Table of Contents

Locator Record

Title: Ophthalmology - Retinal Imaging (OPXRET_E )
Contact Number: 1-866-441-NCHS
Years of Content: 2007 - 2008
First Published: January, 2010
Revised: NA
Access Constraints: None
Use Constraints: None
Geographic Coverage: National
Subject:Retinal Imaging Exam, non-mydriatic digital imaging, fundus photography
Record Source: NHANES 2007 - 2008
Survey Methodology: NHANES 2007 - 2008 is a stratified multistage probability sample of the civilian non-institutionalized population of the U.S.
Medium: NHANES Web site; SAS transport files

Component Description

The Retinal Imaging subsection of the Ophthalmology Component tests for the presence of diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and other retinal conditions. Two forty-five degree non-mydriatic digital retinal images of each eye were obtained using an ophthalmic digital imaging system (National Center for Health Statistics, NHANES Ophthalmology Procedures Manual).

 

Eligible Sample

All examined participants aged 40 years and older who did not meet any of the exclusion criteria were eligible to participate. Persons could be excluded from the retinal imaging component due to blindness (i.e., unable to see light with both eyes open), eye infections, or eye patches on both eyes (National Center for Health Statistics, NHANES Ophthalmology Procedures Manual).

 

Protocol and Procedure

The retinal imaging exam was performed using an ophthalmic digital imaging system (Retinal Photography) to assess the presence of retinal diseases.

Forty-five degree non-mydriatic digital images of the retina were captured from survey participants aged 40 years and older using the Canon Non-Mydriatic Retinal Camera CR6-45NM. Technicians conducting the exams were trained in the use of the digital imaging system. The room was darkened while these images were captured to allow the pupils to dilate naturally. No pharmacologic dilation was used (National Center for Health Statistics, NHANES Ophthalmology Procedures Manual).

The exam was conducted with the participant seated in a chair in front of the Canon CR6-45NM, with a Canon 10D camera back (6.3 megapixels per image), with the flash default (DA) set to 2. Please refer to the NHANES Ophthalmology Procedures Manual in the NHANES website for camera settings. Participants were asked to focus on a target for proper field positioning while two digital images per eye were obtained. The first image was centered on the macula (field 2) and the second on the optic nerve (field 1). The first eye to be imaged was determined by an automated system. The digital images were copied to DVDs and shipped to the University of Wisconsin for grading using standardized methods used for other populations.

Field 1 and 2 images provided photographic documentation of the optic disc, macula, and substantial portions of the temporal arcades.

During external alignment of the pupil, its size was estimated, once for each eye, prior to taking the first image for that eye. Each digital image was initially evaluated as it appeared on the back of the digital camera. Technicians were trained to determine when an image should be repeated, such as an image being too dark or the person blinked. After taking the required four images, repeat images were captured for those that were obviously ungradable. The maximum number of images allowed was 12 (i.e., 3 per field) (National Center for Health Statistics, NHANES Ophthalmology Procedures Manual).

Digital images were evaluated by graders at the University of Wisconsin. If an eye was judged to have a treatable pathologic condition that posed an imminent threat to vision, the University of Wisconsin notified NCHS within three working days of receipt of the images. Further information can be found in the NHANES Ophthalmology Procedures Manual available on the NHANES website.

 

Quality Assurance & Quality Control

A variety of quality control procedures were used to ensure the accurate and reliable collection of these data. Calibrations of the Canon forty-five degree non-mydriatic camera were performed prior to conducting examinations at each survey location. Prior to data collection, a multistage training was conducted during which the technician was required to image a minimum of 25 volunteers (50 eyes). Six images captured by each technician were sent to graders for evaluation. At regular intervals, NCHS and contractor staff observed digital imaging examinations to evaluate whether appropriate procedures and techniques were being followed. Midyear and annual retraining sessions were conducted with health technicians to review data collection procedures, provide feedback, review grader evaluation comments, and reinforce proper protocols and technique.

Digital images of the retina were sent to graders under contract to the University of Wisconsin, Madison for reading. The grading protocol for assessing retinopathy, macular degeneration, and other retinal lesions was successfully performed in NHANES III. The grading team included nine experienced graders (a preliminary grading coordinator, two preliminary graders, and six detail graders).

The digital images were evaluated in semi-quantitative fashion by independent graders using EyeQ Lite, an image processing software for storage, retrieval, and manipulation of digital images. The graders viewed each retinal image with a high resolution monitor, using the EyeQLite image processing software and database, and referenced the written protocol and the digital photographic standards to evaluate retinal abnormalities.

Three distinct steps comprised the grading process: early review for pathology, preliminary grading, and detail grading. A preliminary grading coordinator reviewed images for significant pathology and notified NCHS of pathology within 3 days of receiving the images. All images were further graded by at least two graders (a preliminary grader and a detail grader). Upon systematic grading, if the first two graders did not agree on pathology, a third grader graded the eye. If two of the three graders disagreed, the image was evaluated by an adjudicator to make a final decision. Refer to the NHANES Digital Grading Protocol on the NHANES website for more detail (National Center for Health Statistics, NHANES Digital Grading Protocol).

The reading center provided a photo quality report generated from the graders’ evaluations of all photographs which was used to evaluate re-training of technicians.

For details on the QA/QC process for this component, please refer to the NHANES Ophthalmology Procedures Manual on the NHANES website.

Inspection, calibration, and maintenance of the equipment and supplies were performed on a regular basis. The NHANES Ophthalmology Procedures Manual details the equipment quality control procedures (National Center for Health Statistics, NHANES Ophthalmology Procedures Manual).

 

Data Processing and Editing

Automated data collection procedures for the survey were used to collect the digital imaging data. Digital images were captured by a non-mydriatic camera. The captured images were then transferred to the survey database system.

During the editing process, all data were examined for logical inconsistencies and technician or equipment errors. Edits of the data were performed when errors were detected.

 

Analytic Notes

Users are encouraged to note carefully the “English Instructions” describing the various variables and suggested analysis in the codebook documentation.

Note that eye conditions are provided for the worse eye, right eye, and left eye. The following can be determined from the variable names: OP - Ophthalmology component; third letter - data was gathered through examination (X), it is an administrative variable (A), or a created (derived) variable (D). Worse eye is defined by “U”, right eye by “D”, and left eye by “S”. The remaining letters refer to the corresponding data gathered or eye condition.

OPASCCT2 (Retinal Imaging Exam Status Comment) is a quality control variable that allowed NCHS to monitor the component and the reasons technicians provided for why an exam was not done or incomplete. The data were not collected for analytic reasons but for quality control purposes. This variable is only provided in the data release file to allow analysts to have some information on missing data and possible reasons for non-response.

References to the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) standards are made in the codebook, thus familiarization with the standards is helpful.

Retinal Imaging data can be combined with the Ophthalmology Frequency Doubling Technology data to assess for the presence of glaucoma. Visual acuity data can be used in analysis where noted in the English Instructions.

Exam sample weights should be used for analyses. Please refer to the Analytic Guidelines for further details on the use of sample weights and other analytic issues (National Center for Health Statistics, NHANES Analytic Guidelines). The Analytic Guidelines are available on the NHANES website.

The NHANES Digital Grading Protocol which can be found on the NHANES website provides definitions and a detailed description of the grading process (National Center for Health Statistics, NHANES Digital Grading Protocol).

 

References

Codebook and Frequencies

SEQN - Respondent sequence number

Variable Name:
SEQN
SAS Label:
Respondent sequence number
English Text:
Respondent sequence number.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS

OPASCST2 - Exam status

Variable Name:
OPASCST2
SAS Label:
Exam status
English Text:
Retinal Imaging Status
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Complete 3172 3172
2 Partial 152 3324
3 Not done 539 3863
. Missing 0 3863

OPASCCT2 - Reason for not done/partial

Variable Name:
OPASCCT2
SAS Label:
Reason for not done/partial
English Text:
Retinal Imaging Comment
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Safety exclusion 6 6
2 SP refusal 34 40
3 No time 13 53
4 Physical limitation 144 197
5 Communication problem 18 215
6 Equipment failure 3 218
7 SP ill/emergency 9 227
12 Eye specific limitation 86 313
14 Interrupted 2 315
56 Came late/left early 316 631
72 Error (technician/software/supply) 7 638
84 SP with child 12 650
86 SP Blind 8 658
99 Other, specify 1 659
101 Eye specific limitation: Small pupil size 12 671
103 Eye specific limitation: SP unable to keep eyes open 10 681
104 Eye specific limitation: SP unable to fixate adequately 10 691
. Missing 3172 3863

VIQ110 - SP has severe eye infection?

Variable Name:
VIQ110
SAS Label:
SP has severe eye infection?
English Text:
Does SP appear to have a severe eye infection in one or both eyes?
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Yes 4 4
2 No 3684 3688
. Missing 175 3863

VIQ121 - If so, which eye?

Variable Name:
VIQ121
SAS Label:
If so, which eye?
English Text:
If so, which eye?
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Right 0 0
2 Left 3 3
3 Both 1 4
. Missing 3859 3863

VIQ130 - SP wearing eye patch

Variable Name:
VIQ130
SAS Label:
SP wearing eye patch
English Text:
Is SP wearing an eye patch?
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Yes 0 0
2 No 3684 3684
. Missing 179 3863

OPXDCOMP - Are field 1 & field 2 present, right eye

Variable Name:
OPXDCOMP
SAS Label:
Are field 1 & field 2 present, right eye
English Text:
Are field 1 & field 2 present, right eye?
English Instructions:
Completeness of the photo. If field 1 or field 2 are missing, the photos will be incomplete.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No photos 34 34
1 Incomplete 92 126
2 Complete 3198 3324
. Missing 539 3863

OPXDF1 - Field 1 Present, Right Eye

Variable Name:
OPXDF1
SAS Label:
Field 1 Present, Right Eye
English Text:
Is field 1 present in the photos of the right eye?
English Instructions:
If present, there is a gradability value, OPXDGRBL.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 Absent 89 89
2 Present 3235 3324
. Missing 539 3863

OPXDF1FO - Field 1 Focus, Right Eye

Variable Name:
OPXDF1FO
SAS Label:
Field 1 Focus, Right Eye
English Text:
Was the optic nerve in focus from the right eye?
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 Good/fair 2741 2741
1 Borderline 369 3110
2 Poor 125 3235
. Missing 628 3863

OPXDF2 - Field 2 Present, Right Eye

Variable Name:
OPXDF2
SAS Label:
Field 2 Present, Right Eye
English Text:
Is field 2 present, Right Eye?
English Instructions:
Was field 2 present in the photos of the right eye? If absent, ARM and ME may not be measurable in this eye. If present, there is a gradability value, OPXDGRBL.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 Absent 57 57
2 Present 3267 3324
. Missing 539 3863

OPXDF2FO - Field 2 Focus, Right Eye

Variable Name:
OPXDF2FO
SAS Label:
Field 2 Focus, Right Eye
English Text:
Field 2 Focus, Right Eye
English Instructions:
Was the Macula Image in Focus from the right eye?
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 Good/fair 2693 2693
1 Borderline 404 3097
2 Poor 170 3267
. Missing 596 3863

OPXDGRBL - Gradability of images, Right Eye

Variable Name:
OPXDGRBL
SAS Label:
Gradability of images, Right Eye
English Text:
Gradability of images, right eye. This assumes at least one digital image of the right eye is available.
English Instructions:
0=All fields are gradable; 1=Disc is ungradable; 2=Portion of the macula is ungradable; 4= Portion of the disc and macula are ungradable; 5=Disc and macula are ungradable; 6= All available fields are ungradable. Please refer to the NHANES Digital Retinal Image Grading Protocol for more details and definitions.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 Gradable 3044 3044
1 Disc ungradable 10 3054
2 Part macula 131 3185
3 Macula ungradable 69 3254
4 Part disc & macula 4 3258
5 Disc & macula ungradable 13 3271
6 Ungradable 19 3290
. Missing 573 3863

OPXDPMM - Pupil Size, Right Eye

Variable Name:
OPXDPMM
SAS Label:
Pupil Size, Right Eye
English Text:
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 to 5 Range of Values 3289 3289
. Missing 574 3863

OPXDPHPR - Photo Problems, Right Eye

Variable Name:
OPXDPHPR
SAS Label:
Photo Problems, Right Eye
English Text:
Photo Problems
English Instructions:
Were there problems with the quality of the images from the right eye?
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 1789 1789
2 Yes 1501 3290
9 No photos of eye 34 3324
. Missing 539 3863

OPXDPHIL - Photo Prob - Illumination, Right Eye

Variable Name:
OPXDPHIL
SAS Label:
Photo Prob - Illumination, Right Eye
English Text:
Photo Problem - Illumination
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2816 2816
2 Yes 474 3290
9 No photos of eye 34 3324
. Missing 539 3863

OPXDPHFD - Photo Prob - Field Definition, Right Eye

Variable Name:
OPXDPHFD
SAS Label:
Photo Prob - Field Definition, Right Eye
English Text:
Photo Problem - Field Definition
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3224 3224
2 Yes 66 3290
9 No photos of eye 34 3324
. Missing 539 3863

