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Section 2

 

VICTIM DEMOGRAPHICS

2.101 Birth Date of Victim

2.102 Sex of Victim

2.103 Race of Victim

2.104 Hispanic or Latino Ethnicity of Victim

2.105 City, State, and County of Victim’s Residence

2.106 Marital Status of Victim

2.101 Birth Date of Victim

Description/Definition

Date of birth of the victim.

Uses

Can be used to calculate the victim’s age, and to distinguish between victims with the same name.

Discussion

If date of birth is not known, the year can be estimated from the victim’s age. Birth date of victim can be used in conjunction with data element 4.102 Date of most recent violent episode to calculate the victim’s age at the time that episode occurred. This data element can also be used in conjunction with data element 4.103 Date of agency documentation of most recent violent episode to calculate victim’s age at that time.

Data Type (and Field Length)

TS–time stamp (26).

Repetition

No.

Field Values/Coding Instructions

Year, month, and day of birth are entered in the format YYYYMMDD. For example, a birth date of August 12, 1946, would be encoded as 19460812.

See method recommended under TS–time stamp in the Technical Notes at the end of this document for estimating victim’s age.

Data Standards or Guidelines E1384-96 (ASTM, 1996) and Health Level 7, Version 2.3 (HL7, 1996).

References

None.

 

2.102 Sex of Victim

Description/Definition

Sex of victim.

Uses

Standard demographic and identifying information.

Discussion

None.

Data Type (and Field Length)

CE — coded element (60).

Repetition

No.

Field Values/Coding Instructions

Code Description

M Male
F Female
O Other (Hermaphrodite, Transsexual)
U Unknown or undetermined

Data Standards or Guidelines

CDC HISSB Common Data Elements Implementation Guide. http://www.cdc.gov/data/index.htm

References

None.

 


2.103 Race of Victim

Description/Definition

Race of victim.

Uses

Data on race are used in public health surveillance and in epidemiologic, clinical, and health services research.

Discussion

For more than 20 years, the Federal government has promoted the use of a common language to promote uniformity and comparability of data on race and ethnicity for population groups. Development of the data standards stemmed in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws. Data were needed to monitor equal access in housing, education, employment, and other areas for populations that historically had experienced discrimination and differential treatment because of their race or ethnicity. The standards are used not only in the decennial census (which provides the data for the "denominator" for many measures), but also in household surveys, on administrative forms (e.g., school registration and mortgage-lending applications), and in medical and other research. The categories represent a social-political construct designed for collecting data on the race and ethnicity of broad population groups in the United States.

Race is a concept used to differentiate population groups largely on the basis of physical characteristics transmitted by descent. Racial categories are neither precise nor mutually exclusive, and the concept of race lacks clear scientific definition. The common use of race in the United States draws upon differences not only in physical attributes, but also in ancestry and geographic origins. Since 1977, the Federal government has sought to standardize data on race and ethnicity among its agencies. The Office of Management and Budget’s (OMB) Statistical Policy Directive Number 15: Race and Ethnic Standards for Federal Statistics and Administrative Reporting (OMB, 1997) was developed to meet Federal legislative and program requirements, and these standards are used widely in the public and private sectors. The directive provides five basic racial categories but states that the collection of race data need not be limited to these categories. However, any additional reporting that uses more detail must be organized in such a way that the additional categories can be aggregated into the five basic groups. Although the directive does not specify a method of determining an individual’s race, OMB prefers self-identification to identification by an observer whenever possible. The directive states that persons of mixed racial origins should be coded using multiple categories, and not a multiracial category.

Data Type (and Field Length)

CE — coded element (60).

Repetition

Yes; if the agency providing the data to the IPV surveillance system uses multiple racial categories, the IPV surveillance system also allows for multiple racial categories to be coded.

 

Field Values/Coding Instructions

Code Description

1 American Indian/Alaskan Native. A person having origins in any of the original peoples of North and South America (including Central America), and who maintains tribal affiliation or community attachment.

2 Asian. A person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Thailand, and Vietnam.

3 Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander. A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific Islands.

4 Black or African American. A person having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa. Terms such as "Haitian" or "Negro" can be used in addition to "Black or African American."

5 White. A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa.

9 Unknown. A person’s race is unknown.

Data Standards or Guidelines

Statistical Policy Directive Number 15: Race and Ethnic Standards for Federal Statistics and Administrative Reporting (OMB, 1997).

Other References

Core Health Data Elements (National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics, 1996).

 

2.104 Hispanic or Latino Ethnicity of Victim

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY OF VICTIM 2.104

Description/Definition

Ethnicity of victim. A person of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race. The term "Spanish origin" can be used in addition to "Hispanic or Latino."

Uses

Data on ethnicity are used in public health surveillance and in epidemiologic, clinical, and health services research.

