The science is clear: HIV prevention can and does save lives. Scores of scientific studies have shown that well-designed prevention programs can significantly reduce HIV risk1-6; HIV transmission rates have dropped dramatically; and prevention efforts have contributed to significant declines in new infections in multiple populations over time. In addition, more Americans are being tested for HIV than ever before. While the HIV crisis in the United States is far from over, substantial progress has been made in combatting the HIV epidemic to date. This document highlights several indicators of success, including the latest data on trends in new HIV infections, HIV transmission rates, HIV testing rates, and models estimating the lives and resources saved through U.S. prevention efforts.
- Trends in New HIV Infections
- HIV Transmission Rates
- HIV Testing Rates
- Models of the Impact of Prevention
- HIV Prevention in Action: Partner Success Stories
HIV Prevention: Progress To Date (print version)
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3Mullen PD, Ramirez G, Strouse D, et al. Meta-analysis of the effects of behavioral HIV prevention interventions on the sexual risk behavior of sexually experienced adolescents in controlled studies in the United States. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2002;30(Suppl 1):S94-S105.
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9CDC. HIV surveillance – United States, 1981-2008. MMWR 2011;60(21):689-93.
10Taylor A, Little K, Zhang X, et al. Estimated perinatal antiretroviral exposures, cases prevented and infected infants in the era of antiretroviral prophylaxis in the United States. Presented at the 19th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, Seattle, Washington, March 7, 2012. Poster #1000. Available at: http://www.retroconference.org/2012b/PDFs/1000.pdf. (Accessed June 25, 2012)
11Des Jarlais DC, Perlis T, Kamyar A, et al. HIV incidence among injection drug users in New York City, 1990 to 2002: Use of serologic test algorithm to assess expansion of HIV prevention services. Am J Public Health 2005;95:1439-44.
12Strathdee SA, Patrick DM, Currie SL, et al. Needle exchange is not enough: lessons from the Vancouver injecting drug use study. AIDS 1997;11:F59-65.
13CDC. HIV infection among injection-drug users—34 states, 2004-2007. MMWR 2009;58:1291-95.
14Holtgrave DR, Hall HI, Prejean J. HIV transmission rates in the United States, 2006-2008. OPEN AIDS J 2012;6:26-28.
15Holtgrave DR, Hall HI, Rhodes PH et al. Updated annual HIV transmission rates in the United States, 1977-2006. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2009;50(2)236-38.
16CDC. Vital signs: HIV testing and diagnosis among adults – United States, 2001-2009. MMWR 2010;59(47):1550-55.
17Hall HI, Holtgrave DR, Maulsby C. HIV transmission rates from persons living with HIV who are aware and unaware of their infection. AIDS 2012;26(7):893-96.
18Weinhardt LS, Carey MP, Johnson BT, et al. Effects of HIV counseling and testing on sexual risk behavior: a meta-analytic review of published research, 1985-1997. Am J Public Health 1999;89(9):1397-1405.
19Farnham PG, Holtgrave DR, Sansom SL, Hall HI. Medical costs averted by HIV prevention efforts in the United States, 1991-2006. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2010;54:565-67.
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