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Health, United States, 2013 - Highlights
Life Expectancy and Mortality
In 2010, life expectancy at birth in the United States for the total population was 78.7 years—76.2 years for males and 81.0 years for females (Table 18).
Between 2000 and 2010, life expectancy at birth increased 2.1 years for males and 1.7 years for females. The gap in life expectancy between males and females narrowed from 5.2 years in 2000 to 4.8 years in 2010 (Table 18).
Between 2000 and 2010, life expectancy at birth increased more for the black than for the white population, thereby narrowing the gap in life expectancy between these two racial groups. In 2000, life expectancy at birth for the white population was 5.5 years longer than for the black population; by 2010, the difference had narrowed to 3.8 years (Table 18).
Between 2000 and 2010, the infant mortality rate decreased 11%, from 6.91 to 6.15 deaths per 1,000 live births. In 2000, the infant mortality rate for white mothers was 5.68, compared with 14.09 for black mothers; by 2010 the infant mortality rate declined to 5.20 among white mothers and 11.63 among black mothers (Table 13).
Between 2000 and 2010, the age-adjusted heart disease death rate decreased 30%, from 257.6 to 179.1 deaths per 100,000 population. In 2010, 24% of all deaths in the United States were from heart disease (Tables 22 and 26).
Between 2000 and 2010, the age-adjusted cancer death rate decreased 13%, from 199.6 to 172.8 deaths per 100,000 population. In 2010, 23% of all deaths in the United States were from cancer (Tables 22 and 28).
Fertility and Natality
Between 2002 and 2012, the birth rate among teenagers aged 15-19 fell 31%, from 42.6 to 29.4 live births per 1,000 females—a record low for the United States (Table 3).
The percentage of low-birthweight births infants weighing less than 2,500 grams (5.5 pounds) at birth was 7.99% in 2012, down 3% since 2006 when it was 8.26% (Table 6).
Health Risk Factors
In 2011, 15.8% of students in grades 9-12 seriously considered suicide, and the percentage was higher among female students (19.3%) than among male students (12.5%) (Table 62).
In 2012, 20.3% of adults aged 18 and over met the 2008 federal physical activity guidelines for both aerobic activity and muscle strengthening (Table 68).
Between 1988-1994 and 2009-2012, the percentage of adults aged 20 and over with grade 1 obesity a body mass index (BMI) of 30.0-34.9 increased from 14.8% to 20.4%. Those with grade 2 obesity (BMI of 35.0-39.9) rose from 5.2% to 8.6%, and those with grade 3 or higher obesity (BMI of 40 or higher) doubled, from 3.0% to 6.3% (percentages are age-adjusted) (Table 69).
In 2012, 18.1% of adults aged 18 and over were current cigarette smokers, a decline from 2000 (23.2%). Men were more likely than women to be current cigarette smokers (20.5% compared with 15.8%) in 2012 (Table 56).
Measures of Health and Disease Prevalence
In 2010-2012, 5.5% of children under age 18 had an asthma attack in the past year, and 5.2% had a food allergy (Table 41).
Among children aged 5-17, 9.9% had attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and 5.8% had serious emotional or behavioral difficulties in 2010-2012 (Table 41).
In 2012, the percentage of noninstitutionalized adults who reported their health as fair or poor ranged from 6.4% of those aged 18-44 to 26.6% of those aged 75 and over (Table 52).
In 2012, 26.2% of noninstitutionalized adults aged 18-64 reported a disability (defined as any basic actions difficulty or complex activity limitation), compared with 58.7% of those aged 65 and over (Table 49).
In 2011-2012, among noninstitutionalized adults aged 75 and over, 43.5% of men and 31.5% of women had ever been told by a physician or other health professional that they had heart disease (Table 44 and Figure 6).
In 2011-2012, among noninstitutionalized adults aged 75 and over, 24.7% of men and 19.3% of women had ever been told by a physician or other health professional that they had cancer (excluding squamous and basal cell skin cancers) (Table 44).
Health Care Utilization
Use of Health Care Services
In 2012, 15.7% of persons had no health care visits in the past year, 47.3% had 1-3 health care visits, 24.0% had 4-9 visits, and 13.1% had 10 or more visits. Health care visits for illness, preventive care, or an injury include visits to see a health care provider at physician offices, emergency departments, clinics or some other place, and home visits by health care professionals (Table 78).
In 2011, there were 126 million visits to hospital outpatient departments and 136 million visits to hospital emergency departments (Table 89).
In 2012, 82.3% of children aged 2-17 years, 61.6% of adults aged 18-64, and 61.8% of adults aged 65 and over had visited a dentist in the past year (Table 91).
