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We have more tools to effectively prevent HIV than ever before. Since no single strategy provides complete protection or is right for all individuals, a combination of methods is needed to help reduce HIV transmission. CDC and its partners are currently pursuing a High-Impact Prevention approach to reducing the continued toll of HIV. This approach seeks to use the best mix of proven, cost-effective, and scalable interventions for high-risk populations and areas of the nation (see “Future of HIV Prevention” fact sheet for information). Below is an overview of proven prevention strategies to date.
- HIV Testing & Linkage to Care
- HIV Medications
- Access to Condoms
- Prevention Programs for People with HIV and their Partners
- Prevention Programs for People at High Risk of HIV Infection
- Substance Abuse Treatment & Sterile Syringes
- STI Screening and Treatment
- Research Continues
Proven Prevention Methods (print version)
1Weinhardt LS, Carey MP, Johnson BT, et al. Effects of HIV counseling and testing on sexual risk behavior: a meta-analytic review of published research, 1985-1997. Am J Public Health 1999;89(9):1397-1405.
2Connor EM, Sperling RS, Gelber R, et al. Reduction of maternal-infant transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 with zidovudine treatment. Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 076 Study Group. N Engl J Med 1994;331:1173-80.
3Perinatal HIV Guidelines Working Group. Public health service task force recommendations for use of antiretroviral drugs in pregnant HIV-infected women for maternal health and interventions to reduce perinatal HIV transmission in the United States. April 29, 2009; pp 1-90. Available at: http://aidsinfo.nih.gov/ContentFiles/PerinatalGL.pdf. (Accessed June 25, 2012)
4Cohen MS, Chen YQ, McCauley M, et al. Prevention of HIV-1 infection with early antiretroviral therapy. The HPTN 052 Study Team. N Engl J Med 2011. DOI:10.1056/nejmoa1105243.
5CDC. Case-control study of HIV seroconversion in health-care workers after percutaneous exposure to HIV-infected blood – France, United Kingdom, and United States, Jan 1988-Aug 1994. MMWR 1995;44:929-33.
6CDC. Antiretroviral postexposure prophylaxis after sexual, injection-drug use, or other nonoccupational exposure to HIV in the United States: recommendations from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. MMWR 2005;54(No. RR-2):1-20.
7Grant RM, Lama JR, Anderson PL, et al. Preexposure chemoprophylaxis for HIV prevention in men who have sex with men. iPrEx Study Group. N Engl J Med 2010;363(27):2587-99.
8Thigpen MC, Kebaabetswe PM, Smith DK, et al. Daily oral antiretroviral use for the prevention of HIV infection in heterosexually active young adults in Botswana: results from the TDF2 study. 6th IAS Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention. July 17-20, 2011. Rome. Abstract WELBC01.
9Baeten J. Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV-1 prevention among heterosexual African men and women: the Partners PrEP study. 6th IAS Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention. July 17-20, 2011. Rome. Abstract MOAX0106.
10Choopanya K, Martin M, Suntharasamai P, et al. Antiretroviral prophylaxis for HIV infection in injecting drug users in Bangkok, Thailand (the Bangkok Tenofovir Study): a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial. Lancet 2013;381:2083-90.
11CDC. Condom Fact Sheet In Brief. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/condomeffectiveness/brief.html. Published 2011. (Accessed June 25, 2012)
12Cohen DA , Farley TA, Bedimo-Etame JR, et al. Implementation of condom social marketing in Louisiana, 1993 to 1996. Am J Public Health 1999;89:204-8.
13CDC. Evolution of HIV/AIDS prevention programs – United States, 1981-2006. MMWR 2006; 55:597-603.
14Hogben M, McNally T, McPheeters M, et al. The effectiveness of HIV partner counseling and referral services in increasing identification of HIV-positive individuals: a systematic review. Am J Prev Med 2007; 33(2 Suppl):S89-100.
15CDC. Recommendations for partner services programs for HIV infections, syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydial infection. MMWR 2008;57(No. RR9):1-83.
16Fuller CM, Ford C, Rudolph A. Injection drug use and HIV: past and future considerations for HIV prevention and interventions. In: Mayer KH, Pizer HF, editors. HIV prevention: a comprehensive approach. London: Academic Press/Elsevier; 2009:305-39.
17Fleming DT, Wasserheit JN. From epidemiological synergy to public health policy and practice: the contribution of other sexually transmitted diseases to sexual transmission of HIV infection. Sex Transm Infect 1999;75(1):3-17.
18Baeten JM, Strick LB, Lucchetti A, et al. Herpes simplex virus (HSV)-suppressive therapy decreases plasma and genital HIV-1 levels in HSV-2/HIV-1 coinfected women: a randomized, placebo- controlled, cross-over trial. J Infect Dis 2008 Dec 15;198(12):1804-8.
19Zuckerman RA, Lucchetti A, Whittington WL, et al. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) suppression with valacyclovir reduces rectal and blood plasma HIV-1 levels in HIV-1/HSV-2-seropositive men: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial. J Infect Dis 2007 Nov 15;196(10):1500-8.
20Dunne EF, Whitehead S, Sternberg M, et al. Suppressive acyclovir therapy reduces HIV cervicovaginal shedding in HIV-and HSV-2-infected women, Chiang Rai, Thailand. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2008 Sep 1;49(1):77-83.
21Karim QA, Karim SS, Frohlich JA, et al; The CAPRISA 004 Trial Group. Effectiveness and safety of tenofovir gel, an antiretroviral microbicide, for the prevention of HIV infection in women. Science 2010 Sep 3: 329(5996):1168-74.
22Supachai Rerks-Ngarm, M.D., et al.; the MOPH–TAVEG Investigators. Vaccination with ALVAC and AIDSVAX to prevent HIV-1 infection in Thailand. N Engl J Med 2009;661(23):2209-20.
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