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Group A Streptococci

O'Loughlin RE, Roberson A, Cieslak PR, Lynfield R, Gershman K, Craig A, Albanese BA, Farley MM, Barrett NL, Spina NL, Beall B, Harrison LH, Reingold A, Van Beneden C; Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Team (exit site). The epidemiology of invasive group A streptococcal infection and potential vaccine implications: United States, 2000-2004. Clin Infect Dis. 2007 Oct 1;45(7):853-62.

Lee EH, Ferguson D, Jernigan D, Greenwald M, Cote T, Bos JE, Guarner J, Zaki S, Schuchat A, Beall B, Srinivasan A (exit site). Invasive group-a streptococcal infection in an allograft recipient. A case report. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2007 Sep;89(9):2044-7.

Jaggi P, Beall B, Rippe J, Tanz RR, Shulman ST (exit site). Macrolide resistance and emm type distribution of invasive pediatric group A streptococcal isolates: three-year prospective surveillance from a children's hospital. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2007 Mar;26(3):253-5.

Neal S, Beall B, Ekelund K, Henriques-Normark B, Jasir A, Johnson D, Kaplan E, Lovgren M, Reinert RR; Strep-EURO Study Group; International Streptococcus Reference Laboratories, Efstratiou A (exit site). International quality assurance study for characterization of Streptococcus pyogenes. J Clin Microbiol. 2007 Apr;45(4):1175-9.

Thigpen MC, Thomas DM, Gloss D, Park SY, Khan AJ, Fogelman VL, Beall B, Van Beneden CA, Todd RL, Greene CM (exit site). Nursing home outbreak of invasive group a streptococcal infections caused by 2 distinct strains. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2007 Jan;28(1):68-74.

Arnold KE, Schweitzer JL, Wallace B, Salter M, Neeman R, Hlady WG, Beall B (exit site). Tightly clustered outbreak of group A streptococcal disease at a long-term care facility. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2006 Dec;27(12):1377-84.

Garcia A, Paul K, Beall B, McClure H (exit site). Toxic shock due to Streptococcus pyogenes in a rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci. 2006 Sep;45(5):79-82.

Beall, B., Facklam, R., Thompson, T. 1996. Sequencing emm -specific PCR products for routine and accurate typing of group A streptococci (exit site). J. Clin. Microbiol. 34:953-958.

Beall B, Facklam R, Hoenes T, Schwartz B. 1997. A survey of emm gene sequences from systemic Streptococcus pyogenes infection isolates collected in San Francisco, California; Atlanta, Georgia; and Connecticut in 1994 and 1995 (exit site). J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:1231-1235.

Fiorentino TR, Beall B, Mshar P, Besen DE. 1997. A genetic-based evaluation of principal tissue reservoir for group A streptococci isolated from normally sterile sites (exit site). J. Infect. Dis. 176:177-182.

Beall B, Facklam R, Hoenes T, Schwartz B. 1997. Application of emm gene sequencing and T antigen serology for typing group A streptococci systemic isolates: Survey of random and outbreak-related isolates (exit site). Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 418:307-311.

Beall B, Facklam RR, Elliott JA, Franklin AR, Hoenes T, Jackson D, Laclaire L, Thompson T, Viswanathan R. 1998. Streptococcal emm types associated with T agglutination patterns and the use of conserved emm gene restriction fragment patterns for subtyping group A streptococci (exit site). J. Med. Microbiol. 47:893-8.

Zurawski CA, Bardsley M, Beall B, Elliott JA, Facklam R, Schwartz B, Farley MM. 1998. Invasive group A streptococcal disease in metropolitan Atlanta: a population-based assessment (exit site). Clin. Infect. Dis. 27:150-157.

Bessen DE, Izzo MW, Fiorentino TR, Caringal RM, Hollingshead SK, Beall B. 1999. Bessen, D. E., Izzo, M. W., Fiorentino, T. R., Caringal, R. M., Beall, B. Genetic linkage of exotoxin alleles and emm gene markers for tissue tropism in group A streptococci (exit site). J. Infect. Dis. 179:3:627-636.

