Mycotic Diseases Branch
CDC's lead group for the prevention and control of fungal infections in the United States and internationally through epidemiological and microbiological studies to improve the diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and control of mycotic diseases.
CDC’s Mycotic Disease Branch (MDB) is dedicated to preventing death and disability due to fungal diseases . As one of the only public health groups in the world devoted specifically to the prevention and control of fungal infections, MDB works with domestic and international partners to determine the burden of fungal infections, respond to outbreaks, and to address public health problems related to fungal infections.
- Increasing number of people with weakened immune systems. Opportunistic infections such as cryptococcosis and aspergillosis are becoming more problematic as the number with weakened immune systems rises – this includes cancer patients, organ transplant recipients, and people with HIV/AIDS.
- Advancements and changes in healthcare practices. Hospital-associated infections such as candidemia, a fungal bloodstream infection, are a major concern in the US. Advancements and changes in healthcare practices can provide opportunities for new and drug-resistant fungi to emerge in healthcare settings.
- Changes in the environment. Many fungal diseases, such as coccidioidomycosis (Valley fever) and histoplasmosis, are caused by fungi that live in soil or other parts of the natural environment. Weather and climate changes may be affecting these types of fungi.
Our Branch is composed of three teams. Epidemiology and laboratory staff members work together to generate new information about the burden of fungal diseases and disease-causing fungi, detect and identify fungi in clinical samples, investigate the source of fungal outbreaks, conduct applied public health research, and provide training in the identification of medically important fungi.
The Fungal Epidemiology Team works to prevent disease and disability due to fungi by determining the burden of fungal infections, using available evidence to promote education and awareness of fungal diseases, address gaps in knowledge about prevention of fungal diseases, and work with domestic and international partners to provide response and support for fungal public health issues.
We respond to outbreaks; monitor long term fungal disease trends; develop, evaluate, and promote cost-effective prevention guidelines and intervention strategies; and help prepare healthcare facilities and laboratories in resource-limited countries to better detect fungal diseases.
The Fungal Service Team contributes to the prevention and control of fungal infections by facilitating detection, identification, and characterization of human fungal pathogens.
The Fungal Reference Laboratory uses conventional and molecular methods to identify fungal isolates. We accept specimens from US state and international public health laboratories. Click here for specimen submission information . We conduct a yearly Mold Identification Training Course in collaboration with the Association of Public Health Laboratories. Click here for information about our course .
The Antifungal Testing Laboratory performs antifungal susceptibility testing on special populations of fungal isolates. We conduct surveillance studies to look for the presence and the proportions of fungal organisms that are resistant to antifungal drugs. We participate in the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute Subcommittee on Antifungal Susceptibility Testing and help evaluate various aspects of antifungal drug testing methods.
The Fungal Serology Laboratory uses antibody-based testing to detect exposure to fungal pathogens. We also conduct research into novel serologic testing methods.
The Fungal Research Team contributes to the prevention and control of fungal infections by performing research on the molecular epidemiology of fungal infections, novel detection and diagnostic methods, and fungal molecular subtyping. This work allows us to incorporate and translate the newest research findings in the biology of human fungal pathogens to public health mycology. Some of our current work involves:
- Detection of fungi in the environment
- Detection of fungi in human specimens
- Producing a curated DNA sequence database for fungal identification
- Performing molecular epidemiology studies
- Collaborating in whole-genome sequencing projects for several fungal pathogens
When fungal disease outbreaks occur, our branch works with federal, state, local and territorial, and international public health officials and other partners to determine the cause, reduce illness and deaths, and to learn how to prevent future outbreaks. With systems in place for early identification for these types of events, our branch and its partners can continue to track, test for, respond to, and better understand emerging fungal health threats. Click here to learn more about recent fungal disease outbreaks.
Our branch has assisted in the onsite development, execution, analysis, and publication of numerous studies all over the globe. We work with many international partners in a wide variety of areas, particularly with the assessment and prevention of opportunistic fungal infections among persons with HIV/AIDS. For example, we are working with public health and healthcare agencies in several countries to implement programs that aim to reduce the burden of cryptococcal disease.
