victim’s intimate partner who perpetrated the most recent violent episode.

Data Standards or Guidelines Health Level 7, Version 2.3 (HL7, 1996).

Other References

None.

 

4.306 Alcohol Use by Perpetrator of Most Recent Violent Episode

Description/Definition

Proportion of time the perpetrator of the most recent violent episode uses alcohol in conjunction with violence or abuse.

Uses

Documents the association of alcohol use and violence.

Discussion

None.

Data Type (and Field Length)

CE — coded element (60).

Repetition

No.

Field Values/Coding Instructions

Code Description

0 The perpetrator of the most recent violent episode never uses alcohol in conjunction with violence or abuse.

1 The perpetrator of the most recent violent episode rarely uses alcohol in conjunction with violence or abuse.

2 The perpetrator of the most recent violent episode uses alcohol in conjunction with violence or abuse some of the time.

3 The perpetrator of the most recent violent episode uses alcohol in conjunction with violence or abuse most of the time.

4 The perpetrator of the most recent violent episode always uses alcohol in conjunction with violence or abuse.

8 The perpetrator of the most recent violent episode uses alcohol in conjunction with violence or abuse, but the proportion of time is unknown.

9 Unknown if the perpetrator of the most recent violent episode uses alcohol in conjunction with violence or abuse.

If there was more than one perpetrator (see data element 4.106 Number of perpetrators), code data on the victim’s intimate partner who perpetrated the most recent violent episode.

Data Standards or Guidelines

None.

Other References

None.

 

4.307 Drug Use by Perpetrator of Most Recent Violent Episode

Description/Definition

Proportion of time the perpetrator of the most recent violent episode uses drugs (other than alcohol) in conjunction with violence or abuse.

Uses

Documents the association of drug use and violence.

Discussion

None.

Data Type (and Field Length)

CE — coded element (60).

Repetition

No.

Field Values/Coding Instructions

Code Description

0 The perpetrator of the most recent violent episode never uses drugs (other than alcohol) in conjunction with violence or abuse.

1 The perpetrator of the most recent violent episode rarely uses drugs (other than alcohol) in conjunction with violence or abuse.

2 The perpetrator of the most recent violent episode uses drugs (other than alcohol) in conjunction with violence or abuse some of the time.

3 The perpetrator of the most recent violent episode uses drugs (other than alcohol) in conjunction with violence or abuse most of the time.

4 The perpetrator of the most recent violent episode always uses drugs (other than alcohol) in conjunction with violence or abuse.

8 The perpetrator of the most recent violent episode uses drugs (other than alcohol) in conjunction with violence or abuse, but the proportion of time is unknown.

9 Unknown if the perpetrator of the most recent violent episode uses drugs (other than alcohol) in conjunction with violence or abuse.

If there was more than one perpetrator (see data element 4.106 Number of perpetrators), code data on the victim’s intimate partner who perpetrated the most recent violent episode.

Data Standards or Guidelines

None.

Other References

None.

 

4.308 Weapons Used by Perpetrator in Most Recent Violent Episode

Description/Definition

Weapons (including bodily force) used by the perpetrator in the most recent violent episode.

Uses

Severity and likelihood of injury and other serious consequences may be associated with weapon use.

Discussion

As presently written, "7" (Another type of weapon was used by the perpetrator in the most recent violent episode) designates weapons used other than those explicitly named in codes 1-6. Interested surveillance system users may wish to record information about additional weapon types.

Data Type (and Field Length)

CE — coded element (60).

Repetition

Yes; if more than one weapon was used.

Field Values/Coding Instructions

Code Description

0 It is known that no weapons or bodily force was used by the perpetrator in the most recent violent episode.

1 Bodily force was used by the perpetrator in the most recent violent episode.

2 A blunt object was used by the perpetrator in the most recent violent episode.

3 A cutting or piercing instrument was used by the perpetrator in the most recent violent episode.

4 A long gun (e.g., shotgun, rifle) was used by the perpetrator in the most recent violent episode.

5 A handgun was used by the perpetrator in the most recent violent episode.

6 A firearm, type unknown, was used by the perpetrator in the most recent violent episode.

7 Another type of weapon was used by the perpetrator in the most recent violent episode.

9 Unknown if a weapon or bodily force was used by the perpetrator in the most recent violent episode.

If there was more than one perpetrator (see data element 4.106 Number of perpetrators), code data on the weapon used by the intimate partner who perpetrated the most recent violent episode.

Data Standards or Guidelines

None.

Other References

None.

 

 

 

 

 

Content Source: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control
Page last modified: September 25, 2008