Jamal F, Pit S, Facklam R, Beall B. 1999. New emm (M protein gene) sequences obtained from group A streptococci isolated from Malaysian patients (exit site). Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5:182-183

Facklam R, Beall B, Efstratiou A, Fischetti V, Johnson D, Kaplan E, Kriz P, Lovgren M, Martin D, Schwartz B, Totolian A, Bessen D, Hollingshead S, Rubin F, Scott J, Tyrrell G. 1999. emm typing and validation of provisional M types for group A streptococci (exit site). Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5:247-53

Beall B, Gherardi G, Lovgren M, Facklam RR, Forwick BA, Tyrrell GJ. 2000. emm and sof gene sequence variation in relation to serological typing of opacity factor positive group A streptococci (exit site). Microbiology. 146: 1195-1209.

Phillips G, Efstratiou A, Tanna A, Beall B, Ferguson J, Roworth M. 2000. An outbreak of skin sepsis in abbatoir workers caused by an 'unusual' strain of Streptococcus pyogenes (exit site). J. Med. Microbiol. 49: 371-374.

Nizet V, Beall B, Bast DJ, Datta V, Kilburn L, Low DE, De Azavedo JC. 2000. Genetic locus for Streptolysin S production by group A Streptococcus (exit site). Infection and Immunity. 68:4245-4254.

Bessen DE, Carapetis JR, Beall B, Katz R, Hibble M, Currie BJ, Collingridge T, Izzo MW, Scaramuzzino DA, Sriprakash KS. 2000. Contrasting Molecular Epidemiology of Group A Streptococci Causing Tropical and Nontropical Infections of the Skin and Throat (exit site). J Infect Dis 182:1109-1116

El Tayeb, S. H. M, Z. Li, L. LaClaire, R. Facklam, and B. Beall. 2000. emm types of non-sterile site beta-hemolytic streptococci from Egyptian patients. In: Martin DR, Tagg JR. eds. Streptococci and Streptococcal Diseases -Entering the New Millennium. Proceedings XIV Lancefield International Symposium on Streptococci and Streptococcal Diseases. Securacopy, N. Z. 2000: pp 827-830.

Dicuonzo G, Gherardi G, Lorino G, Angeletti S, De Cesaris M, Fiscarelli E, Bessen DE, Beall B. 2001. Group A streptococcal genotypes from pediatric throat isolates in Rome, Italy (exit site). J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:1687-1690.

Teixeira LM, Barros RR, Castro AC, Peralta JM, Da Gloria S Carvalho M, Talkington DF, Vivoni AM, Facklam RR, Beall B. 2001. Genetic and phenotypic features of new Streptococcus pyogenes strains isolated in Brazil (exit site). J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:3290-3295.

Facklam RF, Martin DR, Lovgren M, Johnson DR, Efstratiou A, Thompson TA, Gowan S, Kriz P, Tyrrell GJ, Kaplan E, Beall B. 2001. Continued extension of the Lancefield classification scheme for group A streptococci by addition of 22 new M protein gene sequence types: emm103 to emm124 (exit site). Clin. Inf. Dis. 34:28-38.

Hu MC, Walls MA, Stroop SD, Reddish MA, Beall B, Dale JB. 2002. Immunogenicity of a 26-valent group A streptococcal vaccine. Infect Immun (exit site). 70:2171-7.

Haukness HA, Tanz RR, Thomson RB Jr, Pierry DK, Kaplan EL, Beall B, Johnson D, Hoe NP, Musser JM, Shulman ST. 2002. The heterogeneity of endemic community pediatric group a streptococcal pharyngeal isolates and their relationship to invasive isolates (exit site). J Infect Dis. 185:915-20.

Hu,MC, Walls, MA, Stroop,S, Reddish, M, Beall, B, and Dale, JB. 2002. Immunogenicity of a 26-valent group A streptococcal vaccine (exit site). Infect Immun. 70:2171-7.

Haukness, HA, Tanz, RR, Thomson, RB, Pierry, DK, Kaplan, EL, Beall, B, Johnson, D, Hoe, NP, Musser, JM, and Shulman, ST. 2002. The heterogeneity of endemic community pediatric group A streptococcal pharyngeal isolates and their relationship to invasive isolates (exit site). J Infect Dis. 185:915-20.

O ' Brien KL, Beall B, Barrett NL, Cieslak PR, Reingold A, Farley MM, Danila R, Zell ER, Facklam R, Schwartz B, Schuchat A. 2002. Epidemiology of invasive group A streptococcus disease in the United States, 1995-1999 (exit site). Clin Infect Dis. 35:268-76.