The percentage of the population taking at least one prescription drug during the past 30 days increased from 39.1% in 1988-1994 to 47.5% in 2007-2010. During the same period, the percentage taking three or more prescription drugs rose from 11.8% to 20.8%, and the percentage taking five or more drugs more than doubled, from 4.0% to 10.1% (percentages are age-adjusted) (Table 92 and Figure 20).
Use of Preventive Medical Care Services
In 2012, 68% of children aged 19-35 months had completed a combined series of childhood vaccinations (at least 4 doses of diphtheria/tetanus/pertussis vaccine, 3 doses of polio vaccine, 1 dose of measles-containing vaccine, 3 or 4 doses of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine depending on product type, 3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine, 1 dose of varicella vaccine, and 4 doses of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine) (Table 79).
In 2012, 37.7% of noninstitutionalized adults aged 18 and over had received an influenza vaccination in the past year. Influenza vaccination increased with age, with 26.3% of those aged 18-49, 42.8% of those aged 50-64, and 66.5% of those aged 65 and over reporting an influenza vaccination in the past year (Table 81 and Figure 12).
Nonreceipt of Needed Medical Care, Prescription Drugs, and Dental Care Due to Cost
Between 2002 and 2012, among adults aged 18-64, the percentage who reported not receiving or delaying seeking needed medical care due to cost in the past 12 months increased from 9.7% to 13.3%. The percentage not receiving needed prescription drugs due to cost increased from 7.6% to 9.4%, and the percentage not receiving needed dental care due to cost grew from 10.4% to 14.8% (Table 74).
In 2012, 33.0% of adults aged 18-64 who were uninsured during the past 12 months did not get or delayed seeking needed medical care due to cost in the past 12 months, compared with 6.6% of adults aged 18-64 who were insured continuously during the past 12 months (Table 74).
Health Care Resources
In 2011, there were 26.1 physicians in patient care per 10,000 population in the United States. The number of patient care physicians per 10,000 population ranged from 17.7 in Idaho to 41.1 in Massachusetts and 68.3 in the District of Columbia (Table 101).
In 2011, the United States had 4,973 community hospitals and 797,403 community hospital beds. Community hospital occupancy averaged 64.3% in 2011, similar to the level in 2010 (Table 107).
In 2012, there were 15,673 certified nursing homes with 1,703,213 nursing home beds. Nursing home occupancy averaged 81.2% in 2012. Nursing home occupancy ranged from 60.0% in Oregon to 91.9% in Rhode Island and 94.1% in the District of Columbia (Table 110).
Health Care Expenditures and Payers
Health Care Expenditures
In 2011, personal health care expenditures in the United States totaled $2.3 trillion, a 4.1% increase from 2010. The average per capita personal health care expenditure for the total U.S. population was $7,326 in 2011 (Table 112).
Expenditures for hospital care accounted for 31.5% of all national health care expenditures in 2011. Physician and clinical services accounted for 20.0% of the total, prescription drugs for 9.7%, and nursing care facilities and continuing care retirement communities for 5.5% (Table 114).
In 2011, prescription drug expenditures totaled $263 billion, a 2.9% increase from 2010 (Table 114).
In 2011, the average cost for the entire hospitalization involving a heart valve procedure was $53,282, a coronary artery bypass graft procedure was $38,707, cardiac pacemaker insertion or replacement was $33,194, and spinal fusion was $27,570 (Table 116).
Health Care Payers
In 2011, 34.5% of all personal health care expenditures were paid by private health insurance, 22.9% were paid by Medicare and 16.4% by Medicaid; consumers paid 13.5% out of pocket; and the remainder was paid by other types of insurance, payers, and programs (Table 115).
In 2010, children under age 21 accounted for 48.3% of Medicaid recipients but only 19.8% of Medicaid expenditures. Aged, blind, and persons with disabilities accounted for 20.8% of Medicaid recipients and 62.8% of Medicaid expenditures (Table 130).
In 2012, the Medicare program had 50.7 million enrollees and expenditures of $574.2 billion, up from $549.1 billion the previous year. Expenditures for the Medicare drug program (Part D) were $66.9 billion in 2012 (Table 127).
Health Insurance Coverage
Between 2002 and 2012, the percentage of the population under age 65 with private health insurance obtained through the workplace declined from 65.3% to 56.9% (Table 123).
In 2012, 6.6% of children under age 18 and 20.9% of adults aged 18-64 had no health insurance coverage (public or private) at the time of interview (Table 125).
Between 2002 and 2012, among children in families with income just above the poverty level (100%-199% of poverty), the percentage of uninsured children under age 18 dropped from 17.0% to 10.4%, while the percentage with coverage through Medicaid or the Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP) increased from 38.6% to 57.3% (Tables 124 and 125).