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Section 3.1

 

VICTIM’S EXPERIENCE OF IPV

There is variability in how intimate partner violence has been conceptualized, with some researchers combining physical violence, sexual violence, threat of physical or sexual violence, and psychological/emotional abuse, while others treat these as discrete categories. Because prevention strategies for different types of violence may differ, we suggest separating these categories for surveillance purposes.

We recognize, however, that multiple types of violence may occur in a single episode. The IPV surveillance system is designed to record each type of violence that occurs to a given victim, even if multiple types occur within a single episode. Thus, these data elements can provide a count of episodes involving several types of violence, but cannot provide a count of the total number of discrete violent episodes, nor can they provide information about the co­occurrence of different types of violence within each episode. However, data element 4.101 Type(s) of violence in most recent episode does allow collection of such information for the most recent violent episode perpetrated by any intimate partner.

 

PHYSICAL VIOLENCE

Physical violence is the intentional use of physical force with the potential for causing death, disability, injury, or harm. Physical violence includes, but is not limited to: scratching, pushing, shoving, throwing, grabbing, biting, choking, shaking, poking, hair-pulling, slapping, punching, hitting, burning, use of a weapon (gun, knife, or other object), and use of restraints or one’s body, size, or strength against another person.

Physical violence also includes coercing other people to commit any of the above acts.

3.101 Physical Violence by Any Intimate Partner Ever

3.102 Number of Episodes Involving Physical Violence by Any Intimate Partner Ever

3.103 Number of Episodes Involving Physical Violence in the Past 12 Months by Any Intimate Partner

3.104 Number of Episodes Involving Physical Violence in the Past 12 Months by Perpetrator of Most Recent Violent Episode

 

3.101 Physical Violence by Any Intimate Partner Ever

Description/Definition

Occurrence, ever in the victim’s life, of physical violence by any intimate partner.

Uses

This data element allows differentiation of physical violence from sexual violence, threat of physical or sexual violence, or psychological/emotional abuse.

Discussion

This data element cannot provide a count of the total number of discrete violent episodes, nor can it provide information about the co-occurrence of different types of violence within each episode. However, data element 4.101 Type(s) of violence in most recent episode does allow collection of such information for the most recent violent episode perpetrated by any intimate partner.

Data Type (and Field Length)

CE — coded element (60).

Repetition

No.

Field Values/Coding Instructions

Code Description

0 No known episodes occurred involving physical violence by any intimate partner ever.

1 Physical violence occurred by any intimate partner ever.

9 Unknown if physical violence occurred by any intimate partner ever.

If any episode of physical violence also involved other types of violence (sexual violence, threat of physical or sexual violence, or psychological/emotional abuse), the episode should be recorded in data elements for each of those types of violence, as well as being recorded for physical violence.

Data Standards or Guidelines

None.

Other References

None.

 

3.102 Number of Episodes Involving Physical Violence by Any Intimate Partner Ever

Description/Definition Number of episodes, ever in the victim’s life, involving physical violence by any intimate partner.

Uses

Provides a measure of the total frequency of episodes involving physical violence by any intimate partner ever.

Discussion

Recall that the definition of a violent episode is "A single act or series of acts of violence that are perceived to be connected to each other, and that may persist over a period of minutes, hours, or days. A violent episode may involve single or multiple types of violence (e.g., physical violence, sexual violence, threat of physical or sexual violence, psychological/emotional abuse)."

Data Type (and Field Length)

CE — coded element (60).

Repetition

No.

Field Values/Coding Instructions

Code Description

1 1-2 episodes occurred involving physical violence by any intimate partner ever.

2 3-5 episodes occurred involving physical violence by any intimate partner ever.

3 6-10 episodes occurred involving physical violence by any intimate partner ever.

4 More than 10 episodes occurred involving physical violence by any intimate partner ever.

9 Unknown how many episodes occurred involving physical violence

by any intimate partner ever.

If, for the data element 3.101 Physical violence by any intimate partner ever, there was a response of "0" (No known physical violence occurred by any intimate partner ever) or "9" (Unknown if physical violence occurred by any intimate partner ever), then this data element should not be used.

If there has been more than one physically violent intimate partner, the code should reflect the total of all episodes involving physical violence for all of those partners.

Data Standards or Guidelines

None.

Other References

None.

 

3.103 NUMBER OF EPISODES INVOLVING PHYSICAL VIOLENCE IN THE PAST 12 MONTHS BY ANY INTIMATE PARTNER

Description/Definition

Number of episodes involving physical violence by any intimate partner (current or former) that occurred in the 12 months prior to the date the agency providing data to the IPV surveillance system first documented IPV victimization for this person.

Uses

Provides a measure of the frequency of episodes of physical violence by any intimate partner during the past 12 months.