Chuang I, Van Beneden C, Beall B, Schuchat A. 2002. Population-based surveillance for postpartum invasive group A streptococcus infections, 1995-2000 (exit site). Clin Infect Dis. 35:665-70.

Detcheva A, Facklam RR, Beall B. 2002. Erythromycin-resistant group A streptococcal isolates recovered in Sofia, Bulgaria, from 1995 to 2001 (exit site). J Clin Microbiol. 2002 Oct;40(10):3831-4.

Dicuonzo G, Fiscarelli E, Gherardi G, Lorino G, Battistoni F, Landi S, De Cesaris M, Petitti T, Beall B. 2002. Erythromycin-resistant pharyngeal isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes recovered in Italy (exit site). Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 46:3987-90.

Espinosa LE, Li Z, Gomez Barreto D, Calderon Jaimes E, Rodriguez RS, Sakota V, Facklam RR, Beall B. 2003. M protein gene type distribution among group A streptococcal clinical isolates recovered in Mexico City, Mexico, from 1991 to 2000, and Durango, Mexico, from 1998 to 1999: overlap with type distribution within the United States (exit site). J Clin Microbiol. 41:373-8.

Jeng A, Sakota V, Li Z, Datta V, Beall B, Nizet V. 2003. Molecular genetic analysis of a group A Streptococcus operon encoding serum opacity factor and a novel fibronectin-binding protein, SfbX (exit site). J Bacteriol. 2003 Feb;185(4):1208-17.

Ho PL, Johnson DR, Yue AW, Tsang DN, Que TL, Beall B, Kaplan EL. 2003. Epidemiologic analysis of invasive and noninvasive group a streptococcal isolates in Hong Kong (exit site). J Clin Microbiol. 41:937-42.

Bruner M, James A, Beall B, Carlone GM, Ades E, Johnson S, Guarner J, Sampson J. 2003. Evaluation of synthetic, M type-specific peptides as antigens in a multivalent group A streptococcal vaccine (exit site). Vaccine. 21:2698-703.

Li Z, Sakota V, Jackson D, Franklin AR, Beall B; Active Bacterial Core Surveillance/Emerging Infections Program Network. 2003. Array of M protein gene subtypes in 1064 recent invasive group A streptococcus isolates recovered from the active bacterial core surveillance (exit site). J Infect Dis. 188:1587-92.

CDC. MMWR. Invasive Streptococcus pyogenes After Allograft Implantation (exit site). Colorado, 2003 full text

Green M, Martin JM, Barbadora KA, Beall B, Wald ER. 2004. Reemergence of macrolide resistance in pharyngeal isolates of group A streptococci in southwestern Pennsylvania (exit site). Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 48:473-6.

McGregor KF, Bilek N, Bennett A, Kalia A, Beall B, Carapetis JR, Currie BJ, Sriprakash KS, Spratt BG, Bessen DE. 2004. Group A streptococci from a remote community have novel multilocus genotypes but share emm types and housekeeping alleles with isolates from worldwide sources (exit site). J Infect Dis. 189:717-23.

McGregor KF, Spratt BG, Kalia A, Bennett A, Bilek N, Beall B, Bessen DE. 2004. Multilocus sequence typing of Streptococcus pyogenes representing most known emm types and distinctions among sub-population genetic structures (exit site). J Bacteriol. 186:4285-94.

Shulman ST, Tanz RR, Kabat W, Kabat K, Cederlund E, Patel D, Li Z, Sakota V, Dale JB, Beall B; US Streptococcal Pharyngitis Surveillance Group. 2004. Group A streptococcal pharyngitis serotype surveillance in North America, 2000-2002 (exit site). Clin Infect Dis. 39:325-32.

Tanz RR, Shulman ST, Shortridge VD, Kabat W, Kabat K, Cederlund E, Rippe J, Beyer J, Doktor S, Beall BW; North American Streptococcal Pharyngitis Surveillance Group. 2004. Community-based surveillance in the united states of macrolide-resistant pediatric pharyngeal group A streptococci during 3 respiratory disease seasons (exit site). Clin Infect Dis. 39:1794-801.

