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Closer Look: Healthy People 2020

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Map to be added substance abuse oral health social determinants clinical preventive services obesity among children and adolescents

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Introduction

Leading Health Indicators, an important part of the Healthy People 2020 initiative, are critical health issues that–if tackled appropriately–will dramatically reduce the leading causes of death and preventable illnesses. Click on the map to take a closer look at some of the latest data for the following Leading Health Indicators:

  • Substance abuse
  • Social determinants
  • Oral health
  • Clinical preventive services
  • Physical activity, nutrition, and obesity

Visit Healthy People 2020's Leading Health Indicators for more information on these and other LHI topics.

Substance Abuse

Healthy People 2020 tracks the proportion of the percentage of adults age 18 and over who engaged in binge drinking in the past month, and the proportion of the percentage of adolescents age 12 to 17 who used alcohol or illicit drugs in the past 30 days.

Adults

The percentage of adults age 18 and over who engaged in binge drinking in the past month decreased slightly, from 27.1% in 2008 to 26.7% in 2011.

Females had a lower rate of binge drinking (21.4%) compared to males (32.5%) in 2011.

Among age groups, adults aged 65 years and over had the lowest rate of binge drinking, 9.8%, in 2011. Rates for the other age groups were:

  • 21.8% among adults aged 45–64 years, and
  • 36.6% among adults aged 18–44 years.

Veterans had a lower rate of binge drinking (22.5%) compared to non-veterans (27.2%) in 2011.

Adolescents

Over the past decade, the percentage of adolescents age 12 to 17 who used alcohol or illicit drugs in the past 30 days decreased by 18.9%, from 22.2% in 2002 to 18.0% in 2011.

Among age groups, the youngest adolescents (12 - 13 years) had the lowest rate of alcohol or illicit drug use, 5.1%, in 2011. Rates for the other age groups generally increase with age:

  • 16.0% of adolescents aged 14 to 15 years reported using alcohol or illicit drugs during the past 30 days, more than three times the rate for adolescents aged 12 to 13 years.
  • 31.8% of adolescents aged 16 to 17 years reported using alcohol or illicit drugs during the past 30 days, more than six times the rate for adolescents aged 12 to 13 years.

Explore the latest data for the topic Substance Abuse.

Infographic: Substance abuse

Infographics provided courtesy of the Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health.

 

Oral Health

Healthy People 2020 tracks the proportion of children, adolescents, and adults who used the oral health care system in the past year.

In 2009, 43.0% of persons aged 2 years and older had a dental visit in the past 12 months (age adjusted).

Females (46.5%, age adjusted) aged 2 years and over had a higher percentage with a dental visit than males (39.6%) in 2009. When expressed as the proportion of persons without a dental visit in the past year, the percentage for males was nearly 13% higher than that for females.

Persons aged 2 to 17 years had the highest percentage with a dental visit, 50.9%, among broad age groups in 2009.

Explore the latest data for the topic Oral Health.

Infographic: Oreal health

Infographics provided courtesy of the Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health.

 

Social Determinants

Healthy People 2020 tracks the Averaged Freshman Graduation Rate (AFGR) in public schools. The AFGR is an estimate of on-time high school graduation (or students who graduate with a diploma four years after starting ninth grade.) Education is the Leading Health Indicator for this topic, although many of the Healthy People 2020 objectives address social determinants as a means to improve population health.

In the 2008–09 school year, 75.5% of students attending public high schools graduated with a regular diploma, 4 years after starting 9th grade.

On-time high school graduation estimates have increased from 72.6% in the 2001–02 school year to 75.5% in the 2008–09 school year.

Among racial and ethnic groups, the Asian or Pacific Islander, non-Hispanic population had the highest (best) rate of on-time high school graduation, 91.8% for the 2008–2009 school year. Rates for other subgroups were:

  • White, non-Hispanic: 82.0%
  • American Indian or Alaska Native, non-Hispanic: 64.8%
  • Hispanic: 65.9%
  • Black, non-Hispanic: 63.5%

Explore the latest data for the topic Social Determinants.

Infographic: Social determinants

Infographics provided courtesy of the Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health.