For more information about our international work, please visit our Global Fungal Diseases web page.
Below is a map of some of the places we’ve worked during the last 5 years:
Key publications by year
- Benedict K, Chiller TM, Mody RK. Invasive Fungal Infections Acquired from Contaminated Food or Nutritional Supplements: A Review of the Literature. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2016 Apr 13.
- Benedict K, Derado G, Mody RK. Histoplasmosis-Associated Hospitalizations in the United States, 2001-2012. Open Forum Infect Dis 2016; 3:ofv219.
- Benedict K, Mody RK. Epidemiology of Histoplasmosis Outbreaks, United States, 1938-2013. Emerg Infect Dis 2016 Mar; 22 (3).
- Benedict K, Purfield AE, Mohle-Boetani J, Wheeler C, Park BJ. Awareness and Environmental Exposures Related to Coccidioidomycosis Among Inmates at Two California Prisons, 2013. J Correct Health Care. 2016 Apr;22(2):157-63.
- Chow NA, Griffin DW, Barker BM, Loparev VN, Litvintseva AP. Molecular detection of airborne Coccidioides in Tucson, Arizona. Med Mycol. 2016 May 3. pii: myw022.
- Cogliati M, D'Amicis R, Zani A, Montagna MT, Caggiano G, De Giglio O, et al. Environmental distribution of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii around the Mediterranean basin. FEMS Yeast Res. 2016 May 5.
- Engelthaler DM, Roe CC, Hepp CM, Teixeira M, Driebe EM, Schupp JM, et al. Local Population Structure and Patterns of Western Hemisphere Dispersal for Coccidioides spp., the Fungal Cause of Valley Fever. MBio. 2016 Apr 26;7(2).
- Etienne KA, Roe CC, Smith RM, Vallabhaneni S, Duarte C, Escadon P, et al. Whole-Genome Sequencing to Determine Origin of Multinational Outbreak of Sarocladium kiliense Bloodstream Infections. Emerg Infect Dis 2016 Mar; 22 (3).
- Ezeanolue EE, Nwizu C, Greene GS, Amusu O, Chukwuka C, Ndembi N, et al. Geographical Variation in Prevalence of Cryptococcal Antigenemia among HIV-infected Treatment-Naïve Patients in Nigeria: A multicenter cross-sectional study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2016 May 3.
- Govender NP, Patel J, Magobo RE, Naicker S, Wadula J, Whitelaw A, et al. Emergence of azole-resistant Candida parapsilosis causing bloodstream infection: results from laboratory-based sentinel surveillance in South Africa. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2016 Apr 28. pii: dkw091.
- Healey KR, Zhao Y, Perez WB, Lockhart SR, Sobel JD, Farmakiotis D, et al. Prevalent mutator genotype identified in fungal pathogen Candida glabrata promotes multi-drug resistance. Nat Commun. 2016 Mar 29;7:11128.
- Lockhart SR, Fothergill AW, Iqbal N, Bolden CB, Grossman NT, Garvey EP, et al. The Investigational Fungal Cyp51 Inhibitor VT-1129 Demonstrates Potent In Vitro Activity against Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2016 Jan 19.
- Lockhart SR, Roe CC, Engelthaler DM. Whole-Genome Analysis of Cryptococcus gattii, Southeastern United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016 Jun;22(6).
- Novosad SA, Vasquez AM, Nambiar A, et al. Notes from the Field: Probable Mucormycosis Among Adult Solid Organ Transplant Recipients at an Acute Care Hospital — Pennsylvania, 2014–2015. MMWR 2016;65:481–482.
- Vallabhaneni S, Chiller TM. Fungal Infections and New Biologic Therapies. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2016 May;18(5):29.
