Primary Navigation for the CDC Website
CDC en Espaņol

Intimate Partner Violence Prevention banner
Section 4.1

 

MOST RECENT VIOLENT EPISODE PERPETRATED BY ANY INTIMATE PARTNER

A violent episode is a single act or series of acts of violence that are perceived to be connected to each other and that may persist over a period of minutes, hours, or days. A violent episode may involve single or multiple types of violence (e.g., physical violence, sexual violence, threat of physical or sexual violence, psychological/emotional abuse).

For victims who have had only one violent intimate partner, the most recent violent episode perpetrated by any intimate partner refers to the most recent violent episode perpetrated by that intimate partner. For victims who have had more than one violent intimate partner, the most recent violent episode perpetrated by any intimate partner refers to the violent episode perpetrated most recently by whichever one of those violent intimate partners committed it. Thus, the most recent violent episode perpetrated by any intimate partner may have been perpetrated by someone other than the victim’s current intimate partner. For example, if a woman has been victimized by both her ex-husband and her current boyfriend, questions about the most recent violent episode would refer to the episode involving whichever intimate partner victimized her most recently, not necessarily the one with whom she is currently in a relationship.

DETAILS OF MOST RECENT VIOLENT EPISODE

4.101 Type(s) of Violence in Most Recent Episode

4.102 Date of Most Recent Violent Episode

4.103 Date of Agency Documentation of Most Recent
Violent Episode

4.104 City, State, and County of Occurrence

4.105 Victim’s Pregnancy Status

4.106 Number of Perpetrators

4.107 Relationship of Victim and Perpetrator

4.108 Cohabitation of Victim and Perpetrator

4.109 Length of Intimate Relationship

4.110 Length of Time Relationship Had Been Violent

4.111 Pattern of Violence in the Past 12 Months

4.112 Number of Children in Victim’s Home

 

4.101 Type(s) of Violence in Most Recent Episode

Description/Definition

The type(s) of violence used in the most recent episode perpetrated by any intimate partner.

Uses

Identifies all the types of violence that occurred in the most recent violent episode.

Discussion

Although the IPV surveillance system cannot provide information about the co­occurrence of different types of violence across multiple violent episodes, this data element, by use of repeated coding, does provide information about each type of violence in the most recent violent episode perpetrated by any violent intimate partner.

Data Type (and Field Length)

CE — coded element (60).

Repetition

Yes, to record each type of violence.

Field Values/Coding Instructions

Code Description

Most recent violent episode perpetrated by any intimate partner

involved physical violence.

Unknown if most recent violent episode perpetrated by any intimate

partner involved physical violence.

Most recent violent episode perpetrated by any intimate partner

involved sexual violence.

Unknown if most recent violent episode perpetrated by any intimate

partner involved sexual violence.

Most recent violent episode perpetrated by any intimate partner

involved threat of physical or sexual violence.

Unknown if most recent violent episode perpetrated by any intimate

partner involved threat of physical or sexual violence.

Most recent violent episode perpetrated by any intimate partner

involved psychological/emotional abuse.

Unknown if most recent violent episode perpetrated by any intimate

partner involved psychological/emotional abuse.

If it is explicitly known that the most recent violent episode did not involve any one type of violence (i.e., physical violence, sexual violence, threat of physical or sexual violence, or psychological/emotional abuse), there is no need to code this information because non-occurrence of that type of violence is implicit in the coding scheme.

Data Standards or Guidelines

None.

Other References

None.

 

4.102 DATE OF MOST RECENT VIOLENT EPISODE

Description/Definition

Date when the most recent violent episode by any intimate partner ended.

Uses

Can be used in conjunction with 2.101 Birth date of victim to calculate the victim’s age at the time of the most recent violent episode.

This data element can also be used in conjunction with 4.103 Date of agency documentation of most recent violent episode to calculate the length of time between the occurrence of the violent episode and the time of agency contact.

Discussion

This data element provides information about the recency of the intimate partner violence, regardless of what form the violent episode took (e.g., physical violence, sexual violence, threat of physical or sexual violence, or psychological/emotional abuse).

Data Type (and Field Length)

TS–time stamp (26).

Repetition

No.

Field Values/Coding Instructions

Year, month, and day are entered in the format YYYYMMDD. For example, the date June 7, 1999, would be encoded as 19990607. See also TS in the Technical Notes at the end of this document.

Data Standards or Guidelines E1384-96 (ASTM, 1996) and Health Level 7, Version 2.3 (HL7, 1996).

Other References

None.

 

4.103 DATE OF AGENCY DOCUMENTATION OF MOST RECENT VIOLENT EPISODE

Description/Definition

The date when the most recent violent episode perpetrated by any intimate partner was first documented by the agency providing data to the IPV surveillance system.

