||Ranges from painful urination in uncomplicated urethritis or cystitis to severe systemic illness associated with abdominal or back pain, fever, sepsis and decreased kidney function in some cases of pyelonephritis.
|| Usually caused by Escherichia coli, but other Enterobacteriaceae are also important causes of infection.
|| In the United States, urinary track infections (UTIs) account for about 4 million ambulatory-care visits each year, representing about 1% of all outpatient visits.
|| Severe infections associated with sepsis can be fatal.
|| Usually through fecal contamination of the urinary tract.
||General population, but sexually active women are at highest risk for disease.
||Surveillance is conducted through the National Ambulatory Care Survey.
|| Increasing antibiotic resistance among E. coli and other Enterobacteriacae to many commonly used antibiotics; interest in muscosal vaccines for prevention of UTIs in high-risk groups; and judicious use of antibiotics for treatment of infections.
|| Identifying methods for prevention of UTIs; evaluating the clinical importance of antimicrobial resistance in persons with both cystitis and acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis; and developing guiding principles for judicious use of antibiotics for persons with suspected UTIs.
||Mucosal vaccines for prevention of UTIs in high-risk populations. Emergency rooms and clinics for high-risk patients may provide useful settings for research on UTIs. Improved use of antibiotics in treatment of suspected UTIs may reduce antimicrobial resistance.