- Vallabhaneni S, Longley N, Smith M, Smith R, Osler M, Kelly N, et al. Evaluation of a Public-sector, Provider-initiated Cryptococcal Antigen Screening and Treatment Program, Western Cape, South Africa. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2016 Feb 29.
- Benedict K, Thompson GR 3rd, Deresinski S, Chiller T. Mycotic Infections Acquired outside Areas of Known Endemicity, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015 Nov;21(11):1935-41.
- Chibucos MC, Etienne KA, Orvis J, Lee H, Daugherty S, Lockhart SR, Ibrahim AS, Bruno VM. The genome sequence of four isolates from the family Lichtheimiaceae. Pathog Dis. 2015 Apr 9. pii: ftv024.
- Cleveland AA, Harrison LH, Farley MM, Hollick R, Stein B, Chiller TM, et al. Declining Incidence of Candidemia and the Shifting Epidemiology of Candida Resistance in Two US Metropolitan Areas, 2008-2013: Results from Population-Based Surveillance. PloS one. 2015;10(3):e0120452.
- Espinel-Ingroff A, Alvarez-Fernandez M, Canton E, Carver PL, Chen SC, Eschenauer G, et al. Multicenter Study of Epidemiological Cutoff Values and Detection of Resistance in Candida spp. to Anidulafungin, Caspofungin, and Micafungin Using the Sensititre YeastOne Colorimetric Method. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy. 2015 Nov;59(11):6725-32.
- Forrest GN, Bhalla P, DeBess EE, Winthrop KL, Lockhart SR, Mohammadi J, et al. Cryptococcus gattii infection in solid organ transplant recipients: description of Oregon outbreak cases. Transplant infectious disease. 2015 Feb 9.
- Franco-Paredes C, Womack T, Bohlmeyer T, Sellers B, Hays A, Patel K, et al. Management of Cryptococcus gattii meningoencephalitis. The Lancet infectious diseases. 2015 Mar;15(3):348-55.
- Fridkin SK, Cleveland AA, See I, Lynfield R. Emerging Infections Program as Surveillance for Antimicrobial Drug Resistance. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015 Sep;21(9):1578-81.
- Govender NP, M Roy, JF Mendes, TG Zulu, TM Chiller, and AS Karstaedt. Evaluation of screening and treatment of cryptococcal antigenemia among HIV-infected persons in Soweto, South Africa. HIV Medicine 2015; DOI 10.1111/hiv.12245
- Greene G, S Vallabhaneni, JH Chung, T Chiller. Cryptococcal Antigen Screening and Treatment: The Current state of Global Screening Programs to Prevent Death from Cryptococcal Infection. Curr Fungal Infect Repts 2015; DOI 10.1007/s12281-015-0246-x.
- Grossman NT, Pham CD, Cleveland AA, Lockhart SR. Molecular mechanisms of fluconazole resistance in Candida parapsilosis isolates from a U.S. surveillance system. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy. 2015 Feb;59(2):1030-7.
- Jabeen K, Kumar H, Farooqi J, Mehboob R, Brandt ME, Zafar A. Agreement of the direct antifungal susceptibility testing from positive blood culture bottles with conventional method for Candida species. J Clin Microbiol. 2015 Nov 25. pii: JCM.02432-15.
- Kaplan JE, Vallabhaneni S, Smith RM, Chideya-Chihota S, Chehab J, Park B. Cryptococcal Antigen Screening and Early Antifungal Treatment to Prevent Cryptococcal Meningitis: A Review of the Literature. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2015 Apr 15;68 Suppl 3:S331-S339.
- Kuykendall RJ, Lockhart SR. Microbroth Dilution Susceptibility Testing of Candida species. Methods Mol Biol. 2016;1356:173-81.
- Litvintseva AP, Brandt ME, Mody RK, Lockhart SR. Investigating Fungal Outbreaks in the 21st Century. PLoS Pathog. 2015 May 21. 11(5): e1004804
- Lindsley MD, Ahn Y, McCotter O, Gade L, Hurst SF, Brandt ME, Park BJ, Litvintseva AP. Evaluation of the Specificity of Two Enzyme Immunoassays for Coccidioidomycosis using Sera from an Endemic and a Non-Endemic Region. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2015 Aug 5.