Uses

Can be used in conjunction with data element 2.101 Birth date of victim to calculate the victim’s age at the time of agency documentation of IPV victimization after the most recent violent episode perpetrated by any intimate partner.

Some research suggests that there may be a substantial delay between the occurrence of a violent episode and agency contact related to the violent episode. This data element allows measurement of the length of the delay between the violent episode and the agency documentation following that episode. It can be compared with data element 4.102 Date of most recent violent episode to calculate the length of time between the time the violent episode ended and the time of agency documentation.

Discussion

Data element 1.103 Date of first agency documentation records the date when the agency providing data to the IPV surveillance system first documented IPV victimization for this person, whereas data element 4.103 Date of agency documentation of most recent violent episode records agency documentation of the most recent violent episode.

If there has been no agency documentation of IPV victimization prior to the most recent violent episode, then this data element will be identical with 1.103 Date of first agency documentation.

Data Type (and Field Length)

TS–Time Stamp (26).

Repetition

No.

Field Values/Coding Instructions

See the definition of TS in the Technical Notes at the end of this document.

Data Standards or Guidelines

None.

Other References E1744-95 (ASTM, 1995).

 

4.104 CITY, STATE, AND COUNTY OF OCCURRENCE

Description/Definition

City, state, and county of occurrence of the most recent violent episode perpetrated by any intimate partner.

Uses

Allows examination of the correspondence between the location of the victim’s residence, the perpetrator’s residence, and the location of the most recent violent episode perpetrated by any intimate partner, and may have implications for intervention strategies.

Discussion

Additional information (e.g., street address, zip code) can easily be added as components of this element if data linkage across data sources is desired. However, to protect privacy and confidentiality, access to this level of detail must be limited to authorized personnel. Surveillance system users who do not convert street address to census block groups or encrypt addresses need to be aware that they may be acquiring the victim’s street address when they acquire the street address of the place of occurrence of the most recent violent episode perpetrated by any intimate partner. The need for victim safety and confidentiality must be taken into account if the full extended version of this data element is used.

In conjunction with data elements 2.105 City, state, and county of victim’s residence and 4.305 City, state, and county of residence of perpetrator of most recent violent episode, this data element allows examination of the correspondence between the victim’s residence, the perpetrator’s residence, and the location of the most recent violent episode.

Data Type (and Field Length)

XAD — extended address (106).

Repetition

No.

Field Values/Coding Instructions

Component 3 is the city.
Component 4 is the state or province.
Component 9 is the county/parish code.

Example: Component 3 = Lima Component 4 = OH Component 9 = 019

The state or province code entered in Component 4 should be entered as a two-letter postal abbreviation. The county/parish code should be entered in Component 9 as the 3-digit Federal Information Processing Standards code. See XAD — extended address in the Technical Notes at the end of this document for additional information on other possible components of this data element. The numbering of these components (3, 4, and 9) is consistent with the numbering of components used elsewhere for full XAD coding.

Data Standards or Guidelines Health Level 7, Version 2.3 (HL7, 1996).

Other References

None.

 

4.105 VICTIM’S PREGNANCY STATUS

Description/Definition

The victim’s pregnancy status at the time of the most recent violent episode perpetrated by any intimate partner.

Uses

May assist in determining differential risk.

Discussion

There is a growing literature about the association of violence and pregnancy, but it is as yet unclear if pregnancy increases or decreases the risk of violence.

Data Type (and Field Length)

CE — coded element (60).

Repetition

No.

Field Values/Coding Instructions

Code Description

0 Victim was not pregnant at the time of most recent violent episode.

1 Victim was pregnant at the time of most recent violent episode.

9 Unknown if victim was pregnant at the time of most recent violent episode.

If data element 2.102 Sex of victim is "male," this data element should not be used.

Data Standards or Guidelines

None.

Other References

None.

 

4.106 NUMBER OF PERPETRATORS

Description/Definition

Whether one or multiple perpetrators were involved in the most recent violent episode perpetrated by any intimate partner.

Uses

Violent episodes involving more than one perpetrator may differ from violent episodes involving only one perpetrator.

Discussion

None.

Data Type (and Field Length)

CE — coded element (60).

Repetition

No.

Field Values/Coding Instructions

Code Description

1 The most recent violent episode perpetrated by any intimate partner involved one perpetrator.

2 The most recent violent episode perpetrated by any intimate partner involved two or more perpetrators.

9 Unknown number of perpetrators were involved in most recent violent episode perpetrated by any intimate partner.

Data Standards or Guidelines

None.