Greene CM, Van Beneden CA, Javadi M, Skoff TH, Beall B, Facklam R, Abercrombie DR, Kramer SL, Arnold KE. 2005. Cluster of deaths from group A streptococcus in a long-term care facility--Georgia, 2001 (exit site). Am J Infect Control. 33:108-13.

Lopardo HA, Vidal P, Sparo M, Jeric P, Centron D, Facklam RR, Paganini H, Pagniez NG, Lovgren M, Beall B. 2005. Six-month multicenter study on invasive infections due to Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis in Argentina (exit site). J Clin Microbiol. 43:802-7.

Dale JB, Penfound T, Chiang EY, Long V, Shulman ST, Beall B. 2005. Multivalent group A streptococcal vaccine elicits bactericidal antibodies against variant M subtypes (exit site). Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 12:833-6.

Johnson DR, Kaplan EL, VanGheem A, Facklam RR, Beall B. 2006. Characterization of group A streptococci (Streptococcus pyogenes): correlation of M-protein and emm-gene type with T-protein agglutination pattern and serum opacity factor (exit site). J Med Microbiol. 55:157-64.

Jaggi P, Tanz RR, Beall B, Shulman ST. 2005. Age influences the emm type distribution of pediatric group A streptococcal pharyngeal isolates (exit site). Pediatr Infect Dis J. 24:1089-92.

Shulman ST, Stollerman G, Beall B, Dale JB, Tanz RR. 2006. Temporal changes in streptococcal M protein types and the near-disappearance of acute rheumatic fever in the United States (exit site). Clin Infect Dis. 42:441-7.

Green MD, Beall B, Marcon MJ, Allen CH, Bradley JS, Dashefsky B, Gilsdorf JR, Schutze GE, Smith C, Walter EB, Martin JM, Edwards KM, Barbadora KA, Wald ER. 2006. Multicentre surveillance of the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of macrolide resistance among pharyngeal isolates of group A streptococci in the USA (exit site). J Antimicrob Chemother. 57:1240-3.

Persson J, Beall B, Linse S, Lindahl G. 2006. Extreme sequence divergence but conserved ligand-binding specificity in Streptococcus pyogenes M protein (exit site). PLoS Pathog. 2:e47.

Sakota V, Fry AM, Lietman TM, Facklam RR, Li Z, Beall B. 2006. Genetically diverse group A streptococci from children in far-western Nepal share high genetic relatedness with isolates from other countries (exit site). J Clin Microbiol. 44:2160-6.

Timmer AM, Kristian SA, Datta V, Jeng A, Gillen CM, Walker MJ, Beall B, Nizet V (exit site) 2006. Serum opacity factor promotes group A streptococcal epithelial cell invasion and virulence. Mol Microbiol. 62:15-25.

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Streptococcus pneumoniae

Moore MR, Gertz RE Jr, Woodbury RL, Barkocy-Gallagher GA, Schaffner W, Lexau C, Gershman K, Reingold A, Farley M, Harrison LH, Hadler JL, Bennett NM, Thomas AR, McGee L, Pilishvili T, Brueggemann AB, Whitney CG, Jorgensen JH, Beall B. Population Snapshot of Emergent Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype 19A in the United States, 2005. J. Inf. Dis. 2007. In Press.

Brueggemann AB, Pai R, Crook DW, Beall B. 2007. Vaccine escape recombinants emerge after pneumococcal vaccination in the United States. PLoS Pathogens 3(11): 1-8.

Shariff M, Thukral SS, Beall B (exit site). New multilocus sequence types of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from patients with respiratory infections in India. Indian J Med Res. 2007 Aug;126(2):161-4.

Hicks LA, Harrison LH, Flannery B, Hadler JL, Schaffner W, Craig AS, Jackson D, Thomas A, Beall B, Lynfield R, Reingold A, Farley MM, Whitney CG; Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Program of the Emerging Infections Program Network (exit site). Incidence of Pneumococcal Disease Due to Non-Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV7) Serotypes in the United States during the Era of Widespread PCV7 Vaccination, 1998-2004. J Infect Dis. 2007 Nov 1;196(9):1346-54.

Dias CA, Teixeira LM, Carvalho Mda G, Beall B (exit site). Sequential multiplex PCR for determining capsular serotypes of pneumococci recovered from Brazilian children. J Med Microbiol. 2007 Sep;56(Pt 9):1185-8.