- Lockhart SR, Pham CD, Kuykendall RJ, Bolden CB, Cleveland AA. Candida lusitaniae MICs to the echinocandins are elevated but FKS-mediated resistance is rare. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2015 Aug 28.
- McCarty TP, Baddley JW, Walsh TJ, Alexander BD, Kontoyiannis DP, Perl TM, et al. Phaeohyphomycosis in transplant recipients: Results from the Transplant Associated Infection Surveillance Network (TRANSNET). Med Mycol. 2015 Apr 23.
- McCotter OZ, Smith RM, Westercamp M, Kerkering TM, Malani AN, Latham R, et al. Update on Multistate Outbreak of Fungal Infections Associated with Contaminated Methylprednisolone Injections, 2012-2014. MMWR. 2015 Oct 30;64(42):1200-1.
- Pham CD, Purfield AE, Fader R, Pascoe N, Lockhart SR. Development of a Multi-Locus Sequence Typing System for Medically Relevant Bipolaris Species. J Clin Microbiol. 2015 Jul 22. pii: JCM.01546-15.
- Ren P, Luo M, Lin S, Ghannoum MA, Isham N, Diekema DJ, et al. Multilaboratory testing of antifungal drug combinations against Candida species and Aspergillus fumigatus: utility of 100 percent inhibition as the endpoint. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy. 2015 Mar;59(3):1759-66.
- Segel MJ, Rozenman J, Lindsley MD, Lachish T, Berkman N, Neuberger A, Schwartz E. Histoplasmosis in Israeli Travelers. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2015 Apr 27.
- Smith RM, Derado G, Wise M, Harris JR, Chiller TM, Meltzer MI, Park BJ. Estimated Deaths and Illnesses Averted During Fungal Meningitis Outbreak Associated with Contaminated Steroid Injections, United States, 2012–2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015; 21 (6).
- Vallabhaneni S, Haselow D, Lloyd S, Lockhart S, Moulton-Meissner H, Lester L, et al. Cluster of Cryptococcus neoformans Infections in Intensive Care Unit, Arkansas, USA, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015; 21 (10).
- Vallabhaneni S, Mody RK. Gastrointestinal Mucormycosis in Neonates: a Review. Curr Fungal Infect Repts 2015.
- Vallabhaneni S, Walker TA, Lockhart SR, Ng D, Chiller T, Melchreit R, et al. Notes from the Field: Fatal Gastrointestinal Mucormycosis in a Premature Infant Associated with a Contaminated Dietary Supplement - Connecticut, 2014. MMWR. 2015 Feb 20;64(6):155-6.
- Vallabhaneni S, Mody RK, Walker T, Chiller T. The Global Burden of Fungal Diseases. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2015 Dec 28.
- Vallabhaneni S, Purfield AE, Benedict K, Luvsansharav U, Lockhart SR, Pham CD, et al. Cardiothoracic surgical site phaeohyphomycosis caused by Bipolaris mould, multiple US states, 2008-2013: a clinical description. Med Mycol. 2015 Dec 24.
- Vallabhaneni S, Cleveland AA, Farley MM, Harrison LH, Schaffner W, et al. Epidemiology and Risk Factors for Echinocandin Nonsusceptible Candida glabrata Bloodstream Infections: Data From a Large Multisite Population-Based Candidemia Surveillance Program, 2008-2014. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2015 Dec;2(4):ofv163.
- Vallabhaneni S, Almendares O, Farley MM, Reno J, Smith ZT, Stein B, et al. Epidemiology and factors associated with candidaemia following Clostridium difficile infection in adults within metropolitan Atlanta, 2009-2013. Epidemiol Infect. 2015 Nov 26:1-5.
- Benedict K, Park BJ. Invasive Fungal Infections after Natural Disasters. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3).