OPXDPHHZ - Photo Prob - Haze, Right Eye

Variable Name:
OPXDPHHZ
SAS Label:
Photo Prob - Haze, Right Eye
English Text:
Photo Problem - Haze
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2215 2215
2 Yes 1075 3290
9 No photos of eye 34 3324
. Missing 539 3863

OPXDPHDD - Photo Prob - Dust/Dirt, Right Eye

Variable Name:
OPXDPHDD
SAS Label:
Photo Prob - Dust/Dirt, Right Eye
English Text:
Photo Problem - Dust/Dirt
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2990 2990
2 Yes 300 3290
9 No photos of eye 34 3324
. Missing 539 3863

OPXDPHLA - Photo Prob - Lashes, Right Eye

Variable Name:
OPXDPHLA
SAS Label:
Photo Prob - Lashes, Right Eye
English Text:
Photo Problem - Lashes
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3211 3211
2 Yes 79 3290
9 No photos of eye 34 3324
. Missing 539 3863

OPXDPHAR - Photo Prob - Arc, Right Eye

Variable Name:
OPXDPHAR
SAS Label:
Photo Prob - Arc, Right Eye
English Text:
Photo Problem - Arc
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3133 3133
2 Yes 157 3290
9 No photos of eye 34 3324
. Missing 539 3863

OPXDPHRC - Photo Prob - Red Channel, Right Eye

Variable Name:
OPXDPHRC
SAS Label:
Photo Prob - Red Channel, Right Eye
English Text:
Photo Problem - Red Channel
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3283 3283
2 Yes 7 3290
9 No photos of eye 34 3324
. Missing 539 3863

OPXDPHOT - Photo Prob - Other, Right Eye

Variable Name:
OPXDPHOT
SAS Label:
Photo Prob - Other, Right Eye
English Text:
Photo Problem - Other
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2561 2561
2 Yes 729 3290
9 No photos of eye 34 3324
. Missing 539 3863

OPDURET - Retinopathy level, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDURET
SAS Label:
Retinopathy level, worse eye
English Text:
Calculated levels of retinopathy severity, worse eye. The worse eye is the eye with the more severe retinopathy.
English Instructions:
Calculated severity levels are described in more detail in the NHANES Grading Protocol, Retinopathy section. HE=HARD EXUDATES; SE=SOFT EXUDATE; IRMA=INTRARETINAL MICROVASCULAR ABNORMALITIES; VL=VENOUS LOOPS; MAS=MICROANEURYSMS; HEM=HEMORRHAGES; NPR=NON-PROLIFERATIVE RETINOPATHY; RET=RETINOPATHY; PRP LASER=PANRETINAL PHOTOCOAGULATION SCARS PRESENT; PR=PROLIFERATIVE RETINOPATHY; HRC=HIGH RISK CHARACTERISTICS AS DEFINED IN THE EARLY TREATMENT DIABETIC RETINOPATHY STUDY; AND VH=VITREOUS HEMORRHAGE Note: Retinopathy is graded masked to diabetes status and retinopathy may be found in persons with and without diabetes (even though value labels may indicate otherwise). Level 12 is indicated when specific nondiabetic disease, e.g. retinal vein occlusion, is present. To examine retinopathy in persons with diabetes use the diabetes definition found in the NHANES Grading Protocol; to examine in nondiabetic persons exclude all persons with diabetes.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
10 No retinopathy 2589 2589
12 Non-diabetic retinal disease specific retinopathy 80 2669
13 Questionable retinopathy 180 2849
14 HE, SE, IRMA, VL but no MAS 15 2864
15 HEM only, no MAS 74 2938
20 MAS only 168 3106
31 Early NPR 72 3178
41 Moderate NPR 42 3220
51 Severe NPR 7 3227
60 Fibrous prolif. only 4 3231
61 No retinopathy but PRP laser 2 3233
62 MAS only + PRP laser 0 3233
63 Early NPR + PRP laser 6 3239
64 Moderate/severe NPR + PRP laser 2 3241
65 PR < HRC 3 3244
70 PR >= HRC 1 3245
80 Total VH 0 3245
. Missing 618 3863

OPDURL4 - 4 levels retinopathy severity, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDURL4
SAS Label:
4 levels retinopathy severity, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on four levels of retinopathy severity, from the worse eye. The worse eye is the eye with the more severe retinopathy.
English Instructions:
Four levels of retinopathy severity are computed from variable OPDURET: 1=LEVELS 10-13; 2=LEVELS 14-31; 3=LEVELS 41-51; 4=LEVELS 60-80. This variable is often used in examining associations with retinopathy severity. To collapse further, can combine code 1=No Retinopathy; 2-4=Retinopathy; For a No Proliferative Retinopathy vs. Proliferative analysis, combine 1-3 as Non-Proliferative.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 No retinopathy 2849 2849
2 Mild NPR 329 3178
3 Moderate/severe NPR 49 3227
4 PR (Proliferative) 18 3245
. Missing 618 3863

OPDUARMA - Any retinopathy, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUARMA
SAS Label:
Any retinopathy, worse eye
English Text:
This field is coded for the presence or absence of any retinopathy from the worse eye. The worse eye is the eye with the more severe retinopathy.
English Instructions:
This variable is calculated from the OPDURET variable as follows: 0(No)=LEVELS <14; 1(Yes)=LEVELS>=14
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2849 2849
1 Yes 396 3245
. Missing 618 3863

OPDUHMA - MAS, HEM, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUHMA
SAS Label:
MAS, HEM, worse eye
English Text:
This summary variable provides information describing microaneurysms (MAS) only, blot hemorrhages (HEM) only, or both, using two severity levels from the ETDRS standard 2A, worse eye.
English Instructions:
Value 5 is more severe than value 4. For MAS only, see variable OPDUMA. For HEM only, see variable OPDUHEM. Combined MAS and/or HEM would include values 2 to 5 as present and values 0 & 1 as none.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 None 2642 2642
1 Questionable 171 2813
2 MAS only 198 3011
3 HEM only 108 3119
4 HEM+MAS < 2A 124 3243
5 HEM+MAS >= 2A 7 3250
. Missing 613 3863

OPDUMA - Retinal microaneurysms, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUMA
SAS Label:
Retinal microaneurysms, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information only on eyes with retinal microaneurysms and no retinal blot hemorrhage, worse eye.
English Instructions:
This variable is calculated as being present (1=YES) if variable OPDUHMA=2 and absent (0=NO) if OPDUHMA=0 or 1. For eyes with any microaneurysms, recode from OPDUHMA.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2941 2941
1 Yes 228 3169
. Missing 694 3863

OPDUHEM - Retinal blot hemorrhages, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUHEM
SAS Label:
Retinal blot hemorrhages, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information only on eyes with retinal blot hemorrhages and no microaneurysms in the worse eye.
English Instructions:
This variable is computed as present (1=YES) from OPDUHMA variable code=3 and absent (0=NO) from OPDUHMA variable code=0 or 1. For eyes with any retinal blot hemorrhages, recode from OPDUHMA.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3002 3002
1 Yes 114 3116
. Missing 747 3863

OPDUHE - Retinal hard exudate, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUHE
SAS Label:
Retinal hard exudate, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of hard exudate in the worse eye. Hard exudate is a result of lipoprotein deposition in the retina and is usually associated with macular edema.
English Instructions:
Can combine code 0=No and 1=Questionable for absent.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3159 3159
1 Questionable 24 3183
2 Yes 77 3260
. Missing 603 3863

OPDUSE - Retinal soft exudate, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUSE
SAS Label:
Retinal soft exudate, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of soft exudate in the worse eye. Soft exudate, sometimes called cotton wool spot, is due to retinal nerve fiber layer infarction, a result of retinal ischemia.
English Instructions:
Can combine code 0=No and 1=Questionable for absent.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3156 3156
1 Questionable 38 3194
2 Yes 66 3260
. Missing 603 3863

OPDUIRMA - IRMA, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUIRMA
SAS Label:
IRMA, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of Intraretinal Microvascular Abnormalities (IRMA), from the worse eye. IRMA are retinal collateral vessels in areas of retinal ischemia indicating a more severe level of retinopathy. This variable is coded using the ETDRS photo standard, 8A. Eyes with IRMA>=8A have more severe disease than eyes with standard <8A.
English Instructions:
Can combine code 0=None and 1=Questionable for IRMA absent and codes 2 & 3 for IRMA present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 None 3149 3149
1 Questionable 45 3194
2 < 8A 40 3234
3 >= 8A 11 3245
. Missing 618 3863

OPDUVB - Retinal venous beading, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUVB
SAS Label:
Retinal venous beading, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of retinal venous beading from the worse eye. Venous beading is a manifestation of severe retinal ischemia.
English Instructions:
Can combine code 0=No and 1=Questionable for absent.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3270 3270
1 Questionable 3 3273
2 Yes 2 3275
. Missing 588 3863

OPDUNVO - Retinal new vessels on disc, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUNVO
SAS Label:
Retinal new vessels on disc, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of retinal new vessels on the optic disc area, from the worse eye. Retinal new vessels on the optic disc area are a manifestation of proliferative retinopathy due to retinal ischemia. This variable is coded using the ETDRS photo standard, 10A. Eyes with standard>=10A have more new vessels than eyes with standard <10A.
English Instructions:
When combined with other manifestations of proliferative retinopathy is equivalent to OPDURL4=4 (Proliferative). Can combine code 0=None and 1=Questionable for absent; codes 2=<10A with 3=>=10A for present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 None 3285 3285
1 Questionable 6 3291
2 < 10A 4 3295
3 >= 10A 0 3295
. Missing 568 3863

OPDUNVE - Retinal new vessels elsewhere, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUNVE
SAS Label:
Retinal new vessels elsewhere, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of retinal new vessels elsewhere outside the optic disc margin in the worse eye. Retinal new vessels elsewhere outside the optic disc margin are a manifestation of proliferative retinopathy due to retinal ischemia. The more area affected, the more severe the disease.
English Instructions:
When combined with other manifestations of proliferative retinopathy is equivalent to OPDURL4=4 (Proliferative). Can combine code 0=None and 1=Questionable for absent and code 2=<1/2 DISC AREA with 3=>=1/2 DISC AREA for present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 None 3252 3252
1 Questionable 13 3265
2 < 1/2 Disc Area 5 3270
3 >= 1/2 Disc Area 0 3270
. Missing 593 3863

OPDURFP - Retinal fibrous proliferation, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDURFP
SAS Label:
Retinal fibrous proliferation, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of retinal fibrous proliferation in the worse eye. Retinal fibrous proliferation is a manifestation of proliferative retinopathy due to retinal ischemia. The more area affected, the greater the disease.
English Instructions:
FPD = Fibrous proliferation within the optic disc area; FPE = Fibrous proliferation elsewhere outside the optic disc margin. When combined with other manifestations of proliferative retinopathy is equivalent to OPDURL4=4. Can combine code 0=None and 1=Questionable for absent; 2=FPD ONLY, 3=FPE ONLY, and 4=FPD + FPE for any present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 None 3254 3254
1 Questionable 9 3263
2 FPD only 4 3267
3 FPE only 6 3273
4 FPD + FPE 2 3275
. Missing 588 3863

OPDUPHVH - Pre-ret./ vitreous hemorrhage, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUPHVH
SAS Label:
Pre-ret./ vitreous hemorrhage, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of pre-retinal hemorrhage or vitreous hemorrhage in the worse eye. Pre-retinal hemorrhage or vitreous hemorrhage is a manifestation of proliferative retinopathy due to retinal ischemia. The more area is affected, the more severe the disease.
English Instructions:
When combined with other manifestations of proliferative retinopathy is equivalent to OPDURL4=4. Can combine 0=None and 1=Questionable for absent and 2=<1 Disc Area and 3=>= 1 Disc Area for present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 None 3271 3271
1 Questionable 2 3273
2 < 1 Disc Area 1 3274
3 >= 1 Disc Area 0 3274
. Missing 589 3863

OPDUME - Macular edema, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUME
SAS Label:
Macular edema, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of macular edema by clinical significance from the worse eye. The definition for Clinically Significant Macular Edema (CSME), found in the NHANES Grading Protocol: CSME is considered present when edema involves the fovea or is within 500 microns of the fovea, or when a 1+disc area of edema is present with at least a portion of it within the macula.
English Instructions:
Increased permeability of retinal capillaries and MAS may result in accumulation of extracellular fluid and thickening of normally compact retinal tissue called Macular Edema. In some cases, the macular edema becomes clinically significant. "OTHER" refers to evidence of macular edema associated with retinopathy often associated with a specific ocular or systemic condition (e.g. retinal vein occlusion). Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable for absent; and 2=Yes, but not CSME and 3=Yes, CSME for any macular edema present; exclude 7 from analysis.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3187 3187
1 Questionable 17 3204
2 Yes, but not CSME 16 3220
3 Yes CSME 23 3243
7 Other 7 3250
. Missing 613 3863