 

Clinical Preventive Services

Healthy People 2020 tracks several Clinical Preventive Services indicators:

  • Colorectal cancer screening - the proportion of adults who have had a blood stool test in the past year, sigmoidoscopy in the past 5 years and blood stool test in the past 3 years, or a colonoscopy in the past 10 years
  • Blood pressure control - the proportion of adults with hypertension whose blood pressure is under control (systolic blood pressure <140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure <90 mmHg)
  • Poor glycemic control - the proportion of adults with diagnosed diabetes who have poor glycemic control (HbA1c greater than 9%)
  • Fully immunized children - the proportion of children aged 19 to 35 months who received the recommended doses of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (DTaP); polio; measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR); Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib); hepatitis B (Hep B); varicella; and pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) vaccines

Colorectal cancer screening

In 2010, persons aged 50-64 years with private health insurance had the highest rate of colorectal cancer screening based on the most recent guidelines, 61.4% (age adjusted), among insurance groups. Those with public insurance and the uninsured had rates of 55.3% and 21.0% (age adjusted), respectively. When expressed as adults aged 50–64 years not receiving a colorectal cancer screening based on the most recent guidelines, the rate for the uninsured population was about twice that for those with private health insurance.

Blood pressure control

The percentage of adults aged 18 years and over with hypertension who had their blood pressure under control increased by 71% between 1999-00 and 2009-10, from 26.8% to 45.9% (age adjusted).

Persons with diabetes had a higher rate of blood pressure control than persons without diabetes (72.8% versus 42.6%, age adjusted, in 2009-10). When expressed as adults with hypertension whose blood pressure is uncontrolled, the rate for persons without diabetes was more than twice the rate for persons with diabetes.

Persons who were obese had a higher rate of blood pressure control than persons who were not obese (54.7% versus 35.7%, age adjusted, in 2009-10). When expressed as adults with hypertension whose blood pressure is uncontrolled, the rate for persons who were not obese was almost one and a half times the rate for persons who were obese.

Poor glycemic control

Among racial and ethnic groups with diagnosed diabetes, the white non-Hispanic population had the lowest rate of poor glycemic control, 7.5% of persons aged 18 years and over (age adjusted) in 2009-10, whereas the Hispanic population had a rate of 26.1% (age adjusted). The rate for the Hispanic population was about three and a half times the rate for the white non-Hispanic population.

Fully immunized children

Children of mothers aged 25 years and over with a postgraduate education had the highest rate of complete vaccination (62.7%) among education groups in 2010, while children of mothers with less than a high school education had a rate of 52.2%. When expressed as children not having received the complete vaccination, the rate for children whose mothers had less than a high school education was 28% higher than that for children of mothers with a postgraduate education.

Explore the latest data for the topic Clinical Preventive Services.

Infographic: Clinical preventive services

Infographics provided courtesy of the Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health.

 

Physical activity, nutrition, and obesity

Healthy People 2020 tracks the diet, physical activity, and weight of adults, children, and adolescents.

Between 1999–2000 and 2009–2010, the obesity rate increased by 17% among adults age 20 and over from 30.5% (age adjusted) to 35.7%. During this same time period, the obesity rate among children and adolescents age 2 to 19 increased by 22% from 13.9% to 16.9%.

Adults

In 2010, 20.6% of persons aged 18 years and older were engaged in aerobic physical activity of at least moderate intensity for at least 150 minutes/week, or 75 minutes/week of vigorous intensity, or an equivalent combination and performed muscle-strengthening activities on 2 or more days of the week (age adjusted).

The percentage of adults aged 20 years and over who were obese increased by 17% between 1999-00 and 2009-10, from 30.5% to 35.7% (age adjusted). However, over the last decade there has been a slowing in the rise of the obesity rate compared with the prior two decades with no significant change observed between 2007-2008 and 2009-2010.

Among insurance groups, persons aged 20-64 years without health insurance had the lowest rate of obesity, 30.8% (age adjusted) in 2009-10. The obesity rate for persons with public insurance, 44.8% (age adjusted), was about one and a half times the best group rate.

Children and Adolescents

The percentage of children and adolescents aged 2 to 19 years who were considered obese increased by nearly 22% between 1999-00 and 2009-10, from 13.9% to 16.9%. However, over the last decade there has been a slowing in the rise of the obesity rate compared with the prior two decades with no significant change observed between 2007-2008 and 2009-2010.

Among racial and ethnic groups, the white non-Hispanic population had the lowest rate of obesity, 14.0% of persons aged 2 to 19 years in 2009-10, whereas the black non-Hispanic and Hispanic populations had rates of 24.3% and 21.2%, respectively. The rate for the black non-Hispanic populations was more than one and a half times the rate for the white non-Hispanic population; the rate for the Hispanic populations was about one and a half times the rate for the white non-Hispanic population.

Explore the latest data for the topic Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity.

Infographic: Obesity among children and adults

Infographics provided courtesy of the Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health.

 

 

 
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