- Boehme AK, McGwin G, Andes DR, Lyon GM, Chiller T, Pappas PG, Baddley JW. Race and invasive fungal infection in solid organ transplant recipients. Ethn Dis.2014 Summer;24(3):382-5.
- Caceres DH, Scheel CM, Tobón AM, Ahlquist Cleveland A, Restrepo A, Brandt ME, Chiller T, Gómez BL. Validation of a Histoplasma ELISA antigenuria test in Colombian patients with AIDS for diagnosis and follow-up during therapy. Clin Vaccine Immunol 2014 Jul 9.
- DeBess E, Lockhart SR, Iqbal N, Cieslak PR. Isolation of Cryptococcus gattii from Oregon soil and tree bark, 2010-2011. BMC microbiology. 2014 Dec 21;14(1):323.
- Doligalski CT, Benedict K, Cleveland AA, Park B, Derado G, Pappas PG, et al. Epidemiology of Invasive Mold Infections in Lung Transplant Recipients. Am J Transplant. 2014 Apr 11.
- Duffy J, Harris J, Gade L, Sehulster L, Newhouse E, O'Connell H, et al. Mucormycosis Outbreak Associated with Hospital Linens. Ped Infect Dis J. 2014; 33(5):472-6.
- Engelthaler DM, Hicks ND, Gillece JD, Row CC, Schupp JM, Driebe EM, et al. Cryptococcus gattii in North American Pacific Northwest: Whole-Population Genome Analysis Provides Insights into Species Evolution and Dispersal. MBio 2014 Jul 15; 5(4).
- Etienne KA, MC Chibucos, Q Su, J Orvis, S Daugherty, S Ott, et al. Draft genome sequence of Mortierella alpina isolate CDC-B6842 [PDF - 2 pages]. Genome Announcements 2014;2:e01180-01181
- Gade L, Grgurich DE, Kerkering TM, Brandt ME, Litvintseva AP. Utility of Real-Time PCR for detection of Exserohilum rostratum in body and tissue fluids during the multistate outbreak of fungal meningitis and other infections. J Clin Microbiol. 2014 Dec 17.
- Kauffman CA, Freifeld AG, Andes DR, et al. Endemic fungal infections in solid organ and hematopoietic cell transplant recipients enrolled in the Transplant-Associated Infection Surveillance Network (TRANSNET). Transpl Infect Dis. 2014 Mar 4.
- Kelley EJ, Driebe EM, Etienne K, Brandt ME, Schupp JM, Gillece JD, et al. Real-time PCR assays for genotyping of Cryptococcus gattii in North America. BMC Microbiol. 2014 May 13;14(1):125. doi: 10.1186/1471-2180-14-125.
- Litvintseva AP, Lindsley MD, Gade L, et al. Utility of (1-3)-B-D-glucan testing for diagnostics and monitoring response to treatment during the multistate outbreak of fungal meningitis and other infections. Clin Infect Dis 2014; 58 (5):622-630.
- Litvintseva AP, Hurst S, Gade L, Frace MA, Hilsabeck R, Schupp JM, et al. Whole genome analysis of Exserohilum rostratum from the outbreak of fungal meningitis and other infections. J Clin Microbiol. 2014 Jun 20. pii: JCM.00936-14.
- Litvintseva AP, Marsden-Haug N, Hurst S, Hill H, Gade L, Driebe EM, et al. Valley Fever: Finding new places for an old disease: Coccidioides immitis found in Washington State soil associated with recent human infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2014 Epub Aug 27.
- Lockhart SR. Current epidemiology of Candida infection. Clin Microbiol Newsletter 2014; 36: 131-133
- Marsden-Haug N, Hill H, Litvinseva A, Engelthaler DM, Driebe EM, Roe CC et al. Notes from the Field: Coccidioides immitis Identified in Soil Outside of Its Known Range — Washington, 2013. MMWR 2014; 63(20):450.