OPDUMEC - Macular edema in center, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUMEC
SAS Label:
Macular edema in center, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of macular edema in the center from the worse eye. Center involvement specifies involvement of the fovea by macular edema. Cysts indicate more severe involvement, usually associated with visual loss.
English Instructions:
"OTHER" refers to evidence of macular edema associated with retinopathy often associated with a specific ocular or systemic condition (e.g. retinal vein occlusion). Can combine 0=None and 1=Questionable for absent; 2=Present and CSME and 3=CSME with cysts for any present central involvement; exclude 7 from analysis. Can combine with visual acuity data in corresponding eye.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 None 3213 3213
1 Questionable 12 3225
2 Present and CSME 18 3243
3 CSME with cysts 1 3244
7 Other 6 3250
. Missing 613 3863

OPDUPPS - Panret. photocoagulation scar, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUPPS
SAS Label:
Panret. photocoagulation scar, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of panretinal photocoagulation scars in the worse eye. Panretinal photocoagulation in a scatter pattern across the retina or in specific areas outside the macular area later results in scarring and is a surrogate for having had active severe disease. Local and/or scatter photocoagulation is usually done to prevent preretinal and vitreous hemorrhage or the development of retinal new vessels.
English Instructions:
In the absence of retinopathy, is usually combined with other signs of proliferative retinopathy which may or may not be present (refer to OPDURET). Can combine 0=None and 1=Questionable/Incomplete for absent; and codes 2, 3, and 4 as present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 None 3274 3274
1 Questionable/incomplete 1 3275
2 Local 0 3275
3 Scatter only 14 3289
4 Scatter + local 2 3291
. Missing 572 3863

OPDUFOC - Focal photocoag. scars for ME, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUFOC
SAS Label:
Focal photocoag. scars for ME, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of focal laser photocoagulation from the worse eye. It can appear either as treatment of leaking retinal microaneurysms (MA Rx only) or in a grid pattern in macula done for the treatment of localized or diffuse macular edema (Grid only), or sometimes together.
English Instructions:
Can combine codes 0=None and 1=Questionable for absent and codes 2-4 (MA RX only, Grid Only, and MA RX + Grid Rx) for present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 None 3262 3262
1 Questionable 5 3267
2 MA RX only 18 3285
3 Grid only 1 3286
4 MA RX & Grid RX 2 3288
. Missing 575 3863

OPDUARM - ARM, 3 severity levels, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUARM
SAS Label:
ARM, 3 severity levels, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the 3-level severity classification of age-related macular degeneration (ARM) from the worse eye. Early ARM is defined by presence or absence of drusen and/or pigmentary abnormalities; late ARM by exudative ARM signs and/or geographic atrophy.
English Instructions:
For ANY ARM, can combine codes 1=Early ARM and 2=Late ARM.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No ARM 2943 2943
1 Early ARM 220 3163
2 Late ARM 28 3191
. Missing 672 3863

OPDUPIGA - Ret. & pigmentary abnorm., worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUPIGA
SAS Label:
Ret. & pigmentary abnorm., worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of increased retinal pigment and/or RPE depigmentation, a manifestation of early ARM in absence of signs of late ARM, from the worse eye.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3029 3029
1 Yes 165 3194
. Missing 669 3863

OPDULARM - Late ARM, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDULARM
SAS Label:
Late ARM, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of exudative ARM and/or geographic atrophy from the worse eye.
English Instructions:
Late ARM is defined by the presence of signs of exudative ARM and/or geographic atrophy.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3196 3196
1 Yes 28 3224
. Missing 639 3863

OPDUGA - Geographic atrophy, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUGA
SAS Label:
Geographic atrophy, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of pure geographic atrophy in the absence of signs of Exudative ARM, worse eye
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3196 3196
1 Yes 13 3209
. Missing 654 3863

OPDUEXU - Exudative ARM, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUEXU
SAS Label:
Exudative ARM, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of exudative ARM from the worse eye.
English Instructions:
Exudative ARM is also called neovascular ARM. Sometimes geographic atrophy is present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3206 3206
1 Yes 15 3221
. Missing 642 3863

OPDUHD - Hard distinct drusen, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUHD
SAS Label:
Hard distinct drusen, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of hard distinct drusen, from the worse eye.
English Instructions:
Currently considered not to be a sign of ARM by itself.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 998 998
1 Yes 2218 3216
. Missing 647 3863

OPDUD125 - Drusen>=125 microns, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUD125
SAS Label:
Drusen>=125 microns, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of large drusen, greater than or equal to 125 microns in diameter, from the worse eye.
English Instructions:
Large drusen are considered a sign of early ARM.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2882 2882
1 Yes 315 3197
. Missing 666 3863

OPDUD500 - Drusen>=500 microns, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUD500
SAS Label:
Drusen>=500 microns, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of large drusen, greater than or equal to 500 microns in diameter, from the worse eye.
English Instructions:
Large drusen covering more area indicates more involvement in the macula area.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3071 3071
1 Yes 124 3195
. Missing 668 3863

OPDUASD - Any soft drusen, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUASD
SAS Label:
Any soft drusen, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of any soft indistinct and/or soft distinct drusen from the worse eye.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2602 2602
1 Yes 598 3200
. Missing 663 3863

OPDUSDD - Soft distinct drusen, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUSDD
SAS Label:
Soft distinct drusen, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of soft distinct drusen, from the worse eye.
English Instructions:
Soft distinct drusen is a less severe type of drusen than soft indistinct drusen.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2666 2666
1 Yes 533 3199
. Missing 664 3863

OPDUSID - Soft indistinct drusen, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUSID
SAS Label:
Soft indistinct drusen, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of soft indistinct drusen from the worse eye.
English Instructions:
Soft indistinct drusen is a more severe type of drusen than soft distinct drusen.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2974 2974
1 Yes 217 3191
. Missing 672 3863

OPDUIRP - Increased retinal pigment, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUIRP
SAS Label:
Increased retinal pigment, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of increased retinal pigment due to disruption of the retinal pigment epithelium in early ARM, from the worse eye.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3032 3032
1 Yes 162 3194
. Missing 669 3863

OPDURPE - RPE depigmentation, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDURPE
SAS Label:
RPE depigmentation, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of decreased retinal pigmentation due to disruption of the retinal pigment epithelium in early ARM, from the worse eye.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3085 3085
1 Yes 104 3189
. Missing 674 3863

OPDUAGA - Any geographic atrophy, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUAGA
SAS Label:
Any geographic atrophy, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of any geographic atrophy from the worse eye.
English Instructions:
This variable differs from the pure geographic atrophy variable, OPDUGA, because exudative ARM may be present concurrently in which case OPDUGA may result from exudative ARM and/or its treatment.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3206 3206
1 Yes 18 3224
. Missing 639 3863

OPDUPED - RPE/sensory ret. detachment, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUPED
SAS Label:
RPE/sensory ret. detachment, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of Retinal Pigment Epithelial detachment/ Sensory Retinal detachment, a sign of exudative ARM, from the worse eye.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3208 3208
1 Yes 10 3218
. Missing 645 3863

OPDUSNV - Subretinal new vessels, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUSNV
SAS Label:
Subretinal new vessels, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of subretinal new vessels, a sign of exudative ARM, from the worse eye.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3219 3219
1 Yes 0 3219
. Missing 644 3863

OPDUSUBH - Subretinal hemorrhage, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUSUBH
SAS Label:
Subretinal hemorrhage, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of subretinal hemorrhage, a sign of exudative ARM, from the worse eye.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3212 3212
1 Yes 8 3220
. Missing 643 3863

OPDUSFS - Subretinal fibrous scar, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUSFS
SAS Label:
Subretinal fibrous scar, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of subretinal fibrous scar, a sign of exudative ARM, from the worse eye.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3211 3211
1 Yes 9 3220
. Missing 643 3863

OPDUARMX - Treatment for ARM, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUARMX
SAS Label:
Treatment for ARM, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of 3 types of treatment for exudative ARM in the worse eye: laser, photodynamic and/or thermal treatment. The presence or absence of these treatments is a sign of exudative ARM.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3217 3217
1 Yes 3 3220
. Missing 643 3863

OPDUBCO - Retinal artery occlusion, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUBCO
SAS Label:
Retinal artery occlusion, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of retinal artery occlusion (branch or central), a blockage of retinal arteriole or artery resulting in infarction of the retina, from the worse eye.
English Instructions:
Can combine codes 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent; 2=Yes and 3=Yes, in center, to define present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3293 3293
1 Questionable 1 3294
2 Yes 1 3295
3 Yes, in center 0 3295
. Missing 568 3863

OPDUBVO - Retinal branch vein occlusion, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUBVO
SAS Label:
Retinal branch vein occlusion, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of retinal branch vein occlusion, a blockage of retinal branch venule (level 12 in the retinopathy severity scale, variable OPDURET), from the worse eye.
English Instructions:
Can combine with retinal central vein occlusion (OPDUCVO) to get retinal vein occlusion. Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent; 2=Yes and 3=Yes, in center to define present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3257 3257
1 Questionable 15 3272
2 Yes 17 3289
3 Yes, in center 0 3289
. Missing 574 3863

OPDUCVO - Ret. central vein occlusion, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUCVO
SAS Label:
Ret. central vein occlusion, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of retinal central vein occlusion (RCVO) from the worse eye; blockage of the retinal central vein (level 12 in the retinal severity scale variable, OPDURET).
English Instructions:
Can combine with retinal branch vein occlusion (OPDUBVO) to get retinal vein occlusion. Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent; 2=Yes and 3=Yes, in center to define present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3285 3285
1 Questionable 3 3288
2 Yes 4 3292
3 Yes, in center 1 3293
. Missing 570 3863

OPDUAVN - Retinal AV nicking, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUAVN
SAS Label:
Retinal AV nicking, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of retinal arterio-venous nicking, a pinching of the vein at an artery crossing, from the worse eye. May be secondary to hypertension. Refer to the NHANES Detailed Grading Protocol for more details.
English Instructions:
Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2300 2300
1 Questionable 621 2921
2 Yes 365 3286
. Missing 577 3863

OPDUFAN - Focal arteriolar narrowing, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUFAN
SAS Label:
Focal arteriolar narrowing, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of retinal focal arteriolar narrowing, focal pinching or narrowing of the arteriole, from the worse eye. May be secondary to hypertension. Refer to the NHANES Detailed Grading Protocol for more details.
English Instructions:
Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3100 3100
1 Questionable 149 3249
2 Yes 24 3273
. Missing 590 3863

OPDUHOLL - Hollenhorst plaque, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUHOLL
SAS Label:
Hollenhorst plaque, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of retinal arteriolar embolus (Hollenhorst plaque), from the worse eye. Usually fibrin or cholesterol embolus seen in retinal arterioles, often at a bifurcation of the vessel.
English Instructions:
Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3265 3265
1 Questionable 12 3277
2 Yes 11 3288
. Missing 575 3863

OPDUPPA - Peripapillary atrophy, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUPPA
SAS Label:
Peripapillary atrophy, worse eye
English Text:
This variables provides information on the presence or absence of peripapillary atrophy, defined as retinal-choroidal atrophic area around the disc, from the worse eye.
English Instructions:
Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2581 2581
1 Questionable 140 2721
2 Yes 580 3301
. Missing 562 3863

OPDUASHY - Asteroid Hyalosis, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUASHY
SAS Label:
Asteroid Hyalosis, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of Asteroid Hyalosis, soap-like crystals floating in the vitreous cavity in front of the retina, which can obstruct the view of retinal lesions, from the worse eye.
English Instructions:
Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent; 2=Yes and 3=Yes, in center to define present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3265 3265
1 Questionable 5 3270
2 Yes 33 3303
3 Yes, in center 2 3305
. Missing 558 3863

OPDUCHRA - Chorioretinal abnormality, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUCHRA
SAS Label:
Chorioretinal abnormality, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of any chorioretinal abnormality from the worse eye.
English Instructions:
Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent; 2=Yes and 3=Yes, in center to define present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3256 3256
1 Questionable 2 3258
2 Yes 22 3280
3 Yes, in center 0 3280
. Missing 583 3863

OPDUMACH - Macular hole, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUMACH
SAS Label:
Macular hole, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of a macular hole, a round sharply defined hole involving the center of the macula, resulting in a decrease in visual acuity, from the worse eye.
English Instructions:
Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent. Can analyze with visual acuity data.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3228 3228
1 Questionable 14 3242
2 Yes 6 3248
. Missing 615 3863

OPDUCHN - Choroidal nevus, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUCHN
SAS Label:
Choroidal nevus, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of choroidal nevus, a localized increase in the number of pigment bearing cells in choroid, usually round or oval in shape, from the worse eye.
English Instructions:
Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent; ; 2=Yes and 3=Yes, in center to define present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3088 3088
1 Questionable 71 3159
2 Yes 121 3280
3 Yes, in center 1 3281
. Missing 582 3863

OPDUOTRX - Any other treatment, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUOTRX
SAS Label:
Any other treatment, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of any other laser treatment for other conditions (i.e. local treatment for retinal detachment), from the worse eye.
English Instructions:
Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent; ; 2=Yes and 3=Yes, in center to define present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3288 3288
1 Questionable 0 3288
2 Yes 4 3292
3 Yes, in center 0 3292
. Missing 571 3863