Morais L, Carvalho Mda G, Roca A, Flannery B, Mandomando I, Soriano-Gabarro M, Sigauque B, Alonso P, Beall B (exit site). Sequential multiplex PCR for identifying pneumococcal capsular serotypes from south-Saharan African clinical isolates. J Med Microbiol. 2007 Sep;56(Pt 9):1181-4.

Beall B(exit site). Vaccination with the pneumococcal 7-valent conjugate: a successful experiment but the species is adapting. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2007 Jun;6(3):297-300.

Whitney CG, Pilishvili T, Farley MM, Schaffner W, Craig AS, Lynfield R, Nyquist AC, Gershman KA, Vazquez M, Bennett NM, Reingold A, Thomas A, Glode MP, Zell ER, Jorgensen JH, Beall B, Schuchat A (exit site). Effectiveness of seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine against invasive pneumococcal disease: a matched case-control study. Lancet. 2006 Oct 28;368(9546):1495-502.

Buck JM, Lexau C, Shapiro M, Glennen A, Boxrud DJ, Koziol B, Whitney CG, Beall B, Danila R, Lynfield R (exit site). A community outbreak of conjunctivitis caused by nontypeable Streptococcus pneumoniae in Minnesota. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2006 Oct;25(10):906-11.

Teixeira LM, Carvalho MG, Castineiras TM, Fracalanzza SA, Levin AS, Facklam RR. 1997. Serotyping distribution and antimicrobial resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated in Brazil (1992-1996) (exit site). Adv Exp Med Biol. 418:269-71.

Beall B, Facklam RR, Jackson DM, Starling HH. 1998. Rapid screening for penicillin susceptibility of systemic pneumococcal isolates by restriction enzyme profiling of the pbp2B gene (exit site). J Clin Microbiol. 36:2359-62.

Gherardi G, Inostrozo JS, O'Ryan M, Prado V, Prieto S, Arellano C, Facklam RR, Beall B. 1999. Genotypic survey of recent beta-lactam-resistant pneumococcal nasopharyngeal isolates from asymptomatic children in Chile (exit site). J Clin Microbiol. 37:3725-30.

Gherardi G, Whitney CG, Facklam RR, Beall B. 2000. Major related sets of antibiotic-resistant Pneumococci in the United States as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and pbp1a-pbp2b-pbp2x-dhf restriction profiles (exit site). J Infect Dis. 181:216-29.

Morita JY, Kahn E, Thompson T, Laclaire L, Beall B, Gherardi G, O'Brien KL, Schwartz B. 2000. Impact of azithromycin on oropharyngeal carriage of group A Streptococcus and nasopharyngeal carriage of macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (exit site). Pediatr Infect Dis J. 19:41-6.

Beall B, Gherardi G, Facklam RR, Hollingshead SK. 2000. Pneumococcal pspA sequence types of prevalent multiresistant pneumococcal strains in the United States and of internationally disseminated clones (exit site). J Clin Microbiol. 38:3663-9.

Schrag SJ, Beall B, Dowell SF. 2000. Limiting the spread of resistant pneumococci: biological and epidemiologic evidence for the effectiveness of alternative interventions (exit site). Clin Microbiol Rev. 13:588-601. Review.

Ballon-Landa GR, Gherardi G, Beall B, Krosner S, Nizet V. 2001. Necrotizing fasciitis due to penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae: case report and review of the literature. J (exit site). Infect. 42:272-7. Review.

Pantosti A, Gherardi G, Conte M, Faella F, Dicuonzo G, Beall B. 2002. A novel, multiple drug-resistant, serotype 24F strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae that caused meningitis in patients in Naples, Italy (exit site). Clin Infect Dis. 35:205-8.

Beall B, McEllistrem MC, Gertz RE Jr, Boxrud DJ, Besser JM, Harrison LH, Jorgensen JH, Whitney CG; Active Bacterial Core Surveillance/Emerging Infections Program Network. 2002. Emergence of a novel penicillin-nonsusceptible, invasive serotype 35B clone of Streptococcus pneumoniae within the United States (exit site). J Infect Dis. 186:118-22.