- McKenney J, Smith RM, Chiller TM, Detels R, French A, Margolick J, Klausner JD. Prevalence and Correlates of Cryptococcal Antigen Positivity Among AIDS Patients — United States, 1986–2012.MMWR 2014; 63(27):585-587.
- Mikosz CA, Smith RM, Kim M, et al. Fungal endophthalmitis associated with compounded products. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(2):248-56.
- Pham CD, Bolden CB, Kuykendall RJ, Lockhart SR. Development of a luminex-based multiplex assay for detection of mutations conferring resistance to echinocandins in Candida glabrata. J Clin Microbiol 2014;52(3):790-795.
- Pham CD, Ahn S, Turner LA, Wohrle R, Lockhart SR. Development and validation of benomyl birdseed agar for the isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii from environmental samples. Med Mycol. 2014 Apr 28.
- Pham CD, Iqbal N, Bolden CB, Kuykendall RJ, Harrison LH, Farley MM, et al. The role of FKS mutations in C. glabrata: MIC values, echinocandin resistance and multidrug resistance. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2014 Jun 2. pii: AAC.03255-14.
- Pham CD, Reiss E, Hagen F, Meis JF, Lockhart SR. Passive Surveillance for Azole-Resistant Aspergillus fumigatus, United States, 2011-2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014 Sep;20(9):1498-503
- Scheel CM, Zhou Y, Theodoro RC, Abrams B, Balajee SA, Litvintseva AP. Development of a Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Method for Detection of Histoplasma capsulatum DNA in Clinical Samples. J Clin Microbiol 2014; 52(2):483-8.
- Smith RM, Mba-Jonas A, Tourdjman M, et al. Treatment and Outcomes among Patients with Cryptococcus gattii Infections in the United States Pacific Northwest. [PDF - 7 pages] PloS one. 2014;9(2):e88875.
- Van Wyk M, Govender NP, Mitchell TG, Litvintseva AP, et al. Multilocus Sequence Typing of Serially Collected Isolates of Cryptococcus from HIV-Infected Patients in South Africa. J Clin Microbiol. 2014 Mar 19
Baddley JW, Andes DR, Marr KA, et al. Antifungal therapy and length of hospitalization in transplant patient with invasive aspergillosis . Med Mycol 2013; 51(2): 128-35.
Balajee SA, Hurst SF, Chang LS, et al. Multilocus sequence typing of Histoplasma capsulatum in formalin fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from cats living in non-endemic regions reveals a new phylogenetic
clade. Med Mycol 2013; 51(4): 345-51.
Brandt ME, Park. BJ. Think fungus–prevention and control of fungal infections. Emerg Infect Dis 2013; 19(10): 1688-9. Podcast: http://www2c.cdc.gov/podcasts/player.asp?f=8629964
Brown J, Benedict K, Park BJ, Thompson GR, 3rd. Coccidioidomycosis: epidemiology . Clin Epidemiol 2013;5: 185-97.
Castrodale LJ, Gerlach RF, Preziosi DE, Frederickson P, Lockhart SR. Prolonged incubation period for infection with Cryptococcus gattii in an Alaska cat originally from California, 2012. Emerg Infect Dis 2013; 19: 1034-1035.
CDC. Histoplasmosis in a state where it is not known to be endemic - Montana, 2012-2013 . MMWR 2013; 62(42): 834-7.
CDC. Increase in reported coccidioidomycosis--United States, 1998-2011 . MMWR 2013; 62(12): 217-21.
Chiller TM, Roy M, Nguyen D, et al. Clinical findings for fungal infections caused by methylprednisolone injections . N Engl J Med 2013; 369(17): 1610-9.
Escandon P, Lizarazo J, Agudelo CI, Chiller T, Castaneda E. Evaluation of a rapid lateral flow immunoassay for the detection of cryptococcal antigen for the early diagnosis of cryptococcosis in HIV patients in Colombia . Med Mycol 2013; S1:765-768.