OPDUPOHS - Histoplasmosis syndrome, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUPOHS
SAS Label:
Histoplasmosis syndrome, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of Presumed Ocular Histoplasmosis Syndrome, which usually manifests by peripapillary atrophic scars, focal round chorioretinal active lesions or punched out scars, from the worse eye.
English Instructions:
Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent; 2=Yes and 3=Yes, in center to define present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3287 3287
1 Questionable 2 3289
2 Yes 3 3292
3 Yes, in center 2 3294
. Missing 569 3863

OPDURDET - Retinal detachment, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDURDET
SAS Label:
Retinal detachment, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of traction or traumatic retinal detachment (not ARM Pigment Epithelial Detachment), from the worse eye.
English Instructions:
Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent; 2=Yes and 3=Yes, in center to define present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3280 3280
1 Questionable 1 3281
2 Yes 5 3286
3 Yes, in center 0 3286
. Missing 577 3863

OPDUSWR - SW, cellophane changes, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUSWR
SAS Label:
SW, cellophane changes, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of epiretinal membrane (cellophane changes), from the worse eye. Epiretinal membrane (cellophane changes) refers to a patch or patches of irregular increased reflection on the inner surface of the retina due to membrane cellophane changes only with no traction.
English Instructions:
Can combine with epiretinal membrane (traction changes) variable (OPDUSWRT). Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent; 2=Yes and 3=Yes, in center to define present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2608 2608
1 Questionable 83 2691
2 Yes 530 3221
3 Yes, in center 31 3252
. Missing 611 3863

OPDUSWRT - SW, traction changes, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUSWRT
SAS Label:
SW, traction changes, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of epiretinal membrane (retinal traction changes), from the worse eye. Epiretinal membrane (retinal traction changes) refers to a patch or patches of irregular increased reflection on the inner surface of the retina due to retinal traction changes of the membrane.
English Instructions:
Can combine with epiretinal membrane cellophane changes, variable OPDUSWR. Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent; 2=Yes and 3=Yes, in center to define present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3131 3131
1 Questionable 23 3154
2 Yes 79 3233
3 Yes, in center 19 3252
. Missing 611 3863

OPDUOTHC - Other ocular conditions, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUOTHC
SAS Label:
Other ocular conditions, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information of other ocular conditions not graded elsewhere, from the worse eye.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2977 2977
1 Questionable 37 3014
2 Yes 272 3286
3 Yes, in center 0 3286
. Missing 577 3863

OPDDRET - Retinopathy level, right eye.

Variable Name:
OPDDRET
SAS Label:
Retinopathy level, right eye.
English Text:
Calculated levels of retinopathy severity, right eye.
English Instructions:
Calculated severity levels are described in more detail in the NHANES Grading Protocol, Retinopathy section. HE=HARD EXUDATES; SE=SOFT EXUDATE; IRMA=INTRARETINAL MICROVASCULAR ABNORMALITIES; VL=VENOUS LOOPS; MAS=MICROANEURYSMS; HEM=HEMORRHAGES; NPR=NON-PROLIFERATIVE RETINOPATHY; RET=RETINOPATHY; PRP LASER=PANRETINAL PHOTOCOAGULATION SCARS PRESENT; PR=PROLIFERATIVE RETINOPATHY; HRC=HIGH RISK CHARACTERISTICS AS DEFINED IN THE EARLY TREATMENT DIABETIC RETINOPATHY STUDY; AND VH=VITREOUS HEMORRHAGE Note: Retinopathy is graded masked to diabetes status and retinopathy may be found in persons with and without diabetes (even though value labels may indicate otherwise). Level 12 is indicated when specific nondiabetic disease, e.g. retinal vein occlusion, is present. To examine retinopathy in persons with diabetes use the diabetes definition found in the NHANES Grading Protocol; to examine in nondiabetic persons exclude all persons with diabetes.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
10 No retinopathy 2737 2737
12 Non-diabetic retinal disease specific retinopathy 43 2780
13 Questionable retinopathy 110 2890
14 HE, SE, IRMA, VL but no MAS 14 2904
15 HEM only, no MAS 45 2949
20 MAS only 105 3054
31 Early NPR 61 3115
41 Moderate NPR 30 3145
51 Severe NPR 6 3151
60 Fibrous prolif. only 4 3155
61 No retinopathy but PRP laser 2 3157
62 MAS only + PRP laser 0 3157
63 Early NPR + PRP laser 5 3162
64 Moderate/severe NPR + PRP laser 0 3162
65 PR < HRC 2 3164
70 PR >= HRC 1 3165
80 Total VH 0 3165
. Missing 698 3863

OPDDRL4 - 4 levels retinopathy severity, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDRL4
SAS Label:
4 levels retinopathy severity, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on four levels of retinopathy severity, from the right eye.
English Instructions:
Four levels of retinopathy severity are calculated from variable OPDDRET: 1=LEVELS 10-13; 2=LEVELS 14-31; 3=LEVELS 41-51; 4=LEVELS 60-80 This variable is often used in examining associations with retinopathy severity. To collapse further 1=No Retinopathy ; 2-4=Retinopathy; For a No Proliferative Retinopathy vs. Proliferative analysis, combine 1-3 as Non-Proliferative.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 No retinopathy 2890 2890
2 Mild NPR 225 3115
3 Moderate/severe NPR 36 3151
4 PR (Proliferative) 14 3165
. Missing 698 3863

OPDDARMA - Any retinopathy, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDARMA
SAS Label:
Any retinopathy, right eye
English Text:
This field is coded for the presence or absence of any retinopathy from the right eye.
English Instructions:
This variable is computed from the OPDDRET variable as follows: 0(No)=LEVELS <14; 1(Yes)=LEVELS>=14
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2890 2890
1 Yes 275 3165
. Missing 698 3863

OPDDHMA - MAS, HEM, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDHMA
SAS Label:
MAS, HEM, right eye
English Text:
This summary variable provides information on describing microaneurysms (MAS) only, blot hemorrhages (HEM) only, or both using two severity levels using the ETDRS standard 2A, right eye.
English Instructions:
Value 5 is more severe than value 4. For MAS only, see variable OPDDMA. For HEM only, see variable OPDDHEM. Combined MAS and/or HEM would include values 2 to 5 as present and values 0 & 1 as none.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 None 2789 2789
1 Questionable 97 2886
2 MAS only 128 3014
3 HEM only 60 3074
4 HEM+MAS < 2A 95 3169
5 HEM+MAS >= 2A 6 3175
. Missing 688 3863

OPDDMA - Retinal microaneurysms, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDMA
SAS Label:
Retinal microaneurysms, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information only on eyes with retinal microaneurysms and no retinal blot hemorrhage, right eye.
English Instructions:
This variable is calculated as being present (1=YES) if variable OPDDHMA=2 and absent (0=NO) if OPDDHMA=0 or 1. For eyes with any microaneurysms, recode from OPDDHMA.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2886 2886
1 Yes 128 3014
. Missing 849 3863

OPDDHEM - Retinal blot hemorrhages, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDHEM
SAS Label:
Retinal blot hemorrhages, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information only on eyes with retinal blot hemorrhages and no microaneurysms in the right eye.
English Instructions:
This variable is computed as present (1=YES) from OPDDHMA variable code=3 and absent (0=NO) from OPDDHMA variable code=0 or 1. For eyes with any retinal blot hemorrhages, recode from OPDDHMA.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2886 2886
1 Yes 60 2946
. Missing 917 3863

OPDDHE - Retinal hard exudate, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDHE
SAS Label:
Retinal hard exudate, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of hard exudate in the right eye. Hard exudate is a result of lipoprotein deposition in the retina and is usually associated with macular edema.
English Instructions:
Can combine code 0=No and 1=Questionable for absent.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3129 3129
1 Questionable 14 3143
2 Yes 47 3190
. Missing 673 3863

OPDDSE - Retinal soft exudate, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDSE
SAS Label:
Retinal soft exudate, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of soft exudate in the right eye. Soft exudate, sometimes called cotton wool spot, is due to retinal nerve fiber layer infarction, a result of retinal ischemia.
English Instructions:
Can combine code 0=No and 1=Questionable for absent.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3114 3114
1 Questionable 30 3144
2 Yes 43 3187
. Missing 676 3863

OPDDIRMA - IRMA, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDIRMA
SAS Label:
IRMA, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of Intraretinal Microvascular Abnormalities (IRMA), from the right eye. IRMA are retinal collateral vessels in areas of retinal ischemia indicating a more severe level of retinopathy. This variable is coded using the ETDRS photo standard, 8A. Eyes with IRMA>=8A have more severe disease than eyes with standard <8A.
English Instructions:
Can combine code 0=None and 1=Questionable for IRMA absent and codes 2 & 3 for IRMA present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 None 3101 3101
1 Questionable 34 3135
2 < 8A 24 3159
3 >= 8A 6 3165
. Missing 698 3863

OPDDVB - Retinal venous beading, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDVB
SAS Label:
Retinal venous beading, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of retinal venous beading from the right eye. Venous beading is a manifestation of severe retinal ischemia.
English Instructions:
Can combine code 0=No and 1=Questionable for absent.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3210 3210
1 Questionable 2 3212
2 Yes 0 3212
. Missing 651 3863

OPDDNVO - Retinal new vessels on disc, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDNVO
SAS Label:
Retinal new vessels on disc, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of retinal new vessels on the optic disc area, from the right eye. Retinal new vessels on the optic disc area are a manifestation of proliferative retinopathy due to retinal ischemia. This variable is coded using the ETDRS photo standard, 10A. Eyes with standard>=10A have more severe vessels than eyes with standard <10A.
English Instructions:
When combined with other manifestations of proliferative retinopathy is equivalent to OPDDRL4=4 (Proliferative). Can combine code 0=None and 1=Questionable for absent; codes 2=<10A with 3=>=10A for present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 None 3227 3227
1 Questionable 3 3230
2 < 10A 2 3232
3 >= 10A 0 3232
. Missing 631 3863

OPDDNVE - Retinal new vessels elsewhere, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDNVE
SAS Label:
Retinal new vessels elsewhere, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of retinal new vessels elsewhere outside the optic disc margin in the right eye. Retinal new vessels elsewhere outside the optic disc margin are a manifestation of proliferative retinopathy due to retinal ischemia. The more area affected, the more severe the disease.
English Instructions:
When combined with other manifestations of proliferative retinopathy is equivalent to OPDDRL4=4 (Proliferative). Can combine code 0=None and 1=Questionable for absent and code 2=<1/2 DISC AREA with 3=>=1/2 DISC AREA for present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 None 3191 3191
1 Questionable 7 3198
2 < 1/2 Disc Area 1 3199
3 >= 1/2 Disc Area 0 3199
. Missing 664 3863

OPDDRFP - Retinal fibrous proliferation, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDRFP
SAS Label:
Retinal fibrous proliferation, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of retinal fibrous proliferation in the right eye. Retinal fibrous proliferation is a manifestation of proliferative retinopathy due to retinal ischemia. The more area affected, the greater the disease.
English Instructions:
FPD = Fibrous proliferation within the optic disc area; FPE = Fibrous proliferation elsewhere outside the optic disc margin. When combined with other manifestations of proliferative retinopathy is equivalent to OPDDRL4=4. Can combine code 0=None and 1=Questionable for absent; 2=FPD ONLY, 3=FPE ONLY, and 4=FPD + FPE for any present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 None 3198 3198
1 Questionable 5 3203
2 FPD only 4 3207
3 FPE only 1 3208
4 FPD + FPE 1 3209
. Missing 654 3863

OPDDPHVH - Pre-ret./ vitreous hemorrhage, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDPHVH
SAS Label:
Pre-ret./ vitreous hemorrhage, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of pre-retinal hemorrhage or vitreous hemorrhage in the right eye. Pre-retinal hemorrhage or vitreous hemorrhage is a manifestation of proliferative retinopathy due to retinal ischemia. The more area is affected, the more severe the disease.
English Instructions:
When combined with other manifestations of proliferative retinopathy is equivalent to OPDDRL4=4. Can combine 0=None and 1=Questionable for absent and 2=<1 Disc Area and 3=>= 1 Disc Area for present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 None 3209 3209
1 Questionable 1 3210
2 < 1 Disc Area 1 3211
3 >= 1 Disc Area 0 3211
. Missing 652 3863

OPDDME - Macular edema, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDME
SAS Label:
Macular edema, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of macular edema by clinical significance from the right eye. The definition for Clinically Significant Macular Edema (CSME), found in the NHANES Grading Protocol: CSME is considered present when edema involves the fovea or is within 500 microns of the fovea, or when a 1+disc area of edema is present with at least a portion of it within the macula.
English Instructions:
Increased permeability of retinal capillaries and MAS may result in accumulation of extracellular fluid and thickening of normally compact retinal tissue called Macular Edema. In some cases, the macular edema becomes clinically significant. "OTHER" refers to evidence of macular edema associated with retinopathy often associated with a specific ocular or systemic condition (e.g. retinal vein occlusion). Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable for absent; and 2=Yes, but not CSME and 3=Yes, CSME for any macular edema present; exclude 7 from analysis.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3123 3123
1 Questionable 9 3132
2 Yes, but not CSME 15 3147
3 Yes CSME 12 3159
7 Other 3 3162
. Missing 701 3863