Other References

None.

 

4.107 RELATIONSHIP OF VICTIM AND PERPETRATOR

Description/Definition

The victim’s relationship to the perpetrator at the time of the most recent violent episode perpetrated by any intimate partner.

Uses

Allows examination of other data elements in the context of the relationship between the victim and perpetrator.

Discussion

This data element is not designed to capture information about perpetrators other than the intimate partner who perpetrated the most recent violent episode.

Data Type (and Field Length)

CE — coded element (60).

Repetition

No.

Field Values/Coding Instructions

Code Description

1 In the most recent violent episode perpetrated by any intimate partner, the victim was the spouse of the perpetrator.

2 In the most recent violent episode perpetrated by any intimate partner, the victim was the common-law spouse of the perpetrator.

3 In the most recent violent episode perpetrated by any intimate partner, the victim was the divorced spouse of the perpetrator.

4 In the most recent violent episode perpetrated by any intimate partner, the victim was the former common-law spouse of the perpetrator.

5 In the most recent violent episode perpetrated by any intimate partner, the victim was the separated spouse or separated common-law spouse of the perpetrator.

6 In the most recent violent episode perpetrated by any intimate partner, the victim was the girlfriend or boyfriend of the perpetrator.

7 In the most recent violent episode perpetrated by any intimate partner, the victim was the former girlfriend or former boyfriend of the perpetrator.

8 In the most recent violent episode perpetrated by any intimate partner, the victim was a date of the perpetrator.

9 In the most recent violent episode perpetrated by any intimate partner, the victim was a former date of the perpetrator.

If the victim’s relationship to the perpetrator has changed over time (e.g., girlfriend, wife, then ex-wife), the data element would be coded to reflect the victim’s relationship to the perpetrator at the time of the most recent episode of violence. If there was more than one perpetrator (see data element 4.106 Number of perpetrators), code data on the victim’s relationship to the intimate partner who perpetrated the most recent violent episode.

The code set on the previous page can include current and former same-sex partners. This data element, in conjunction with the data elements 2.102 Sex of victim and 4.302 Sex of perpetrator of most recent violent episode, can be used to identify same-sex and heterosexual relationships.

The code set above is limited to categories of intimate partner violence. If the IPV surveillance system is expanded to include violence by perpetrators other than intimate partners, the code set will also need to be expanded.

Data Standards or Guidelines

None.

Other References

None.

 

4.108 COHABITATION OF VICTIM AND PERPETRATOR

Description/Definition

The victim and the perpetrator’s cohabitation status at the time of the most recent violent episode perpetrated by any intimate partner.

Uses

Violent episodes involving intimate partners may differ depending on whether the victim and the perpetrator are living together.

Discussion

Some cohabiting partners are not married (i.e., they may be separated, divorced, single, or widowed) or are in common-law marriages. See also data element 2.106 Marital status of victim.

Data Type (and Field Length)

CE — coded element (60).

Repetition

No.

Field Values/Coding Instructions

Code Description

0 Victim was known not to be cohabiting with the perpetrator at the time of the most recent violent episode perpetrated by any intimate partner.

1 Victim was cohabiting with the perpetrator at the time of the most recent violent episode perpetrated by any intimate partner.

7 Unknown if victim was cohabiting with the perpetrator at the time of the most recent violent episode perpetrated by any intimate partner.

If there was more than one perpetrator (see data element 4.106 Number of perpetrators), code data on the victim’s cohabitation status with the intimate partner who perpetrated the most recent violent episode.

Data Standards or Guidelines

None.

Other References

None.

 

4.109 LENGTH OF INTIMATE RELATIONSHIP

Description/Definition

The time between the most recent violent episode perpetrated by any intimate partner and the time when the victim and perpetrator first became intimate partners, specified in months.

Uses

Some literature suggests that violence between intimate partners may increase in frequency and severity over time. This data element can be used in conjunction with data elements 4.110 Length of time relationship had been violent and 4.111 Pattern of violence in the past 12 months.

Discussion

This data element is designed to measure how long it has been since the victim and perpetrator first became intimate partners. Although the nature of a relationship may change (e.g., from a dating relationship to a marriage, from a marriage to a divorce, or an on-again/off-again relationship with multiple breakups), this data element focuses on the entire length of time that has elapsed since intimacy began (although not necessarily when sexual intimacy began). The data element does not focus on the length of time the partners have been in the most recent stage of the relationship (e.g., the time they have been divorced or married).

Data Type (and Field Length)

NM — numeric (4).

Repetition

No.