Reis JN, Cordeiro SM, Coppola SJ, Salgado K, Carvalho MG, Teixeira LM, Thompson TA, Facklam RR, Reis MG, Ko AI. 2002. Population-based survey of antimicrobial susceptibility and serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae from meningitis patients in Salvador, Brazil (exit site). J Clin Microbiol. 40:275-7.

Dicuonzo G, Gherardi G, Gertz RE, D'Ambrosio F, Goglio A, Lorino G, Recchia S, Pantosti A, Beall B. 2002. Genotypes of invasive pneumococcal isolates recently recovered from Italian patients(exit site). J Clin Microbiol. 40:3660-5.

Martin M, Turco JH, Zegans ME, Facklam RR, Sodha S, Elliott JA, Pryor JH, Beall B, Erdman DD, Baumgartner YY, Sanchez PA, Schwartzman JD, Montero J, Schuchat A, Whitney CG. 2003. An outbreak of conjunctivitis due to atypical Streptococcus pneumoniae (exit site). N Engl J Med. 348:1112-21.

Saitoh A, Beall B, Nizet V. 2003. Fulminant bacterial meningitis complicating sphenoid sinusitis (exit site). Pediatr Emerg Care. 19:415-7.

Carvalho MG, Steigerwalt AG, Thompson T, Jackson D, Facklam RR. 2003. Confirmation of nontypeable Streptococcus pneumoniae-like organisms isolated from outbreaks of epidemic conjunctivitis as Streptococcus pneumoniae (exit site). J Clin Microbiol. 41:4415-7.

Gertz RE Jr, McEllistrem MC, Boxrud DJ, Li Z, Sakota V, Thompson TA, Facklam RR, Besser JM, Harrison LH, Whitney CG, Beall B (exit site). 2003. Clonal distribution of invasive pneumococcal isolates from children and selected adults in the United States prior to 7-valent conjugate vaccine introduction. J Clin Microbiol. 41:4194-216.

Whitney CG, Farley MM, Hadler J, Harrison LH, Bennett NM, Lynfield R, Reingold A, Cieslak PR, Pilishvili T, Jackson D, Facklam RR, Jorgensen JH, Schuchat A; Active Bacterial Core Surveillance of the Emerging Infections Program Network. 2003. Decline in invasive pneumococcal disease after the introduction of protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccine (exit site). N Engl J Med. 348:1737-46.

Schrag SJ, McGee L, Whitney CG, Beall B, Craig AS, Choate ME, Jorgensen JH, Facklam RR, Klugman KP; Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Team. 2004. Emergence of Streptococcus pneumoniae with very-high-level resistance to penicillin (exit site). Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 48:3016-23.

Pletz MW, McGee L, Jorgensen J, Beall B, Facklam RR, Whitney CG, Klugman KP. 2004. Levofloxacin-resistant invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae in the United States : evidence for clonal spread and the impact of conjugate pneumococcal vaccine (exit site). Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 48:3491-7.

Mendonca-Souza CR, Carvalho Mda G, Barros RR, Dias CA, Sampaio JL, Castro AC, Facklam RR, Teixeira LM. 2004. Occurrence and Characteristics of Erythromycin-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae Strains Isolated in Three Major Brazilian States (exit site). Microb Drug Resist. 10:313-20.

Arbique JC, Poyart C, Trieu-Cuot P, Quesne G, Carvalho Mda G, Steigerwalt AG, Morey RE, Jackson D, Davidson RJ, Facklam RR. 2004. Accuracy of phenotypic and genotypic testing for identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae and description of Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae sp. nov (exit site). J Clin Microbiol. 42:4686-96.

Pletz MW, McGee L, Beall B, Whitney CG, Klugman KP. 2005. Interspecies recombination in type II topoisomerase genes is not a major cause of fluoroquinolone resistance in invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates in the United States (exit site). Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 49:779-80.

Pai R, Gertz RE, Whitney CG, Beall B. 2005. Clonal association between Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 23A, circulating within the United States, and an internationally dispersed clone of serotype 23F (exit site). J Clin Microbiol. 43:5440-4.

Pai R, Moore MR, Pilishvili T, Gertz RE, Whitney CG, Beall B; Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Team. 2005. Postvaccine Genetic Structure of Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype 19A from Children in the United States (exit site). J Infect Dis. 192:1988-95.

