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Research also continues on the development and assessment of other urgently needed prevention strategies, including topical gels that could potentially be applied to the vagina or rectum to interrupt transmission during sex and an effective HIV vaccine.
While additional research is needed, promising results from one South African study in 2010 suggest that a topical gel using antiretroviral drugs may ultimately prove to be an effective female-controlled strategy for HIV prevention.21 In 2009, researchers also reported the first evidence that an HIV vaccine could have a modest effect in preventing HIV infection.22 While the vaccine’s effectiveness was too low to support real-world use, the trial has provided valuable data that will help guide the search for more effective vaccines.
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