Field Values/Coding Instructions

Code Description

0001 Less than 1 month

XXXX Months

9999 Unknown

For partial months, round to the nearest number of months. For half months, round to the closest even number of months. Convert years to months by multiplying by 12 and then rounding if necessary, and add to the number of months in any partial year. For example, 5 1/2 years = (5.5 x 12) = 66 months; 4 years and 3 months = (4 x 12) + 3 = 48 + 3 = 51 months; 3 1/2 months is rounded to 4 months.

If there was more than one perpetrator (see data element 4.106 Number of perpetrators), code data on the victim’s length of intimate relationship with the intimate partner who perpetrated the most recent violent episode.

Data Standards or Guidelines

None.

Other References

None.

 

4.110 LENGTH OF TIME RELATIONSHIP HAD BEEN VIOLENT

Description/Definition

The length of time, in months, between the most recent violent episode perpetrated by any intimate partner and the first violent episode that involved the same partner.

Uses

Can be compared with 4.109 Length of intimate relationship and 4.111 Pattern of violence in the past 12 months.

Discussion

The length of time a relationship has been violent may be related to characteristics of the violent episode. For example, some literature suggests that violence between intimate partners may increase in frequency and severity over time.

Data Type (and Field Length)

NM- numeric (4).

Repetition

No.

Field Values/Coding Instructions

Code Description

0001 Less than 1 month

XXXX Months

9999 Unknown

For partial months, round to the nearest number of months. For half months, round to the closest even number of months. Convert years to months by multiplying by 12 and then rounding if necessary, and add to the number of months in any partial year. For example, 5 1/2 years = (5.5 x 12) = 66 months; 4 years and 3 months = (4 x 12) + 3 = 48 + 3 = 51 months; 3 1/2 months is rounded to 4 months.

If there was more than one perpetrator (see data element 4.106 Number of perpetrators), code data on the length of time the relationship had been violent between the victim and the intimate partner who perpetrated the most recent violent episode.

Data Standards or Guidelines

None.

Other References

None.

 

4.111 PATTERN OF VIOLENCE IN THE PAST 12 MONTHS

Description/Definition

Pattern of violence with the perpetrator of the most recent violent episode in the 12 months prior to the date of the most recent violent episode.

Uses

Specifies whether the pattern of violence with the perpetrator of the most recent violent episode had changed in the past 12 months.

Discussion

Some literature suggests that violence between intimate partners may increase in frequency or severity over time, or that the types of violence used by perpetrators may change. As presently written, this data element measures whether changes in patterns of violence have occurred, but does not document the details of the change. Interested surveillance system users may wish to create additional data elements to document the nature of these changes in pattern.

Recall that pattern of violence is defined as "The way that violence is distributed over time in terms of frequency, severity, or type of violent episode (i.e., physical violence, sexual violence, threat of physical or sexual violence, psychological/ emotional abuse)."

Data Type (and Field Length)

CE — coded element (60).

Repetition

No.

Field Values/Coding Instructions

Code Description

0 This was the only known violent episode committed by the perpetrator of the most recent violent episode.

1 There was no change in the pattern of violence during the 12 months prior to the date of the most recent violent episode.

2 The pattern of violence changed during the 12 months prior to the date of the most recent violent episode.

9 Unknown if the pattern of violence changed during the 12 months prior to the date of the most recent violent episode.

If there was more than one perpetrator (see data element 4.106 Number of perpetrators), code data on the pattern of violence with the intimate partner who perpetrated the most recent violent episode.

Data Standards or Guidelines

None.

Other References

None.

 

4.112 NUMBER OF CHILDREN IN VICTIM’S HOME

Description/Definition

The number of children under age 18 who were living in the victim’s home at the time of the most recent violent episode perpetrated by any intimate partner.

Uses

Designed to collect information on the number of children living in the home of IPV victims, regardless of whether the children witnessed specific episodes of violence.

Discussion

The literature suggests that children exposed to violence in the family are at increased risk of victimization or perpetration of IPV as adolescents or adults.

Data Type (and Field Length)

NM — numeric (2).

Repetition

No.

Field Values/Coding Instructions

Code Description

00 There were no children under age 18 living in the victim’s household at the time of the most recent violent episode perpetrated by any intimate partner.

XX Number of children under age 18 living in victim’s household at the time of the most recent violent episode perpetrated by any intimate partner. (Where XX stands for the number of children.)

88 There were children under age 18 living in victim’s household at the time of the most recent violent episode perpetrated by any intimate partner, but it is not known how many.

9 Unknown if children under age 18 were living in victim’s household at the time of the most recent violent episode perpetrated by any intimate partner.

Data Standards or Guidelines

None.

Other References

None.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Content Source: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control
Page last modified: September 25, 2008