OPDDMEC - Macular edema in center, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDMEC
SAS Label:
Macular edema in center, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of macular edema in the center from the right eye. Center involvement specifies involvement of the fovea by macular edema. Cysts indicate more severe involvement, usually associated with visual loss.
English Instructions:
"OTHER" refers to evidence of macular edema associated with retinopathy often associated with a specific ocular or systemic condition (e.g. retinal vein occlusion). Can combine 0=None and 1=Questionable for absent; 2=Present and CSME and 3=CSME with cysts for any present central involvement; exclude 7 from analysis. Can combine with visual acuity data in corresponding eye.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 None 3146 3146
1 Questionable 3 3149
2 Present and CSME 9 3158
3 CSME with cysts 1 3159
7 Other 3 3162
. Missing 701 3863

OPDDPPS - Panret. photocoagulation scar, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDPPS
SAS Label:
Panret. photocoagulation scar, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of panretinal photocoagulation scars in the right eye. Panretinal photocoagulation in a scatter pattern across the retina or in specific areas outside the macular area later results in scarring and is a surrogate for having had active severe disease. Local and/or scatter photocoagulation is usually done to prevent preretinal and vitreous hemorrhage or the development of retinal new vessels.
English Instructions:
In the absence of retinopathy, is usually combined with other signs of proliferative retinopathy which may or may not be present (refer to OPDURET). Can combine 0=None and 1=Questionable/Incomplete for absent; and codes 2, 3, and 4 as present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 None 3214 3214
1 Questionable/incomplete 2 3216
2 Local 0 3216
3 Scatter only 10 3226
4 Scatter + local 1 3227
. Missing 636 3863

OPDDFOC - Focal photocoag. scars for ME, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDFOC
SAS Label:
Focal photocoag. scars for ME, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of focal laser photocoagulation from the right eye. It can appear either as treatment of leaking retinal microaneurysms (MA Rx only) or in a grid pattern in macula done for the treatment of localized or diffuse macular edema (Grid only), or sometimes together.
English Instructions:
Can combine codes 0=None and 1=Questionable for absent and codes 2-4 (MA RX only, Grid Only, and MA RX + Grid Rx) for present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 None 3199 3199
1 Questionable 2 3201
2 MA RX only 17 3218
3 Grid only 0 3218
4 MA RX & Grid RX 1 3219
. Missing 644 3863

OPDDARM - ARM, 3 severity levels, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDARM
SAS Label:
ARM, 3 severity levels, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the 3-level severity classification of age-related macular degeneration (ARM) from the right eye. Early ARM is defined by presence or absence of drusen and/or pigmentary abnormalities; late ARM by exudative ARM signs and/or geographic atrophy.
English Instructions:
Can combine codes 1=Early ARM and 2=Late ARM.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No ARM 2881 2881
1 Early ARM 165 3046
2 Late ARM 20 3066
. Missing 797 3863

OPDDPIGA - Ret. & pigmentary abnorm., right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDPIGA
SAS Label:
Ret. & pigmentary abnorm., right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of increased retinal pigment and/or RPE depigmentation, a manifestation of early ARM in absence of signs of late ARM, from the right eye.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2951 2951
1 Yes 117 3068
. Missing 795 3863

OPDDLARM - Late ARM, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDLARM
SAS Label:
Late ARM, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of exudative ARM and/or geographic atrophy from the right eye.
English Instructions:
Late ARM is defined by the presence of signs of exudative ARM and/or geographic atrophy.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3097 3097
1 Yes 20 3117
. Missing 746 3863

OPDDGA - Geographic atrophy, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDGA
SAS Label:
Geographic atrophy, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of pure geographic atrophy in the absence of signs of Exudative ARM, right eye
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3097 3097
1 Yes 11 3108
. Missing 755 3863

OPDDEXU - Exudative ARM, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDEXU
SAS Label:
Exudative ARM, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of exudative ARM from the right eye.
English Instructions:
Exudative ARM is also called neovascular ARM. Sometimes geographic atrophy is present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3106 3106
1 Yes 9 3115
. Missing 748 3863

OPDDAREX - Excluded for ARM, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDAREX
SAS Label:
Excluded for ARM, right eye
English Text:
Was the right eye excluded for ARM?
English Instructions:
ARM may not be ascertained for many reasons, refer to OPDDREA for the reason for ARM exclusion.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3123 3123
1 Yes 62 3185
. Missing 678 3863

OPDDREA - Reason for ARM exclusion, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDREA
SAS Label:
Reason for ARM exclusion, right eye
English Text:
If a condition exists in the macula which confounds the grader from evaluating Age Related Macular Degeneration (ARM) lesions from similar changes in the retina due to another process the eye is excluded (cannot grade) from evaluation of all ARM lesions from the right eye.
English Instructions:
This variable lists reasons such as trauma, laser treatment, retinal vessel occlusion, retinal dystrophy, myopic degeneration, presumed ocular histoplasmosis or chorioretinal taxoplasmosis scar, nonspecific inflammatory retinal lesion, retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), non ARM retinal pigment epithelial abnormality, non ARM detachment, unknown, other, and/or a retinal coloboma or staphyloma.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 None 3201 3201
1 Trauma 1 3202
2 Laser RX 21 3223
3 Vessel occlusion 1 3224
4 Macular dystrophy 4 3228
5 Myopic degeneration 0 3228
6 Histoplasmosis/toxoplasmosis 6 3234
7 Inflammatory lesion 2 3236
9 Retinopathy of prematurity 0 3236
10 Non-ARM RPE abnormality 13 3249
11 Non-ARM detachment 1 3250
12 Unknown etiology 6 3256
15 Other 7 3263
16 Coloboma/staphyloma 0 3263
99 No photos of eye 0 3263
. Missing 600 3863

OPDDHD - Hard distinct drusen, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDHD
SAS Label:
Hard distinct drusen, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of hard distinct drusen, from the right eye.
English Instructions:
Currently considered not to be a sign of ARM by itself.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 1338 1338
1 Yes 1753 3091
. Missing 772 3863

OPDDD125 - Drusen>=125 microns, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDD125
SAS Label:
Drusen>=125 microns, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of large drusen, greater than or equal to 125 microns in diameter, from the right eye.
English Instructions:
Large drusen are considered a sign of early ARM.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2870 2870
1 Yes 208 3078
. Missing 785 3863

OPDDD500 - Drusen>=500 microns, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDD500
SAS Label:
Drusen>=500 microns, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of large drusen, greater than or equal to 500 microns in diameter, from the right eye.
English Instructions:
Large drusen covering more area indicates more involvement in the macula area.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2980 2980
1 Yes 95 3075
. Missing 788 3863

OPDDASD - Any soft drusen, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDASD
SAS Label:
Any soft drusen, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of any soft indistinct and/or soft distinct drusen from the right eye.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2658 2658
1 Yes 424 3082
. Missing 781 3863

OPDDSDD - Soft distinct drusen, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDSDD
SAS Label:
Soft distinct drusen, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of soft distinct drusen, from the right eye.
English Instructions:
Soft distinct drusen is a less severe type of drusen than soft indistinct drusen.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2717 2717
1 Yes 364 3081
. Missing 782 3863

OPDDSID - Soft indistinct drusen, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDSID
SAS Label:
Soft indistinct drusen, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of soft indistinct drusen from the right eye.
English Instructions:
Soft indistinct drusen is a more severe type of drusen than soft distinct drusen.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2919 2919
1 Yes 147 3066
. Missing 797 3863

OPDDIRP - Increased retinal pigment, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDIRP
SAS Label:
Increased retinal pigment, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of increased retinal pigment due to disruption of the retinal pigment epithelium in early ARM, from the right eye.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2954 2954
1 Yes 114 3068
. Missing 795 3863

OPDDRPE - RPE depigmentation, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDRPE
SAS Label:
RPE depigmentation, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of decreased retinal pigmentation due to disruption of the retinal pigment epithelium in early ARM, from the right eye.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2994 2994
1 Yes 69 3063
. Missing 800 3863

OPDDAGA - Any geographic atrophy, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDAGA
SAS Label:
Any geographic atrophy, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of any geographic atrophy from the right eye.
English Instructions:
This variable differs from the pure geographic atrophy variable, OPDDGA, because exudative ARM may be present concurrently in which case OPDDGA may result from exudative ARM and/or its treatment.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3104 3104
1 Yes 13 3117
. Missing 746 3863

OPDDPED - RPE/sensory ret. detachment, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDPED
SAS Label:
RPE/sensory ret. detachment, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of Retinal Pigment Epithelial detachment/ Sensory Retinal detachment, a sign of exudative ARM, from the right eye.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3109 3109
1 Yes 3 3112
. Missing 751 3863

OPDDSNV - Subretinal new vessels, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDSNV
SAS Label:
Subretinal new vessels, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of subretinal new vessels, a sign of exudative ARM, from the right eye.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3113 3113
1 Yes 0 3113
. Missing 750 3863

OPDDSUBH - Subretinal hemorrhage, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDSUBH
SAS Label:
Subretinal hemorrhage, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of subretinal hemorrhage, a sign of exudative ARM, from the right eye.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3111 3111
1 Yes 4 3115
. Missing 748 3863

OPDDSFS - Subretinal fibrous scar, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDSFS
SAS Label:
Subretinal fibrous scar, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of subretinal fibrous scar, a sign of exudative ARM, from the right eye.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3109 3109
1 Yes 5 3114
. Missing 749 3863

OPDDARMX - Treatment for ARM, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDARMX
SAS Label:
Treatment for ARM, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of 3 types of treatment for exudative ARM in the right eye: laser, photodynamic and/or thermal treatment. The presence or absence of these treatments is a sign of exudative ARM.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3113 3113
1 Yes 1 3114
. Missing 749 3863

OPDDBCO - Retinal artery occlusion, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDBCO
SAS Label:
Retinal artery occlusion, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of retinal artery occlusion (branch or central), a blockage of retinal arteriole or artery resulting infarction of the retina, from the right eye.
English Instructions:
Can combine codes 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent; 2=Yes and 3=Yes, in center, to define present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3240 3240
1 Questionable 1 3241
2 Yes 1 3242
3 Yes, in center 0 3242
. Missing 621 3863

OPDDBVO - Retinal branch vein occlusion, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDBVO
SAS Label:
Retinal branch vein occlusion, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of retinal branch vein occlusion, a blockage of retinal branch venule (level 12 in the retinopathy severity scale, variable OPDURET), from the right eye.
English Instructions:
Can combine with retinal central vein occlusion (OPDDCVO) to get retinal vein occlusion. Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent; 2=Yes and 3=Yes, in center to define present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3211 3211
1 Questionable 12 3223
2 Yes 9 3232
3 Yes, in center 0 3232
. Missing 631 3863

OPDDCVO - Ret. central vein occlusion, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDCVO
SAS Label:
Ret. central vein occlusion, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of retinal central vein occlusion (RCVO) from the right eye; blockage of the retinal central vein (level 12 in the retinal severity scale variable, OPDDRET).
English Instructions:
Can combine with retinal branch vein occlusion (OPDDBVO) to get retinal vein occlusion. Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent; 2=Yes and 3=Yes, in center to define present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3236 3236
1 Questionable 2 3238
2 Yes 1 3239
3 Yes, in center 0 3239
. Missing 624 3863

OPDDAVN - Retinal AV nicking, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDAVN
SAS Label:
Retinal AV nicking, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of retinal arterio-venous nicking, a pinching of the vein at an artery crossing, from the right eye. May be secondary to hypertension. Refer to the NHANES Detailed Grading Protocol for more details.
English Instructions:
Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2597 2597
1 Questionable 412 3009
2 Yes 213 3222
. Missing 641 3863

OPDDFAN - Focal arteriolar narrowing, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDFAN
SAS Label:
Focal arteriolar narrowing, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of retinal focal arteriolar narrowing, focal pinching or narrowing of the arteriole, from the right eye. May be secondary to hypertension. Refer to the NHANES Detailed Grading Protocol for more details.
English Instructions:
Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3094 3094
1 Questionable 89 3183
2 Yes 18 3201
. Missing 662 3863

OPDDHOLL - Hollenhorst plaque, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDHOLL
SAS Label:
Hollenhorst plaque, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of retinal arteriolar embolus (Hollenhorst plaque), from the worse eye. Usually fibrin or cholesterol embolus seen in retinal arterioles, often at a bifurcation of the vessel.
English Instructions:
Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3213 3213
1 Questionable 6 3219
2 Yes 8 3227
. Missing 636 3863

OPDDPPA - Peripapillary atrophy, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDPPA
SAS Label:
Peripapillary atrophy, right eye
English Text:
This variables provides information on the presence or absence of peripapillary atrophy, defined as retinal-choroidal atrophic area around the disc, from the right eye.
English Instructions:
Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2717 2717
1 Questionable 101 2818
2 Yes 426 3244
. Missing 619 3863

