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HIV Prevention in the United States:

Expanding the Impact

Expanding the Impact
To Date
in HIV
of HIV

The science is clear: HIV prevention can and does save lives. Scores of scientific studies have shown that well-designed prevention programs can significantly reduce HIV risk1-6; HIV transmission rates have dropped dramatically; and prevention efforts have contributed to significant declines in new infections in multiple populations over time. In addition, more Americans are being tested for HIV than ever before. While the HIV crisis in the United States is far from over, substantial progress has been made in combatting the HIV epidemic to date. This document highlights several indicators of success, including the latest data on trends in new HIV infections, HIV transmission rates, HIV testing rates, and models estimating the lives and resources saved through U.S. prevention efforts.

HIV Prevention: Progress To Date (print version)

Key References:

1Wolitski RJ, Janssen RS, Holtgrave DR, et al. The public health response to the HIV epidemic in the U.S. In: Wormser GP, editor. AIDS and other manifestations of HIV infection. 4th ed. San Diego, CA: Elsevier Academic Press; 2004:997-1012.
2Herbst JH, Sherba RT, Crepaz N, et al. A meta-analytic review of HIV behavioral interventions for reducing sexual risk behavior of men who have sex with men. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2005;39:228-41.
3Mullen PD, Ramirez G, Strouse D, et al. Meta-analysis of the effects of behavioral HIV prevention interventions on the sexual risk behavior of sexually experienced adolescents in controlled studies in the United States. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2002;30(Suppl 1):S94-S105.
4Neumann MS, Johnson WD, Semaan S, et al. Review and meta-analysis of HIV prevention intervention research for heterosexual adult populations in the United States. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2002;30(Suppl 1):S106-S117.
5Semaan S, DesJarlais DC, Sogolow E, et al. A meta-analysis of the effect of HIV prevention interventions on the sex behaviors of drug users in the United States. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2002;30(Suppl 1):S73-S93.
6Crepaz N, Lyles CM, Wolitski RJ, et al. Do prevention interventions reduce HIV risk behaviours among people living with HIV? A meta-analytic review of controlled trials. AIDS 2006;20:143-57.
7Hall HI, Song R, Rhodes P, et al. Estimation of HIV incidence in the United States. JAMA 2008;300(5):520-29.
8CDC. Estimated HIV incidence among adults and adolescents in the United States, 2007–2010. HIV Surveillance Supplemental Report 2012;17(No. 4). Available at: Published December 2012.
9CDC. HIV surveillance – United States, 1981-2008. MMWR 2011;60(21):689-93.
10Taylor A, Little K, Zhang X, et al. Estimated perinatal antiretroviral exposures, cases prevented and infected infants in the era of antiretroviral prophylaxis in the United States. Presented at the 19th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, Seattle, Washington, March 7, 2012. Poster #1000. Available at: (Accessed June 25, 2012).
11Des Jarlais DC, Perlis T, Kamyar A, et al. HIV incidence among injection drug users in New York City, 1990 to 2002: Use of serologic test algorithm to assess expansion of HIV prevention services. Am J Public Health 2005;95:1439-44.
12Strathdee SA, Patrick DM, Currie SL, et al. Needle exchange is not enough: lessons from the Vancouver injecting drug use study. AIDS 1997;11:F59-65.
13CDC. HIV infection among injection-drug users—34 states, 2004-2007. MMWR 2009;58:1291-95.
14Holtgrave DR, Hall HI, Prejean J. HIV transmission rates in the United States, 2006-2008. OPEN AIDS J 2012;6:26-28.
15Holtgrave DR, Hall HI, Rhodes PH et al. Updated annual HIV transmission rates in the United States, 1977-2006. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2009;50(2)236-38.
16CDC. HIV Testing Trends in the United States, 2000-2011. Available at: Published January 2013.
17Hall HI, Holtgrave DR, Maulsby C. HIV transmission rates from persons living with HIV who are aware and unaware of their infection. AIDS 2012;26(7):893-96.
18Weinhardt LS, Carey MP, Johnson BT, et al. Effects of HIV counseling and testing on sexual risk behavior: a meta-analytic review of published research, 1985-1997. Am J Public Health 1999;89(9):1397-1405.
19Farnham PG, Holtgrave DR, Sansom SL, Hall HI. Medical costs averted by HIV prevention efforts in the United States, 1991-2006. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2010;54:565-67.

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