Table of Contents

Locator Record

Title: Urinary Phytoestrogens (L06PHY_C )
Contact Number: 1-866-441-NCHS
Years of Content: 2003 - 2004
First Published: May, 2009
Revised: August, 2009
Access Constraints: None
Use Constraints: None
Geographic Coverage: National
Subject:Urinary Phytoestrogens
Record Source: NHANES 2003 - 2004
Survey Methodology: NHANES 2003 - 2004 is a stratified multistage probability sample of the civilian non-institutionalized population of the U.S.
Medium: NHANES Web site; SAS transport files

Component Description

Phytoestrogens are plant-derived polyphenolic compounds, such as isoflavones and lignans that are structurally similar to endogenous estrogens (Cornwell, et al. 2004). Phytoestrogens are capable of estrogen-receptor binding  (Cornwell et al., 2004) and may also influence other biologic pathways. The consumption of diets high in phytoestrogen-rich foods has been associated with lower rates of hormone-dependent cancers (Peeters et al., 2003; Adlercreutz et al., 2002; Davis et al., 1999), improved bone health (Ma et al., 2007; Coxam et al., 2003) and other healthy outcomes. Biomeasures of phytoestrogens are necessary to establish reference ranges for these compounds and to evaluate their potential effects on human health.

 

Eligible Sample

Participants aged 6 years and older who met the subsample requirements.

Description of Laboratory Methodology

Phytoestrogen biomonitoring is accomplished by measuring several urinary isoflavones (daidzein, genistein, equol, O-desmethylangolensin) and lignans (enterodiol, enterolactone) of epidemiological significance using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) detection (Rybal, M. E. et al., 2008). In brief, urine samples are amended with stable-isotope labeled internal standards (to improve method accuracy and precision), incubated with a deconjugation enzyme (so that the “total” amount of each phytoestrogen can be measured), extracted using solid phase extraction (to remove interferences and improve measurement sensitivity) and analyzed using negative ion mode electrospray ionization HPLC-MS/MS (a sensitive analysis technique with a high degree of analyte specificity).

Laboratory Quality Assurance and Monitoring

Urine specimens are processed, stored, and shipped to the Division of Environmental Health Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for analysis.

Detailed specimen collection and processing instructions are discussed in the NHANES Laboratory/Medical Technologists Procedures Manual (LPM). Vials are stored under appropriate frozen (–20°C) conditions until they are shipped to National Center for Environmental Health for testing.

Mobile Examination Centers (MECs)

Laboratory team performance is monitored using several techniques. NCHS and contract consultants use a structured quality assurance evaluation during unscheduled visits to evaluate both the quality of the laboratory work and the quality-control procedures. Each laboratory staff person is observed for equipment operation, specimen collection and preparation; testing procedures and constructive feedback are given to each staff. Formal retraining sessions are conducted annually to ensure that required skill levels were maintained.

The NHANES QA/QC protocols meet the 1988 Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act mandates. Detailed QA/QC instructions are discussed in the NHANES LPM.
Analytical Laboratories

NHANES uses several methods to monitor the quality of the analyses performed by the contract laboratories. In the MEC, these methods include performing blind split samples collected on “dry run” sessions. In addition, contract laboratories randomly perform repeat testing on 2.0% of all specimens.

NCHS developed and distributed a quality control protocol for all the contract laboratories which outlined the Westgard rules used when running NHANES specimens. Progress reports containing any problems encountered during shipping or receipt of specimens, summary statistics for each control pool, QC graphs, instrument calibration, reagents, and any special considerations are submitted to NCHS and Westat quarterly. The reports are reviewed for trends or shifts in the data. The laboratories are required to explain any identified areas of concern.

All QC procedures recommended by the manufacturers were followed. Reported results for all assays meet the Division of Environmental Health Laboratory Sciences’ quality control and quality assurance performance criteria for accuracy and precision (similar to specifications outlined by Westgard (1981).

Analytic Notes

Subsample weights

Measures of urinary environmentals were measured in a one third subsample of persons 6 years and over. Special sample weights are required to analyze these data properly. Specific sample weights for this subsample are included in this data file and should be used when analyzing these data.

Variance estimation

The analysis of NHANES 2003-2004 laboratory data must be conducted with the key survey design and basic demographic variables. The NHANES 2003-2004 Demographic Data File contains demographic and sample design variables. The recommended procedure for variance estimation requires use of stratum and PSU variables (SDMVSTRA and SDMVPSU, respectively) in the demographic data file.

Links to NHANES Data Files

This laboratory data file can be linked to the other NHANES 2003-2004 data files using the unique survey participant identifier SEQN.

Detection Limits

The detection limits were constant for all of the analytes in the data set. Two variables are provided for each of these analytes. The variable named URD___LC indicates whether the result was below the limit of detection. There are two values: “0” and “1”. “0” means that the result was at or above the limit of detection. “1” indicates that the result was below the limit of detection.

The other variable named URX___ provides the analytic result for that analyte.

Please refer to the Analytic Guidelines for further details on the use of sample weights and other analytic issues.

References

Codebook and Frequencies

SEQN - Respondent sequence number

Variable Name:
SEQN
SAS Label:
Respondent sequence number
English Text:
Respondent sequence number.
Target:
Both males and females 6 YEARS - 150 YEARS

WTSB2YR - Environmental B 2 year weights

Variable Name:
WTSB2YR
SAS Label:
Environmental B 2 year weights
English Text:
Environmental B 2 year weights
Target:
Both males and females 6 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 to 435025.30254 Range of Values 2697 2697
. Missing 0 2697

URXDAZ - Daidzein (ng/mL)

Variable Name:
URXDAZ
SAS Label:
Daidzein (ng/mL)
English Text:
Daidzein (ng/mL)
Target:
Both males and females 6 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0.2 to 29200 Range of Values 2594 2594
. Missing 103 2697

URXDMA - o-Desmethylangolensin (O-DMA) (ng/mL)

Variable Name:
URXDMA
SAS Label:
o-Desmethylangolensin (O-DMA) (ng/mL)
English Text:
o-Desmethylangolensin (O-DMA) (ng/mL)
Target:
Both males and females 6 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0.1 to 3890 Range of Values 2581 2581
. Missing 116 2697

URXEQU - Equol (ng/mL)

Variable Name:
URXEQU
SAS Label:
Equol (ng/mL)
English Text:
Equol (ng/mL)
Target:
Both males and females 6 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0.2 to 8040 Range of Values 2590 2590
. Missing 107 2697

URXETD - Enterodiol (ng/mL)

Variable Name:
URXETD
SAS Label:
Enterodiol (ng/mL)
English Text:
Enterodiol (ng/mL)
Target:
Both males and females 6 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0.2 to 16400 Range of Values 2594 2594
. Missing 103 2697

URXETL - Enterolactone (ng/mL)

Variable Name:
URXETL
SAS Label:
Enterolactone (ng/mL)
English Text:
Enterolactone (ng/mL)
Target:
Both males and females 6 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0.2 to 42100 Range of Values 2594 2594
. Missing 103 2697

URXGNS - Genistein (ng/mL)

Variable Name:
URXGNS
SAS Label:
Genistein (ng/mL)
English Text:
Genistein (ng/mL)
Target:
Both males and females 6 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0.2 to 25700 Range of Values 2594 2594
. Missing 103 2697

URXUCR - Creatinine, urine (mg/dL)

Variable Name:
URXUCR
SAS Label:
Creatinine, urine (mg/dL)
English Text:
Creatinine, urine (mg/dL)
Target:
Both males and females 6 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
9 to 882 Range of Values 2623 2623
. Missing 74 2697