OPDDASHY - Asteroid Hyalosis, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDASHY
SAS Label:
Asteroid Hyalosis, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of Asteroid Hyalosis, soap-like crystals floating in the vitreous cavity in front of the retina, which can obstruct the view of retinal lesions, from the right eye.
English Instructions:
Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent; 2=Yes and 3=Yes, in center to define present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3229 3229
1 Questionable 4 3233
2 Yes 21 3254
3 Yes, in center 2 3256
. Missing 607 3863

OPDDCHRA - Chorioretinal abnormality, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDCHRA
SAS Label:
Chorioretinal abnormality, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of any chorioretinal abnormality from the right eye.
English Instructions:
Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent; 2=Yes and 3=Yes, in center to define present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3210 3210
1 Questionable 0 3210
2 Yes 15 3225
3 Yes, in center 0 3225
. Missing 638 3863

OPDDMACH - Macular hole, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDMACH
SAS Label:
Macular hole, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of a macular hole, a round sharply defined hole involving the center of the macula, resulting in a decrease in visual acuity, from the right eye.
English Instructions:
Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent. Can analyze with visual acuity data.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3147 3147
1 Questionable 8 3155
2 Yes 4 3159
. Missing 704 3863

OPDDCHN - Choroidal nevus, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDCHN
SAS Label:
Choroidal nevus, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of choroidal nevus, a localized increase in the number of pigment bearing cells in choroid, usually round or oval in shape, from the right eye.
English Instructions:
Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent; ; 2=Yes and 3=Yes, in center to define present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3117 3117
1 Questionable 39 3156
2 Yes 64 3220
3 Yes, in center 1 3221
. Missing 642 3863

OPDDOTRX - Any other treatment, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDOTRX
SAS Label:
Any other treatment, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of any other laser treatment for other conditions (i.e. local treatment for retinal detachment), from the right eye.
English Instructions:
Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent; ; 2=Yes and 3=Yes, in center to define present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3234 3234
1 Questionable 0 3234
2 Yes 2 3236
3 Yes, in center 0 3236
. Missing 627 3863

OPDDPOHS - Histoplasmosis syndrome, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDPOHS
SAS Label:
Histoplasmosis syndrome, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of Presumed Ocular Histoplasmosis Syndrome, which usually manifests by peripapillary atrophic scars, focal round chorioretinal active lesions or punched out scars, from the right eye.
English Instructions:
Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent; 2=Yes and 3=Yes, in center to define present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3235 3235
1 Questionable 1 3236
2 Yes 2 3238
3 Yes, in center 2 3240
. Missing 623 3863

OPDDRDET - Retinal detachment, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDRDET
SAS Label:
Retinal detachment, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of traction or traumatic retinal detachment (not ARM Pigment Epithelial Detachment), from the right eye.
English Instructions:
Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent; 2=Yes and 3=Yes, in center to define present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3228 3228
1 Questionable 0 3228
2 Yes 2 3230
3 Yes, in center 0 3230
. Missing 633 3863

OPDDSWR - SW, cellophane changes, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDSWR
SAS Label:
SW, cellophane changes, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of epiretinal membrane (cellophane changes), from the right eye. Epiretinal membrane (cellophane changes) refers to a patch or patches of irregular increased reflection on the inner surface of the retina due to membrane cellophane changes only with no traction.
English Instructions:
Can combine with epiretinal membrane (traction changes) variable (OPDDSWRT). Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent; 2=Yes and 3=Yes, in center to define present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2738 2738
1 Questionable 58 2796
2 Yes 353 3149
3 Yes, in center 19 3168
. Missing 695 3863

OPDDSWRT - SW, traction changes, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDSWRT
SAS Label:
SW, traction changes, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of epiretinal membrane (retinal traction changes), from the right eye. Epiretinal membrane (retinal traction changes) refers to a patch or patches of irregular increased reflection on the inner surface of the retina due to retinal traction changes of the membrane.
English Instructions:
Can combine with epiretinal membrane cellophane changes, variable OPDDSWR. Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent; 2=Yes and 3=Yes, in center to define present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3098 3098
1 Questionable 15 3113
2 Yes 39 3152
3 Yes, in center 9 3161
. Missing 702 3863

OPDDOTHC - Other ocular conditions, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDOTHC
SAS Label:
Other ocular conditions, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information of other ocular conditions not graded elsewhere, from the right eye.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3041 3041
1 Questionable 19 3060
2 Yes 171 3231
3 Yes, in center 0 3231
. Missing 632 3863

OPDDVCDR - Vertical cup disc ratio, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDVCDR
SAS Label:
Vertical cup disc ratio, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides the vertical cup to disc ratio, in microns, from the right eye.
English Instructions:
The vertical cup to disc ratio is from 0 to 1.0.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0.08 to 0.89 Range of Values 3200 3200
. Missing 663 3863

OPXSCOMP - Are field 1 & field 2 present, left eye

Variable Name:
OPXSCOMP
SAS Label:
Are field 1 & field 2 present, left eye
English Text:
Are field 1 & field 2 present, left eye?
English Instructions:
Completeness of the photo. If field 1 or field 2 are missing, the photos will be incomplete.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No photos 42 42
1 Incomplete 108 150
2 Complete 3174 3324
. Missing 539 3863

OPXSF1 - Field 1 Present, Left Eye

Variable Name:
OPXSF1
SAS Label:
Field 1 Present, Left Eye
English Text:
Is field 1 present in the photos of the left eye?
English Instructions:
If present, there is a gradability value, OPXSGRBL.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 Absent 119 119
2 Present 3205 3324
. Missing 539 3863

OPXSF1FO - Field 1 Focus, Left Eye

Variable Name:
OPXSF1FO
SAS Label:
Field 1 Focus, Left Eye
English Text:
Was the optic nerve in focus from the left eye?
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 Good/fair 2753 2753
1 Borderline 336 3089
2 Poor 116 3205
. Missing 658 3863

OPXSF2 - Field 2 Present, Left Eye

Variable Name:
OPXSF2
SAS Label:
Field 2 Present, Left Eye
English Text:
Is field 2 present, Left Eye?
English Instructions:
Was field 2 present in the photos of the left eye? If absent, ARM and ME may not be measurable in this eye. If present, there is a gradability value, OPXSGRBL.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 Absent 63 63
2 Present 3261 3324
. Missing 539 3863

OPXSF2FO - Field 2 Focus, Left Eye

Variable Name:
OPXSF2FO
SAS Label:
Field 2 Focus, Left Eye
English Text:
Field 2 Focus, Left eye
English Instructions:
Was the Macula Image in Focus from the left eye?
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 Good/fair 2703 2703
1 Borderline 403 3106
2 Poor 155 3261
. Missing 602 3863

OPXSGRBL - Gradability of images, Left Eye

Variable Name:
OPXSGRBL
SAS Label:
Gradability of images, Left Eye
English Text:
Gradability of images, left eye. This assumes at least one digital image of the left eye is available.
English Instructions:
0=All fields are gradable; 1=Disc is ungradable; 2=Portion of the macula is ungradable; 4= Portion of the disc and macula are ungradable; 5=Disc and macula are ungradable; 6= All available fields are ungradable. Please refer to the NHANES Digital Retinal Image Grading Protocol for more details and definitions.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 Gradable 3025 3025
1 Disc ungradable 13 3038
2 Part macula 140 3178
3 Macula ungradable 65 3243
4 Part disc & macula 6 3249
5 Disc & macula ungradable 13 3262
6 Ungradable 20 3282
. Missing 581 3863

OPXSPMM - Pupil Size, Left Eye

Variable Name:
OPXSPMM
SAS Label:
Pupil Size, Left Eye
English Text:
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 to 6 Range of Values 3282 3282
. Missing 581 3863

OPXSPHPR - Photo Problems, Left Eye

Variable Name:
OPXSPHPR
SAS Label:
Photo Problems, Left Eye
English Text:
Photo Problems
English Instructions:
Were there problems with the quality of the images from the left eye?
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 1780 1780
2 Yes 1501 3281
9 No photos of eye 42 3323
. Missing 540 3863

OPXSPHIL - Photo Prob - Illumination, Left Eye

Variable Name:
OPXSPHIL
SAS Label:
Photo Prob - Illumination, Left Eye
English Text:
Photo Problem - Illumination
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2793 2793
2 Yes 488 3281
9 No photos of eye 42 3323
. Missing 540 3863

OPXSPHFD - Photo Prob - Field Definition, Left Eye

Variable Name:
OPXSPHFD
SAS Label:
Photo Prob - Field Definition, Left Eye
English Text:
Photo Problem - Field Definition
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3187 3187
2 Yes 94 3281
9 No photos of eye 42 3323
. Missing 540 3863

OPXSPHHZ - Photo Prob - Haze, Left Eye

Variable Name:
OPXSPHHZ
SAS Label:
Photo Prob - Haze, Left Eye
English Text:
Photo Problem - Haze
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2219 2219
2 Yes 1062 3281
9 No photos of eye 42 3323
. Missing 540 3863

OPXSPHDD - Photo Prob - Dust/Dirt, Left Eye

Variable Name:
OPXSPHDD
SAS Label:
Photo Prob - Dust/Dirt, Left Eye
English Text:
Photo Problem - Dust/Dirt
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2954 2954
2 Yes 327 3281
9 No photos of eye 42 3323
. Missing 540 3863

OPXSPHLA - Photo Prob - Lashes, Left Eye

Variable Name:
OPXSPHLA
SAS Label:
Photo Prob - Lashes, Left Eye
English Text:
Photo Problem - Lashes
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3202 3202
2 Yes 79 3281
9 No photos of eye 42 3323
. Missing 540 3863

OPXSPHAR - Photo Prob - Arc, Left Eye

Variable Name:
OPXSPHAR
SAS Label:
Photo Prob - Arc, Left Eye
English Text:
Photo Problem - Arc
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3134 3134
2 Yes 147 3281
9 No photos of eye 42 3323
. Missing 540 3863

OPXSPHRC - Photo Prob - Red Channel, Left Eye

Variable Name:
OPXSPHRC
SAS Label:
Photo Prob - Red Channel, Left Eye
English Text:
Photo Problem - Red Channel
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3277 3277
2 Yes 4 3281
9 No photos of eye 42 3323
. Missing 540 3863

OPXSPHOT - Photo Prob - Other, Left Eye

Variable Name:
OPXSPHOT
SAS Label:
Photo Prob - Other, Left Eye
English Text:
Photo Problem - Other
English Instructions:
If other is coded describe the problem or artifact from the left eye.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2517 2517
2 Yes 764 3281
9 No photos of eye 42 3323
. Missing 540 3863

OPDSRET - Retinopathy level, left eye.

Variable Name:
OPDSRET
SAS Label:
Retinopathy level, left eye.
English Text:
Calculated levels of retinopathy severity, left eye.
English Instructions:
Calculated severity levels are described in more detail in the NHANES Grading Protocol, Retinopathy section. HE=HARD EXUDATES; SE=SOFT EXUDATE; IRMA=INTRARETINAL MICROVASCULAR ABNORMALITIES; VL=VENOUS LOOPS; MAS=MICROANEURYSMS; HEM=HEMORRHAGES; NPR=NON-PROLIFERATIVE RETINOPATHY; RET=RETINOPATHY; PRP LASER=PANRETINAL PHOTOCOAGULATION SCARS PRESENT; PR=PROLIFERATIVE RETINOPATHY; HRC=HIGH RISK CHARACTERISTICS AS DEFINED IN THE EARLY TREATMENT DIABETIC RETINOPATHY STUDY; AND VH=VITREOUS HEMORRHAGE Note: Retinopathy is graded masked to diabetes status and retinopathy may be found in persons with and without diabetes (even though value labels may indicate otherwise). Level 12 is indicated when specific nondiabetic disease, e.g. retinal vein occlusion, is present. To examine retinopathy in persons with diabetes use the diabetes definition found in the NHANES Grading Protocol; to examine in nondiabetic persons exclude all persons with diabetes.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
10 No retinopathy 2739 2739
12 Non-diabetic retinal disease specific retinopathy 48 2787
13 Questionable retinopathy 109 2896
14 HE, SE, IRMA, VL but no MAS 8 2904
15 HEM only, no MAS 37 2941
20 MAS only 99 3040
31 Early NPR 59 3099
41 Moderate NPR 30 3129
51 Severe NPR 4 3133
60 Fibrous prolif. only 3 3136
61 No retinopathy but PRP laser 3 3139
62 MAS only + PRP laser 0 3139
63 Early NPR + PRP laser 4 3143
64 Moderate/severe NPR + PRP laser 2 3145
65 PR < HRC 3 3148
70 PR >= HRC 0 3148
80 Total VH 0 3148
. Missing 715 3863