Pai R, Limor J, Beall B. 2005. Use of pyrosequencing to differentiate Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes 6A and 6B (exit site). J Clin Microbiol. 43:4820-2.

Medina MJ, Greene CM, Gertz RE, Facklam RR, Jagero G, Hamel M, Shi YP, Slutsker L, Feikin DR, Beall B. 2005. Novel antibiotic-resistant pneumococcal strains recovered from the upper respiratory tracts of HIV-infected adults and their children in Kisumu, Kenya (exit site). Microb Drug Resist. 11:9-17.

Pai R, Gertz RE, Beall B. 2006. Sequential multiplex PCR approach for determining capsular serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates (exit site). J Clin Microbiol. 44:124-31.

Beall B, McEllistrem MC, Gertz RE Jr, Wedel S, Boxrud DJ, Gonzalez AL, Medina MJ, Pai R, Thompson TA, Harrison LH, McGee L, Whitney CG. 2006. Pre and Post Vaccine (1999, 2001, 2002) Clonal Compositions of Invasive Pneumococcal Serotypes in the United States (exit site). J Clin Microbiol. 44:999-1017.

Pletz MW, Shergill AP, McGee L, Beall B, Whitney CG, Klugman KP; Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Team. 2006. Prevalence of first-step mutants among levofloxacin-susceptible invasive isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae in the United States (exit site). Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 50:1561-3.

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Carvalho Mda G, Shewmaker PL, Steigerwalt AG, Morey RE, Sampson AJ, Joyce K, Barrett TJ, Teixeira LM, Facklam RR (exit site). Enterococcus caccae sp. nov., isolated from human stools.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2006 Jul;56(Pt 7):1505-8.

Stern CS, Carvalho Mda G, Teixeira LM. 1994. Characterization of enterococci isolated from human and nonhuman sources in Brazil (exit site). Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 20:61-7.

Carvalho MG, Vianni MC, Elliott JA, Reeves M, Facklam RR, Teixeira LM. 1997. Molecular analysis of Lactococcus garvieae and Enterococcus gallinarum isolated from water buffalos with subclinical mastitis (exit site). Adv Exp Med Biol. 418:401-4.

Teixeira LM, Carvalho MG, Merquior VL, Steigerwalt AG, Teixeira MG, Brenner DJ, Facklam RR. 1997. Recent approaches on the taxonomy of the enterococci and some related microorganisms (exit site). Adv Exp Med Biol. 418:397-400.

Carvalho MG, Teixeira LM, Facklam RR. 1998. Use of tests for acidification of methyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside and susceptibility to efrotomycin for differentiation of strains of Enterococcus and some related genera (exit site). J Clin Microbiol. 36:1584-7.

Teixeira LM, Carvalho MG, Espinola MM, Steigerwalt AG, Douglas MP, Brenner DJ, Facklam RR (exit site). 2001. Enterococcus porcinus sp. nov. and Enterococcus ratti sp. nov., associated with enteric disorders in animals. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 51:1737-43.

Tyrrell GJ, Turnbull L, Teixeira LM, Lefebvre J, Carvalho Mda G, Facklam RR, Lovgren M. 2002. Enterococcus gilvus sp. nov. and Enterococcus pallens sp. nov. isolated from human clinical specimens (exit site). J Clin Microbiol. 40:1140-5.

Mondino SS, Castro AC, Mondino PJ, Carvalho Mda G, Silva KM, Teixeira LM. 2003. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of clinical and intestinal enterococci isolated from inpatients and outpatients in two Brazilian hospitals (exit site). Microb Drug Resist. 9:167-74.

Carvalho Mda G, Steigerwalt AG, Morey RE, Shewmaker PL, Teixeira LM, Facklam RR. 2004. Characterization of three new enterococcal species, Enterococcus sp. nov. CDC PNS-E1, Enterococcus sp. nov. CDC PNS-E2, and Enterococcus sp. nov. CDC PNS-E3, isolated from human clinical specimens (exit site). J Clin Microbiol. 2004 Mar;42(3):1192-8.

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Group B streptococci

Doran KS, Benoit VM, Gertz RE, Beall B, Nizet V. 2002. Late-onset group B streptococcal infection in identical twins: insight to disease pathogenesis (exit site). J Perinatol. 22:326-30.