Espinel-Ingroff A, Arendrup MC, Pfaller MA, et al. Interlaboratory variability of caspofungin MICs for Candida species using CLSI and EUCAST methods: should the clinical laboratory be testing this agent? Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2013; 57:5836-5842.
Fagan RP, Edwards JR, Park BJ, Fridkin SK, Magill SS. Incidence trends in pathogen-specific central line-associated bloodstream infections in US intensive care units, 1990-2010. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2013;34(9).
Fanfair RN, Heslop O, Etienne K, et al. Trichosporon asahii among intensive care unit patients at a medical center in Jamaica. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2013; 34(6): 638-41.
Farooqi JQ, Jabeen K, Saeed N, et al. Invasive candidiasis in Pakistan: clinical characteristics, species distribution and antifungal susceptibility. J Med Microbiol 2013; 62(Pt 2): 259-68.
Gade L, Scheel CM, Pham CD, et al. Detection of fungal DNA in human body fluids and tissues during a multistate outbreak of fungal meningitis and other infections. Eukaryot Cell 2013; 12(5): 677-83.
Harris JR, Lockhart SR, Sondermeyer G, et al. Cryptococcus gattii infections in multiple states outside the US Pacific Northwest. Emerg Infect Dis 2013; 19(10): 1621-7.
Kunadharaju R, Choe U, Harris JR, Lockhart SR, Greene JN. Cryptococcus gattii, Florida, USA, 2011. Emerg Infect Dis 2013; 19(3): 519-21.
Lockhart SR, Iqbal N, Harris JR, et al. Cryptococcus gattii in the United States: Genotypic diversity of human and veterinary isolates. PloS one 2013; 8(9): e74737.
Lockhart SR, Pham CD, Gade L, et al. Preliminary laboratory report of fungal infections associated with contaminated methylprednisolone injections . J Clin Microbiol 2013; 51(8): 2654-61.
Loyse A, Thangaraj H, Easterbrook P, et al. Cryptococcal meningitis: improving access to essential antifungal medicines in resource-poor countries . Lancet Infect Dis 2013; 13(7): 629-37.
Marsden-Haug N, Goldoft M, Ralston C, et al. Coccidioidomycosis acquired in Washington State . Clin Infect Dis 2013; 56(6): 847-50.
Morrison AS, Lockhart SR, Bromley JG, Kim JY, Burd EM. An environmental Sporothrix as a cause of corneal ulcer. Med Mycol Case Reports 2013; 2: 88-90.
Mortenson JA, Bartlett KH, Wilson RW, Lockhart SR. Detection of Cryptococcus gattii in Selected Urban Parks of the Willamette Valley, Oregon. Mycopathologia 2013; 175:351-355.
Nacher M, Adenis A, McDonald S, et al. Disseminated histoplasmosis in HIV-infected patients in South America: a neglected killer continues on its rampage. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2013; 7:e2319.
Pappas PG, Kontoyiannis DP, Perfect JR, Chiller TM. Real-time treatment guidelines: considerations during the Exserohilum rostratum outbreak in the United States. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2013; 57(4): 1573-6.
Pham CD, Bolden CB, Kuykendall RJ, Lockhart SR. Development of a Luminex-Based Multiplex Assay for Detection of Mutations Conferring Resistance to Echinocandins in Candida glabrata. J Clin Microbiol 2013.
Prandini TH, Theodoro RC, Bruder-Nascimento AC, Scheel CM, Bagagli E. Analysis of inteins in the Candida parapsilosis complex for simple and accurate species identification. J Clin Microbiol 2013; 51:2830-2836.
Purfield A, Ahmad N, Park BJ, et al. Epidemiology of commercial rhesus monkey kidney cells contaminated with Coccidioides posadasii. J Clin Microbiol 2013; 51(6): 2005.
Ritter JM, Muehlenbachs A, Blau DM, et al. Exserohilum infections associated with contaminated steroid injections: a clinicopathologic review of 40 cases. Am J Pathol 2013; 183(3): 881-92.