OPDSRL4 - 4 levels retinopathy severity, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSRL4
SAS Label:
4 levels retinopathy severity, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on four levels of retinopathy severity, from the left eye.
English Instructions:
Four levels of retinopathy severity are computed from variable OPDSRET: 1=LEVELS 10-13; 2=LEVELS 14-31; 3=LEVELS 41-51; 4=LEVELS 60-80 This variable is often used in examining associations with retinopathy severity. To collapse further 1=No Retinopathy; 2-4=Retinopathy; For a No Proliferative Retinopathy vs. Proliferative analysis, combine 1-3 as Non-Proliferative.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 No retinopathy 2896 2896
2 Mild NPR 203 3099
3 Moderate/severe NPR 34 3133
4 PR (Proliferative) 15 3148
. Missing 715 3863

OPDSARMA - Any retinopathy, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSARMA
SAS Label:
Any retinopathy, left eye
English Text:
This field is coded for the presence or absence of any retinopathy from the left eye.
English Instructions:
This variable is computed from the OPDSRET variable as follows: 0(No)=LEVELS <14; 1(Yes)=LEVELS>=14
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2896 2896
1 Yes 252 3148
. Missing 715 3863

OPDSHMA - MAS, HEM, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSHMA
SAS Label:
MAS, HEM, left eye
English Text:
This summary variable provides information on describing microaneurysms (MAS) only, blot hemorrhages (HEM) only, or both using two severity levels using the ETDRS standard 2A, left eye.
English Instructions:
Value 5 is more severe than value 4. For MAS only, see variable OPDSMA. For HEM only, see variable OPDSHEM. Combined MAS and/or HEM would include values 2 to 5 as present and values 0 & 1 as none.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 None 2772 2772
1 Questionable 110 2882
2 MAS only 131 3013
3 HEM only 55 3068
4 HEM+MAS < 2A 88 3156
5 HEM+MAS >= 2A 2 3158
. Missing 705 3863

OPDSMA - Retinal microaneurysms, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSMA
SAS Label:
Retinal microaneurysms, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information only on eyes with retinal microaneurysms and no retinal blot hemorrhage, left eye.
English Instructions:
This variable is calculated as being present (1=YES) if variable OPDSHMA=2 and absent (0=NO) if OPDSHMA=0 or 1. For eyes with any microaneurysms, recode from OPDSHMA.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2882 2882
1 Yes 131 3013
. Missing 850 3863

OPDSHEM - Retinal blot hemorrhages, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSHEM
SAS Label:
Retinal blot hemorrhages, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information only on eyes with retinal blot hemorrhages and no microaneurysms in the left eye.
English Instructions:
This variable is computed as present (1=YES) from OPDSHMA variable code=3 and absent (0=NO) from OPDSHMA variable code=0 or 1. For eyes with any retinal blot hemorrhages, recode from OPDSHMA.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2882 2882
1 Yes 55 2937
. Missing 926 3863

OPDSHE - Retinal hard exudate, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSHE
SAS Label:
Retinal hard exudate, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of hard exudate in the left eye. Hard exudate is a result of lipoprotein deposition in the retina and is usually associated with macular edema.
English Instructions:
Can combine code 0=No and 1=Questionable for absent.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3106 3106
1 Questionable 15 3121
2 Yes 58 3179
. Missing 684 3863

OPDSSE - Retinal soft exudate, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSSE
SAS Label:
Retinal soft exudate, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of soft exudate in the left eye. Soft exudate, sometimes called cotton wool spot, is due to retinal nerve fiber layer infarction, a result of retinal ischemia.
English Instructions:
Can combine code 0=No and 1=Questionable for absent.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3114 3114
1 Questionable 15 3129
2 Yes 42 3171
. Missing 692 3863

OPDSIRMA - IRMA, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSIRMA
SAS Label:
IRMA, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of Intraretinal Microvascular Abnormalities (IRMA), from the left eye. IRMA are retinal collateral vessels in areas of retinal ischemia indicating a more severe level of retinopathy. This variable is coded using the ETDRS photo standard, 8A. Eyes with IRMA>=8A have more severe disease than eyes with standard <8A.
English Instructions:
Can combine code 0=None and 1=Questionable for IRMA absent and codes 2 & 3 for IRMA present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 None 3095 3095
1 Questionable 27 3122
2 < 8A 23 3145
3 >= 8A 7 3152
. Missing 711 3863

OPDSVB - Retinal venous beading, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSVB
SAS Label:
Retinal venous beading, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of retinal venous beading from the left eye. Venous beading is a manifestation of severe retinal ischemia.
English Instructions:
Can combine code 0=No and 1=Questionable for absent.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3198 3198
1 Questionable 2 3200
2 Yes 2 3202
. Missing 661 3863

OPDSNVO - Retinal new vessels on disc, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSNVO
SAS Label:
Retinal new vessels on disc, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of retinal new vessels on the optic disc area, from the left eye. Retinal new vessels on the optic disc area are a manifestation of proliferative retinopathy due to retinal ischemia. This variable is coded using the ETDRS photo standard, 10A. Eyes with standard>=10A have more severe vessels than eyes with standard <10A.
English Instructions:
When combined with other manifestations of proliferative retinopathy is equivalent to OPDSRL4=4 (Proliferative). Can combine code 0=None and 1=Questionable for absent; codes 2=<10A with 3=>=10A for present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 None 3217 3217
1 Questionable 4 3221
2 < 10A 3 3224
3 >= 10A 0 3224
. Missing 639 3863

OPDSNVE - Retinal new vessels elsewhere, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSNVE
SAS Label:
Retinal new vessels elsewhere, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of retinal new vessels elsewhere outside the optic disc margin in the left eye. Retinal new vessels elsewhere outside the optic disc margin are a manifestation of proliferative retinopathy due to retinal ischemia. The more area affected, the more severe the disease.
English Instructions:
When combined with other manifestations of proliferative retinopathy is equivalent to OPDSRL4=4 (Proliferative). Can combine code 0=None and 1=Questionable for absent and code 2=<1/2 DISC AREA with 3=>=1/2 DISC AREA for present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 None 3180 3180
1 Questionable 6 3186
2 < 1/2 Disc Area 5 3191
3 >= 1/2 Disc Area 0 3191
. Missing 672 3863

OPDSRFP - Retinal fibrous proliferation, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSRFP
SAS Label:
Retinal fibrous proliferation, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of retinal fibrous proliferation in the left eye. Retinal fibrous proliferation is a manifestation of proliferative retinopathy due to retinal ischemia. The more area affected, the greater the disease.
English Instructions:
FPD = Fibrous proliferation within the optic disc area; FPE = Fibrous proliferation elsewhere outside the optic disc margin. When combined with other manifestations of proliferative retinopathy is equivalent to OPDSRL4=4. Can combine code 0=None and 1=Questionable for absent; 2=FPD ONLY, 3=FPE ONLY, and 4=FPD + FPE for any present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 None 3187 3187
1 Questionable 4 3191
2 FPD only 1 3192
3 FPE only 6 3198
4 FPD + FPE 1 3199
. Missing 664 3863

OPDSPHVH - Pre-ret./ vitreous hemorrhage, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSPHVH
SAS Label:
Pre-ret./ vitreous hemorrhage, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of pre-retinal hemorrhage or vitreous hemorrhage in the left eye. Pre-retinal hemorrhage or vitreous hemorrhage is a manifestation of proliferative retinopathy due to retinal ischemia. The more area is affected, the more severe the disease.
English Instructions:
When combined with other manifestations of proliferative retinopathy is equivalent to OPDSRL4=4. Can combine 0=None and 1=Questionable for absent and 2=<1 Disc Area and 3=>= 1 Disc Area for present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 None 3196 3196
1 Questionable 1 3197
2 < 1 Disc Area 0 3197
3 >= 1 Disc Area 0 3197
. Missing 666 3863

OPDSME - Macular edema, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSME
SAS Label:
Macular edema, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of macular edema by clinical significance. The definition for Clinically Significant Macular Edema (CSME), found in the NHANES Grading Protocol: CSME is considered present when edema involves the fovea or is within 500 microns of the fovea, or when a 1+disc area of edema is present with at least a portion of it within the macula.
English Instructions:
Increased permeability of retinal capillaries and MAS may result in accumulation of extracellular fluid and thickening of normally compact retinal tissue called Macular Edema. In some cases, the macular edema becomes clinically significant. "OTHER" refers to evidence of macular edema associated with retinopathy often associated with a specific ocular or systemic condition (e.g. retinal vein occlusion). Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable for absent; and 2=Yes, but not CSME and 3=Yes, CSME for any macular edema present; exclude 7 from analysis.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3108 3108
1 Questionable 13 3121
2 Yes, but not CSME 11 3132
3 Yes CSME 17 3149
7 Other 4 3153
. Missing 710 3863

OPDSMEC - Macular edema in center, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSMEC
SAS Label:
Macular edema in center, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of macular edema in the center from the left eye. Center involvement specifies involvement of the fovea by macular edema. Cysts indicate more severe involvement, usually associated with visual loss.
English Instructions:
"OTHER" refers to evidence of macular edema associated with retinopathy often associated with a specific ocular or systemic condition (e.g. retinal vein occlusion). Can combine 0=None and 1=Questionable for absent; 2=Present and CSME and 3=CSME with cysts for any present central involvement; exclude 7 from analysis. Can combine with visual acuity data in corresponding eye.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 None 3123 3123
1 Questionable 12 3135
2 Present and CSME 14 3149
3 CSME with cysts 0 3149
7 Other 3 3152
. Missing 711 3863

OPDSPPS - Panret. photocoagulation scar, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSPPS
SAS Label:
Panret. photocoagulation scar, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of panretinal photocoagulation scars in the left eye. Panretinal photocoagulation in a scatter pattern across the retina or in specific areas outside the macular area later results in scarring and is a surrogate for having had active severe disease. Local and/or scatter photocoagulation is usually done to prevent preretinal and vitreous hemorrhage or the development of retinal new vessels.
English Instructions:
In the absence of retinopathy, is usually combined with other signs of proliferative retinopathy which may or may not be present (refer to OPDSRET). Can combine 0=None and 1=Questionable/Incomplete for absent; and codes 2, 3, and 4 as present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 None 3200 3200
1 Questionable/incomplete 0 3200
2 Local 0 3200
3 Scatter only 13 3213
4 Scatter + local 1 3214
. Missing 649 3863

OPDSFOC - Focal photocoag. scars for ME, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSFOC
SAS Label:
Focal photocoag. scars for ME, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of focal laser photocoagulation from the left eye. It can appear either as treatment of leaking retinal microaneurysms (MA Rx only) or in a grid pattern in macula done for the treatment of localized or diffuse macular edema (Grid only), or sometimes together.
English Instructions:
Can combine codes 0=None and 1=Questionable for absent and codes 2-4 (MA RX only, Grid Only, and MA RX + Grid Rx) for present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 None 3197 3197
1 Questionable 5 3202
2 MA RX only 11 3213
3 Grid only 1 3214
4 MA RX & Grid RX 1 3215
. Missing 648 3863

OPDSARM - ARM, 3 severity levels, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSARM
SAS Label:
ARM, 3 severity levels, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the 3-level severity classification of age-related macular degeneration (ARM) from the left eye. Early ARM is defined by presence or absence of drusen and/or pigmentary abnormalities; late ARM by exudative ARM signs and/or geographic atrophy.
English Instructions:
Can combine codes 1=Early ARM and 2=Late ARM.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No ARM 2874 2874
1 Early ARM 157 3031
2 Late ARM 19 3050
. Missing 813 3863

OPDSPIGA - Ret. & pigmentary abnorm., left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSPIGA
SAS Label:
Ret. & pigmentary abnorm., left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of increased retinal pigment and/or RPE depigmentation, a manifestation of early ARM in absence of signs of late ARM, from the left eye.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2937 2937
1 Yes 116 3053
. Missing 810 3863

OPDSLARM - Late ARM, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSLARM
SAS Label:
Late ARM, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of exudative ARM and/or geographic atrophy from the left eye.
English Instructions:
Late ARM is defined by the presence of signs of exudative ARM and/or geographic atrophy.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3085 3085
1 Yes 19 3104
. Missing 759 3863

OPDSGA - Geographic atrophy, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSGA
SAS Label:
Geographic atrophy, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of pure geographic atrophy in the absence of signs of Exudative ARM, left eye
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3085 3085
1 Yes 10 3095
. Missing 768 3863

OPDSEXU - Exudative ARM, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSEXU
SAS Label:
Exudative ARM, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of exudative ARM from the left eye.
English Instructions:
Exudative ARM is also called neovascular ARM. Sometimes geographic atrophy is present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3094 3094
1 Yes 9 3103
. Missing 760 3863

OPDSAREX - Excluded for ARM, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSAREX
SAS Label:
Excluded for ARM, left eye
English Text:
Was the left eye excluded for ARM?
English Instructions:
ARM may not be ascertained for many reasons, refer to OPDSREA for the reason for ARM exclusion.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3109 3109
1 Yes 71 3180
. Missing 683 3863