Slotved HC, Elliott J, Thompson T, Konradsen HB. 2003. Latex assay for serotyping of group B Streptococcus isolates (exit site). J Clin Microbiol. 41:4445-7.

Elliott JA, Thompson TA, Facklam RR, Slotved HC. 2004. Increased sensitivity of a latex agglutination method for serotyping group B streptococcus (exit site). J Clin Microbiol. 42:3907.

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Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis

Humar D, Datta V, Bast DJ, Beall B, De Azavedo JC, Nizet V. 2002. Streptolysin S and necrotizing infections produced by group G Streptococcus (exit site). The Lancet. 359:124-129.

Igwe EI, Shewmaker PL, Facklam RR, Farley MM, van Beneden C, Beall B. 2003. Identification of superantigen genes speM, ssa, and smeZ in invasive strains of beta-hemolytic group C and G streptococci recovered from humans (exit site). FEMS Microbiol Lett. 229:259-64.

Cohen-Poradosu R, Jaffe J, Lavi D, Grisariu-Greenzaid S, Nir-Paz R, Valinsky L, Dan-Goor M, Block C, Beall B, Moses AE. 2004. Group G streptococcal bacteremia in Jerusalem (exit site). Emerg Infect Dis. 10:1455-60.

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Streptococcus porcinus

Facklam R, Elliott J, Pigott N, Franklin AR. 1995. Identification of Streptococcus porcinus from human sources (exit site). J Clin Microbiol. 33:385-8.

Thompson T, Facklam R. 1997. Cross-reactions of reagents from streptococcal grouping kits with Streptococcus porcinus (exit site). J Clin Microbiol. 35:1885-6.

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Vagococcus species

Teixeira LM, Carvalho MG, Merquior VL, Steigerwalt AG, Brenner DJ, Facklam RR. 1997. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Vagococcus fluvialis, including strains isolated from human sources (exit site). J Clin Microbiol. 35:2778-81.

Shewmaker PL, Steigerwalt AG, Morey RE, Carvalho Mda G, Elliott JA, Joyce K, Barrett TJ, Teixeira LM, Facklam RR. 2004. Vagococcus carniphilus sp. nov., isolated from ground beef. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol (exit site). 54:1505-10.

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Other streptococci and Gram positive, catalase negative species

Shewmaker PL, Camus AC, Bailiff T, Steigerwalt AG, Morey RE, Carvalho Mda G (exit site). Streptococcus ictaluri sp. nov., isolated from Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus broodstock. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2007 Jul;57(Pt 7):1603-6.

Teixeira LM, Merquior VL, Vianni MC, Carvalho MG, Fracalanzza SE, Steigerwalt AG, Brenner DJ, Facklam RR. 1996. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of atypical Lactococcus garvieae strains isolated from water buffalos with subclinical mastitis and confirmation of L. garvieae as a senior subjective synonym of Enterococcus seriolicida (exit site). Int J Syst Bacteriol. 46:664-8.

Nicholson ML, Ferdinand L, Sampson JS, Benin A, Balter S, Pinto SW, Dowell SF, Facklam RR, Carlone GM, Beall B. 2000. Analysis of immunoreactivity to a Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus M-like protein to confirm an outbreak of post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis, and sequences of M-like proteins from isolates obtained from different host species (exit site). J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:4126-4130.

Shewmaker PL, Steigerwalt AG, Shealey L, Weyant R, Facklam RR. 2001. DNA relatedness, phenotypic characteristics, and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Globicatella sanguinis strains (exit site). J Clin Microbiol. 39:4052-7.

Barros RR, Carvalho MG, Peralta JM, Facklam RR, Teixeira LM. 2001. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Pediococcus strains isolated from human clinical sources (exit site). J Clin Microbiol. 39:1241-6.

Facklam R, Lovgren M, Shewmaker PL, Tyrrell G. 2003. Phenotypic description and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Aerococcus sanguinicola isolates from human clinical samples (exit site). J Clin Microbiol. 41:2587-92.

Facklam R, Elliott J, Shewmaker L, Reingold A. 2005. Identification and characterization of sporadic isolates of Streptococcus iniae isolated from humans (exit site). J Clin Microbiol. 43:933-7.

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Page Last Modified: December 19, 2007
Content source: National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases
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