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Today we know more about HIV and how to prevent infection than at any other time in the history of this disease – but significant challenges remain. Each year in the United States, approximately 50,000 people become infected with HIV, and nearly more than 15,000 people with AIDS die annually.1, 2 This fact sheet highlights key obstacles we must overcome to bring an end to AIDS in America.
- Too Few People with HIV Are Aware of Their Infection
- Many People with HIV Do Not Receive Ongoing Treatment
- Diverse Populations Require Tailored Prevention Approaches
- Disparities in HIV Rates Are Fueled by Social and Economic Inequities
- Limited Resources for HIV Prevention Force Difficult Choices
- Many Americans Have Become Complacent about HIV
Challenges in Reducing New Infections (print version)
1Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Estimated HIV incidence among adults and adolescents in the United States, 2007–2010. HIV Surveillance Supplemental Report2012;17(No. 4). Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/surveillance/resources/reports/#supplemental. Published December 2012.
2Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV Surveillance Report, 2011; vol. 23. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/surveillance/resources/reports/. Published February 2013. (Accessed March 28, 2013).
3CDC. Monitoring selected national HIV prevention and care objectives by using HIV surveillance data – United States and 6 U.S. dependent areas – 2010. HIV Surveillance Supplemental Report 2012;17(No. 3). Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/surveillance/resources/reports/. Published June 2012. (Accessed June 25, 2012)
4Hall HI, Holtgrave DR, and Maulsby C. HIV transmission rates from persons living with HIV who are aware and unaware of their infection. AIDS 2012;26(7):893-96. DOI:10.1097/QAD.0b013e328351f73f.
5MacKellar, DA, Hou S, Whalen CC, et al. Reasons for not HIV testing, testing intentions, and potential use of an over-the-counter rapid HIV test in an internet sample of men who have sex with men who have never tested for HIV. Sex Transm Dis 2011;38(5):419-28.
6Joseph HA, Fasula AM, Morgan RL, et al. “The anticipation alone could kill you”: Past and potential clients’ perspectives on HIV testing in non-health care settings. AIDS Educ Prev 2011;23(6):577-94.
7Schwarcz S, Richards TA, Frank H, et al. Identifying barriers to HIV testing: personal and contextual factors associated with late HIV testing. AIDS Care 2011;23(7):892-900.
8CDC. HIV prevalence, unrecognized infection, and HIV testing among men who have sex with men – five U.S. cities, June 2004-April 2005. MMWR 2005;54(24):597-601.
9CDC. Risk, prevention, and testing behaviors related to HIV and hepatitis infections – National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System: injecting drug users, May 2005–February 2006. HIV Special Surveillance Report 7. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/surveillance/resources/reports/. Published June 2011. (Accessed June 25, 2012).
10Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV Testing Trends in the United States, 2000-2011. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; January 2013. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/testing/resources/reports/pdf/Test-ing%20Trends_cleared_01282013.pdf. (Accessed April 1, 2013).
11Cohen MS, Chen YQ, McCauley M, et al. Prevention of HIV-1 infection with early antiretroviral therapy. The HPTN 052 Study Team. N Engl J Med 2011. DOI:10.1056/nejmoa1105243.
12Hall, HI, Frazier EL, Rhodes P, et al. Differences in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Care and Treatment Among Subpopulations in the United States. JAMA Intern Med. 2013:1-7. DOI:10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.6841
13DeNavas-Walt, C, Proctor, BD, Smith, JC. U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Reports. P60-243, Income, Poverty and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2011, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2012.
14CDC. Characteristics associated with HIV infection among heterosexuals in urban areas with high AIDS prevalence – 24 cities, United States, 2006-2007. MMWR 2011;60(31):1045-49.
15U.S. Census Bureau. Current Population Reports, P60-239, Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010. Available at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/p60-239.pdf?. Published September 2011. (Accessed June 25, 2012).
16Kaiser Family Foundation. HIV/AIDS at 30: A Public Opinion Perspective. Available at: http://www.kff.org/kaiserpolls/8186.cfm. Published June 2011. (Accessed June 25, 2012).
17MacKellar DA, Valleroy LA, Secura GM, et al. Perceptions of lifetime risk and actual risk for acquiring HIV among young men who have sex with men. AIDS Behav 2007 Mar;11(2):263-70.
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