OPDSREA - Reason for ARM exclusion, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSREA
SAS Label:
Reason for ARM exclusion, left eye
English Text:
If a condition exists in the macula which confounds the grader from evaluating Age Related Macular Degeneration (ARM) lesions from similar changes in the retina due to another process the eye is excluded (cannot grade) from evaluation of all ARM lesions from the right eye.
English Instructions:
This variable lists reasons such as trauma, laser treatment, retinal vessel occlusion, retinal dystrophy, myopic degeneration, presumed ocular histoplasmosis or chorioretinal taxoplasmosis scar, nonspecific inflammatory retinal lesion, retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), non ARM retinal pigment epithelial abnormality, non ARM detachment, unknown, other, and/or a retinal coloboma or staphyloma.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 None 3179 3179
1 Trauma 0 3179
2 Laser RX 18 3197
3 Vessel occlusion 5 3202
4 Macular dystrophy 4 3206
5 Myopic degeneration 5 3211
6 Histoplasmosis/toxoplasmosis 8 3219
7 Inflammatory lesion 4 3223
9 Retinopathy of prematurity 0 3223
10 Non-ARM RPE abnormality 8 3231
11 Non-ARM detachment 2 3233
12 Unknown etiology 6 3239
15 Other 11 3250
16 Coloboma/staphyloma 0 3250
99 No photos of eye 0 3250
. Missing 613 3863

OPDSHD - Hard distinct drusen, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSHD
SAS Label:
Hard distinct drusen, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of hard distinct drusen, from the left eye.
English Instructions:
Currently considered not to be a sign of ARM by itself.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 1372 1372
1 Yes 1717 3089
. Missing 774 3863

OPDSD125 - Drusen>=125 microns, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSD125
SAS Label:
Drusen>=125 microns, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of large drusen, greater than or equal to 125 microns in diameter, from the left eye.
English Instructions:
Large drusen are considered a sign of early ARM.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2841 2841
1 Yes 215 3056
. Missing 807 3863

OPDSD500 - Drusen>=500 microns, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSD500
SAS Label:
Drusen>=500 microns, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of large drusen, greater than or equal to 500 microns in diameter, from the left eye.
English Instructions:
Large drusen are considered a sign of early ARM.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2965 2965
1 Yes 90 3055
. Missing 808 3863

OPDSASD - Any soft drusen, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSASD
SAS Label:
Any soft drusen, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of any soft indistinct and/or soft distinct drusen from the left eye.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2663 2663
1 Yes 395 3058
. Missing 805 3863

OPDSSDD - Soft distinct drusen, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSSDD
SAS Label:
Soft distinct drusen, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of soft distinct drusen, from the left eye.
English Instructions:
Soft distinct drusen is a less severe type of drusen than soft indistinct drusen.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2721 2721
1 Yes 336 3057
. Missing 806 3863

OPDSSID - Soft indistinct drusen, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSSID
SAS Label:
Soft indistinct drusen, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of soft indistinct drusen from the left eye.
English Instructions:
Soft indistinct drusen is a more severe type of drusen than soft distinct drusen.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2889 2889
1 Yes 155 3044
. Missing 819 3863

OPDSIRP - Increased retinal pigment, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSIRP
SAS Label:
Increased retinal pigment, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of increased retinal pigment due to disruption of the retinal pigment epithelium in early ARM, from the left eye.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2940 2940
1 Yes 113 3053
. Missing 810 3863

OPDSRPE - RPE depigmentation, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSRPE
SAS Label:
RPE depigmentation, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of decreased retinal pigmentation due to disruption of the retinal pigment epithelium in early ARM, from the left eye.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2977 2977
1 Yes 72 3049
. Missing 814 3863

OPDSAGA - Any geographic atrophy, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSAGA
SAS Label:
Any geographic atrophy, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of any geographic atrophy from the left eye.
English Instructions:
This variable differs from the pure geographic atrophy variable, OPDSGA, because exudative ARM may be present concurrently in which case OPDSGA may result from exudative ARM and/or its treatment.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3090 3090
1 Yes 13 3103
. Missing 760 3863

OPDSPED - RPE/sensory ret. detachment, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSPED
SAS Label:
RPE/sensory ret. detachment, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of Retinal Pigment Epithelial detachment/ Sensory Retinal detachment, a sign of exudative ARM, from the left eye.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3091 3091
1 Yes 7 3098
. Missing 765 3863

OPDSSNV - Subretinal new vessels, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSSNV
SAS Label:
Subretinal new vessels, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of subretinal new vessels, a sign of exudative ARM, from the left eye.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3099 3099
1 Yes 0 3099
. Missing 764 3863

OPDSSUBH - Subretinal hemorrhage, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSSUBH
SAS Label:
Subretinal hemorrhage, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of subretinal hemorrhage, a sign of exudative ARM, from the left eye.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3095 3095
1 Yes 5 3100
. Missing 763 3863

OPDSSFS - Subretinal fibrous scar, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSSFS
SAS Label:
Subretinal fibrous scar, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of subretinal fibrous scar, a sign of exudative ARM, from the left eye.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3096 3096
1 Yes 6 3102
. Missing 761 3863

OPDSARMX - Treatment for ARM, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSARMX
SAS Label:
Treatment for ARM, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of 3 types of treatment for exudative ARM in the left eye: laser, photodynamic and/or thermal treatment. The presence or absence of these treatments is a sign of exudative ARM.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3100 3100
1 Yes 2 3102
. Missing 761 3863

OPDSBCO - Retinal artery occlusion, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSBCO
SAS Label:
Retinal artery occlusion, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of retinal artery occlusion (branch or central), a blockage of retinal arteriole or artery resulting infarction of the retina, from the left eye.
English Instructions:
Can combine codes 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent; 2=Yes and 3=Yes, in center, to define present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3229 3229
1 Questionable 0 3229
2 Yes 0 3229
3 Yes, in center 0 3229
. Missing 634 3863

OPDSBVO - Retinal branch vein occlusion, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSBVO
SAS Label:
Retinal branch vein occlusion, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of retinal branch vein occlusion, a blockage of retinal branch venule (level 12 in the retinopathy severity scale, variable OPDURET), from the left eye.
English Instructions:
Can combine with retinal central vein occlusion (OPDSCVO) to get retinal vein occlusion. Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent; 2=Yes and 3=Yes, in center to define present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3200 3200
1 Questionable 6 3206
2 Yes 8 3214
3 Yes, in center 0 3214
. Missing 649 3863

OPDSCVO - Ret. central vein occlusion, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSCVO
SAS Label:
Ret. central vein occlusion, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of retinal central vein occlusion (RCVO) from the left eye; blockage of the retinal central vein (level 12 in the retinal severity scale variable, OPDSRET).
English Instructions:
Can combine with retinal branch vein occlusion (OPDSBVO) to get retinal vein occlusion. Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent; 2=Yes and 3=Yes, in center to define present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3221 3221
1 Questionable 1 3222
2 Yes 3 3225
3 Yes, in center 1 3226
. Missing 637 3863

OPDSAVN - Retinal AV nicking, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSAVN
SAS Label:
Retinal AV nicking, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of retinal arterio-venous nicking, a pinching of the vein at an artery crossing, from the left eye. May be secondary to hypertension. Refer to the NHANES Detailed Grading Protocol for more details.
English Instructions:
Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2629 2629
1 Questionable 378 3007
2 Yes 196 3203
. Missing 660 3863

OPDSFAN - Focal arteriolar narrowing, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSFAN
SAS Label:
Focal arteriolar narrowing, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of retinal focal arteriolar narrowing, focal pinching or narrowing of the arteriole, from the left eye. May be secondary to hypertension. Refer to the NHANES Detailed Grading Protocol for more details.
English Instructions:
Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3065 3065
1 Questionable 93 3158
2 Yes 11 3169
. Missing 694 3863

OPDSHOLL - Hollenhorst plaque, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSHOLL
SAS Label:
Hollenhorst plaque, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of retinal arteriolar embolus (Hollenhorst plaque), from the worse eye. Usually fibrin or cholesterol embolus seen in retinal arterioles, often at a bifurcation of the vessel.
English Instructions:
Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3199 3199
1 Questionable 7 3206
2 Yes 3 3209
. Missing 654 3863

OPDSPPA - Peripapillary atrophy, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSPPA
SAS Label:
Peripapillary atrophy, left eye
English Text:
This variables provides information on the presence or absence of peripapillary atrophy, defined as retinal-choroidal atrophic area around the disc, from the left eye.
English Instructions:
Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2684 2684
1 Questionable 127 2811
2 Yes 419 3230
. Missing 633 3863

OPDSASHY - Asteroid Hyalosis, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSASHY
SAS Label:
Asteroid Hyalosis, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of Asteroid Hyalosis, soap-like crystals floating in the vitreous cavity in front of the retina, which can obstruct the view of retinal lesions, from the left eye.
English Instructions:
Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent; 2=Yes and 3=Yes, in center to define present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3221 3221
1 Questionable 4 3225
2 Yes 17 3242
3 Yes, in center 1 3243
. Missing 620 3863

OPDSCHRA - Chorioretinal abnormality, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSCHRA
SAS Label:
Chorioretinal abnormality, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of any chorioretinal abnormality from the left eye.
English Instructions:
Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent; 2=Yes and 3=Yes, in center to define present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3199 3199
1 Questionable 2 3201
2 Yes 10 3211
3 Yes, in center 0 3211
. Missing 652 3863

OPDSMACH - Macular hole, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSMACH
SAS Label:
Macular hole, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of a macular hole, a round sharply defined hole involving the center of the macula, resulting in a decrease in visual acuity, from the left eye.
English Instructions:
Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent. Can analyze with visual acuity data.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3142 3142
1 Questionable 9 3151
2 Yes 2 3153
. Missing 710 3863

OPDSCHN - Choroidal nevus, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSCHN
SAS Label:
Choroidal nevus, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of choroidal nevus, a localized increase in the number of pigment bearing cells in choroid, usually round or oval in shape, from the left eye.
English Instructions:
Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent; ; 2=Yes and 3=Yes, in center to define present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3101 3101
1 Questionable 37 3138
2 Yes 63 3201
3 Yes, in center 0 3201
. Missing 662 3863

OPDSOTRX - Any other treatment, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSOTRX
SAS Label:
Any other treatment, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of any other laser treatment for other conditions (i.e. local treatment for retinal detachment), from the left eye.
English Instructions:
Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent; ; 2=Yes and 3=Yes, in center to define present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3218 3218
1 Questionable 0 3218
2 Yes 2 3220
3 Yes, in center 0 3220
. Missing 643 3863

OPDSPOHS - Histoplasmosis syndrome, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSPOHS
SAS Label:
Histoplasmosis syndrome, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of Presumed Ocular Histoplasmosis Syndrome, which usually manifests by peripapillary atrophic scars, focal round chorioretinal active lesions or punched out scars, from the left eye.
English Instructions:
Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent; 2=Yes and 3=Yes, in center to define present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3216 3216
1 Questionable 2 3218
2 Yes 3 3221
3 Yes, in center 2 3223
. Missing 640 3863

OPDSRDET - Retinal detachment, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSRDET
SAS Label:
Retinal detachment, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of traction or traumatic retinal detachment (not ARM Pigment Epithelial Detachment), from the left eye.
English Instructions:
Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent; 2=Yes and 3=Yes, in center to define present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3213 3213
1 Questionable 1 3214
2 Yes 3 3217
3 Yes, in center 0 3217
. Missing 646 3863

OPDSSWR - SW, cellophane changes, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSSWR
SAS Label:
SW, cellophane changes, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of epiretinal membrane (cellophane changes) from the left eye. Epiretinal membrane (cellophane changes) refers to a patch or patches of irregular increased reflection on the inner surface of the retina due to membrane cellophane changes only with no traction.
English Instructions:
Can combine with epiretinal membrane (traction changes) variable (OPDSSWRT). Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent; 2=Yes and 3=Yes, in center to define present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2729 2729
1 Questionable 44 2773
2 Yes 369 3142
3 Yes, in center 16 3158
. Missing 705 3863

OPDSSWRT - SW, traction changes, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSSWRT
SAS Label:
SW, traction changes, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of epiretinal membrane (retinal traction changes), from the left eye. Epiretinal membrane (retinal traction changes) refers to a patch or patches of irregular increased reflection on the inner surface of the retina due to retinal traction changes of the membrane.
English Instructions:
Can combine with epiretinal membrane cellophane changes, variable OPDSSWR. Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent; 2=Yes and 3=Yes, in center to define present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3083 3083
1 Questionable 15 3098
2 Yes 47 3145
3 Yes, in center 12 3157
. Missing 706 3863

OPDSOTHC - Other ocular conditions, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSOTHC
SAS Label:
Other ocular conditions, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information of other ocular conditions not graded elsewhere, from the left eye.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 3018 3018
1 Questionable 26 3044
2 Yes 171 3215
3 Yes, in center 0 3215
. Missing 648 3863

OPDSVCDR - Vertical cup disc ratio, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSVCDR
SAS Label:
Vertical cup disc ratio, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides the vertical cup to disc ratio, in microns, from the left eye.
English Instructions:
The vertical cup to disc ration is from 0 to 1.0
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0.12 to 0.9 Range of Values 3190 3190
. Missing 673 3863