Discussion

Recall that the definition of a violent episode is "A single act or series of acts of violence that are perceived to be connected to each other, and that may persist over a period of minutes, hours, or days. A violent episode may involve single or multiple types of violence (e.g., physical violence, sexual violence, threat of physical or sexual violence, psychological/emotional abuse)."

Data Type (and Field Length)

CE — coded element (60).

Repetition

No.

Field Values/Coding Instructions

Code Description

0 No known episodes occurred involving physical violence by any intimate partner in the 12 months prior to the date the agency providing data to the IPV surveillance system first documented IPV victimization for this person.

1 1-2 episodes occurred involving physical violence by any intimate partner in the 12 months prior to the date the agency providing data to the IPV surveillance system first documented IPV victimization for this person.

2 3-5 episodes occurred involving physical violence by any intimate partner in the 12 months prior to the date the agency providing data to the IPV surveillance system first documented IPV victimization for this person.

3 6-10 episodes occurred involving physical violence by any intimate partner in the 12 months prior to the date the agency providing data to the IPV surveillance system first documented IPV victimization for this person.

4 More than 10 episodes occurred involving physical violence by any intimate partner in the 12 months prior to the date the agency providing data to the IPV surveillance system first documented IPV victimization for this person.

9 Unknown how many episodes occurred involving physical violence by any intimate partner in the 12 months prior to the date the agency providing data to the IPV surveillance system first documented IPV victimization for this person.

If, for the data element 3.101 Physical violence by any intimate partner ever, there was a response of "0" (No physical violence occurred by any intimate partner ever) or "9" (Unknown if physical violence occurred by any intimate partner ever), then this data element should not be used.

If more than one intimate partner was physically violent in the 12 months prior to the date the agency providing data to the IPV surveillance system first documented IPV victimization for this person, the code for this data element should reflect the total of all episodes involving physical violence for all of those partners.

Data Standards or Guidelines

None.

Other References

None.

 

3.104 NUMBEROF EPISODES INVOLVING PHYSICAL VIOLENCEINTHE PAST 12 MONTHS BY PERPETRATOR OF MOST RECENT VIOLENT EPISODE

Description/Definition

Number of episodes involving physical violence by the perpetrator of the most recent violent episode that occurred in the 12 months prior to the date of the most recent violent episode.

Uses

Provides a measure of the frequency of episodes involving physical violence by the perpetrator of the most recent violent episode during the past 12 months.

Discussion

Although the IPV surveillance system cannot provide information about the co-occurrence of different types of violence within episodes, this data element and other data elements related to the perpetrator of the most recent violent episode do provide information about the past perpetration of each type of violence by a single violent intimate partner. See also the data elements: 3.204 Number of episodes involving sexual violence in the past 12 months by perpetrator of most recent violent episode; 3.304 Number of episodes involving threat of physical or sexual violence in the past 12 months by perpetrator of most recent violent episode; and 3.403 Proportion of time victim felt psychologically/emotionally abused in the past 12 months by perpetrator of most recent violent episode.

Data Type (and Field Length)

CE — coded element (60).

Repetition

No.

Field Values/Coding Instructions

Code Description

0 No known episodes occurred involving physical violence by the perpetrator of the most recent violent episode in the 12 months prior to the date of the most recent violent episode.

1 1-2 episodes occurred involving physical violence by the perpetrator of the most recent violent episode in the 12 months prior to the date of the most recent violent episode.

2 3-5 episodes occurred involving physical violence by the perpetrator of the most recent violent episode in the 12 months prior to the date of the most recent violent episode.

3 6-10 episodes occurred involving physical violence by the perpetrator of the most recent violent episode in the 12 months prior to the date of the most recent violent episode.

4 More than 10 episodes occurred involving physical violence by the perpetrator of the most recent violent episode in the 12 months prior to the date of the most recent violent episode.

9 Unknown how many episodes occurred involving physical violence by the perpetrator of the most recent violent episode in the 12 months prior to the date of the most recent violent episode.

If, for the data element 3.101 Physical violence by any intimate partner ever, there is a response of "0" (No physical violence occurred by any intimate partner ever) or "9" (Unknown if physical violence occurred by any intimate partner ever), then this data element should not be used.

The code should only reflect the total of all episodes involving physical violence against the victim by the perpetrator of the most recent violent episode. The perpetrator of the most recent violent episode may have used any type of violence in that episode. Thus, it is possible that person did not perpetrate physical violence in the 12 months prior to the date of the most recent violent episode, even though another intimate partner did perpetrate physical violence against the victim in that same 12-month period.

Data Standards or Guidelines

None.

Other References

None.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Content Source: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control
Page last modified: September 25, 2008