Rosado-Odom VM, Daoud J, Johnson R, et al. Cutaneous presentation of progressive disseminated histoplasmosis nine years after renal transplantation . Transpl Infect Dis 2013; 15:E64-69.
Roy M, Benedict K, Deak E, et al. A large community outbreak of blastomycosis in Wisconsin with geographic and ethnic clustering . Clin Infect Dis 2013; 57(5): 655-62.
Scheel CM, Hurst SF, Barreiros G, Akiti T, Nucci M, Balajee SA. Molecular analyses of Fusarium isolates recovered from a cluster of invasive mold infections in a Brazilian hospital. BMC Infect Dis 2013; 13: 49.
Smith RM, Nguyen TA, Ha HT, et al. Prevalence of cryptococcal antigenemia and cost-effectiveness of a cryptococcal antigen screening program--Vietnam . PloS one 2013; 8(4): e62213.
Smith RM, Schaefer MK, Kainer MA, et al. Fungal infections associated with contaminated methylprednisolone injections . N Engl J Med 2013;369:1598-1609
Smith RM, Tipple M, Chaudry MN, Schaefer MK, Park BJ. Relapse of fungal meningitis associated with contaminated methylprednisolone . N Engl J Med 2013; 368(26): 2535-6.
Theodoro RC, Scheel CM, Brandt ME, Kasuga T, Bagagli E. PRP8 intein in cryptic species of Histoplasma capsulatum: evolution and phylogeny. Infect Genet Evol 2013; 18: 174-82.
Benedict K, Roy M, Chiller T, Davis JP. Epidemiologic and ecologic features of blastomycosis: a review . Curr Fung Infect Rep 2012; 6: 327-35.
Brandt ME, Lockhart SR. Recent taxonomic developments with Candida and other opportunistic yeasts. Curr Fung Infect Rep 2012; 6: 178-91.
Burco JD, Etienne KA, Massey JG, Ziccardi MH, Balajee SA. Molecular sub-typing suggests that the environment of rehabilitation centers may be a potential source of Aspergillus fumigatus infecting rehabilitating seabirds . Med Mycol 2012; 50(1): 91-8.
CDC. Histoplasmosis outbreak among day camp attendees--Nebraska, June 2012 . MMWR 2012; 61: 747-8.
Cleveland AA, Farley MM, Harrison LH, et al. Changes in incidence and antifungal drug resistance in candidemia: results from population-based laboratory surveillance in Atlanta and Baltimore, 2008-2011 . Clin Infect Dis 2012; 55(10): 1352-61.
Espinel-Ingroff A, Aller AI, Canton E, et al. Cryptococcus neoformans-Cryptococcus gattii species complex: an international study of wild-type susceptibility endpoint distributions and epidemiological cutoff values for fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2012; 56(11): 5898-906.
Espinel-Ingroff A, Chowdhary A, Cuenca-Estrella M, et al. Cryptococcus neoformans-Cryptococcus gattii species complex: an international study of wild-type susceptibility endpoint distributions and epidemiological cutoff values for amphotericin B and flucytosine. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2012; 56(6): 3107-13.
Etienne KA, Gillece J, Hilsabeck R, et al. Whole genome sequence typing to investigate the Apophysomyces outbreak following a tornado in Joplin, Missouri, 2011. PloS one 2012; 7(11): e49989.
Govender NP, Chetty V, Roy M, et al. Phased implementation of screening for cryptococcal disease in South Africa . S Afr Med J 2012; 102(12): 914-7.
Harris J, Lockhart S, Chiller T. Cryptococcus gattii: where do we go from here? Med Mycol 2012; 50(2): 113-29.
Harris JR, Lindsley MD, Henchaichon S, et al. High prevalence of cryptococcal infection among HIV-infected patients hospitalized with pneumonia in Thailand [PDF - 8 pages]. Clin Infect Dis 2012; 54(5): e43-50.
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Journal of clinical microbiology 2012; 50(6): 2040-6.
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