Discussion

Ethnicity is a concept used to differentiate population groups on the basis of shared cultural characteristics or geographic origins. A variety of cultural attributes contribute to ethnic differentiation, including language, patterns of social interaction, religion, and styles of dress. However, ethnic differentiation is imprecise and fluid. It is contingent on a sense of group identity that can change over time and that involves subjective and attitudinal influences. Since 1977, the Federal government has sought to standardize data on race and ethnicity among its agencies. The Office of Management and Budget’s (OMB) Statistical Policy Directive Number 15: Race and Ethnic Standards for Federal Statistics and Administrative Reporting (OMB, 1997) was developed to meet Federal legislative and program requirements, and these standards are used widely in the public and private sectors. The directive provides two basic ethnic categories — Hispanic or Latino and Not of Hispanic or Latino Origin — but states that collection of ethnicity data need not be limited to these categories. However, any additional reporting that uses more detail must be organized in such a way that the additional categories can be aggregated into the two basic groups. OMB prefers that data on race and ethnicity be collected separately. The use of the Hispanic category in a combined race/ethnicity data element makes it impossible to distribute persons of Hispanic ethnicity by race and, therefore, reduces the utility of the five basic racial categories by excluding from them persons who would otherwise be included.

Data Type (and Field Length)

CE — coded element (60).

Repetition

No.

Field Values/Coding Instructions

Code Description

1 Of Hispanic or Latino origin.

2 Not of Hispanic or Latino origin.

9 Unknown if victim is of Hispanic or Latino origin.

Data Standards or Guidelines

Statistical Policy Directive Number 15: Race and Ethnic Standards for Federal Statistics and Administrative Reporting (OMB, 1997).

Other References

Core Health Data Elements (National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics, 1996).

 

2.105 City, State, and County of Victim’s Residence

Description/Definition

City, state, and county of the victim’s residence at the time the agency providing data to the IPV surveillance system first documented IPV victimization for this person.

Uses

Allows examination of the correspondence between the location of the victim’s residence, the perpetrator’s residence, and the location of the most recent violent episode perpetrated by any intimate partner, and may have implications for intervention strategies.

Discussion

Additional information (e.g., street address, zip code) can easily be added as components of this element if data linkage across data sources is desired. However, to protect privacy and confidentiality, access to this level of detail must be limited to authorized personnel. The need for victim safety and confidentiality must be taken into account if the full extended version of this data element is used.

In conjunction with data elements 4.104 City, state, and county of occurrence and 4.305 City, state, and county of residence of perpetrator of most recent violent episode, this data element allows examination of the correspondence between the victim’s residence, the perpetrator’s residence, and the location of the most recent violent episode.

Data Type (and Field Length)

XAD — extended address (106).

Repetition

No.

Field Values

Component 3 is the city.
Component 4 is the state or province.
Component 9 is the county/parish code.

Example: Component 3 = Lima Component 4 = OH Component 9 = 019

The state or province code entered in Component 4 should be entered as a two-letter postal abbreviation. The county/parish code should be entered in Component 9 as the 3-digit Federal Information Processing Standards code. See XAD — extended address in the Technical Notes at the end of this document for additional information on other possible components of this data element. The numbering of these components (3, 4, and 9) is consistent with the numbering of components used elsewhere for full XAD coding.

Data Standards or Guidelines Health Level 7, Version 2.3 (HL7, 1996).

Other References

None.

 

2.106 Marital Status of Victim

Description/Definition

Victim’s legal marital status at the time when the agency providing data to the IPV surveillance system first documented IPV victimization for this person.

Uses

Risk of victimization may vary by legal marital status. Marital status may change over the course of a relationship, particularly a violent relationship. For consistency, we recommend recording the victim’s marital status at the time the agency providing data to the IPV surveillance system first documented IPV victimization for this person.

Discussion

Some unmarried partners may be cohabiting. In some states this may qualify as

common-law marriage. See also data element 4.108 Cohabitation of victim and perpetrator.

Data Type (and Field Length)

CE — coded element (60).

Repetition

No.

Field Values/Coding Instructions

Code Description

A Separated. A person legally separated.

D Divorced. A person divorced and not remarried.

M Married. A person currently married. (Includes living together and not living together.) Classify common-law marriage as married.

S Single/Never Married. A person who has never been married or whose only marriages have been annulled.

W Widowed. A person widowed and not remarried.

U Unknown/not stated.

Data Standards or Guidelines

CDC HISSB Common Data Elements Implementation Guide. http://www.cdc.gov/data/index.htm

Other References

None.

VICTIM’S EXPERIENCE OF IPV

There is variability in how intimate partner violence has been conceptualized, with some researchers combining physical violence, sexual violence, threat of physical or sexual violence, and psychological/emotional abuse, while others treat these as discrete categories. Because prevention strategies for different types of violence may differ, we suggest separating these categories for surveillance purposes.

We recognize, however, that multiple types of violence may occur in a single episode. The IPV surveillance system is designed to record each type of violence that occurs to a given victim, even if multiple types occur within a single episode. Thus, these data elements can provide a count of episodes involving several types of violence, but cannot provide a count of the total number of discrete violent episodes, nor can they provide information about the co­occurrence of different types of violence within each episode. However, data element 4.101 Type(s) of violence in most recent episode does allow collection of such information for the most recent violent episode perpetrated by any intimate partner.

 

 

 

 

 

Content Source: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control
Page last modified: September 25, 2008