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Chapter 1—Housing History and Purpose

Figure 1.1. Conditions in the Tenements
Figure 1.2. Levittown, New York

Chapter 2—Basic Principles of Healthy Housing

Figure 2.1. Circa 1890 Icebox [Source: Robert R. McCormick Museum, Wheaton, Illinois]
Figure 2.2. Smoke Alarm Testing [Source: Federal Emergency Management Agency]

Chapter 3—Housing Regulations

Figure 3.1. Example of a Floor Area
Figure 3.2. Example of an Angle of Light Obstruction

Chapter 4—Disease Vectors and Pests

Figure 4.1. Field Identification of Domestic Rodents [Source: Armed Forces Pest Management Board. Military pest management handbook. Washington, DC: Armed Forces Pest Management Board; no date.]
Figure 4.2. Norway Rat [Source: Indiana Department of Natural Resources. Rodent pictures. Lafayette, IN: Indiana Department of Natural Resources; no date.]
Figure 4.3. Roof Rat [Source: Arrow Services, Inc. Rats: roof rats. Plymouth, IN: Arrow Services, Inc.; no date.]
Figure 4.4. Signs of Rodent Infestation [Source: Armed Forces Pest Management Board. Military pest management handbook. Washington, DC: Armed Forces Pest Management Board; no date.]
Figure 4.5. Rodent Prevention [Source: Armed Forces Pest Management Board. Military pest management handbook. Washington, DC: Armed Forces Pest Management Board; no date.]
Figure 4.6. Live Trap for Rats [Source: Cobb County Extension Service. Fact sheet on rodents: rats and mice. Marietta, GA: Cobb County Extension Service; 2003.]
Figure 4.7. Kill Traps [Source: Armed Forces Pest Management Board. Military pest management handbook. Washington, DC: Armed Forces Pest Management Board; no date.]
Figure 4.8. American, Oriental, German, and Brown-banded Cockroaches [Source: University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Cockroach picture gallery. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska-Lincoln; no date.]
Figure 4.9. American Cockroaches, Various Stages and Ages [Source: University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Cockroach picture gallery. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska-Lincoln; no date.]
Figure 4.10. Oriental Cockroaches, Various Stages and Ages [Source: University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Cockroach picture gallery. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska-Lincoln; no date.]
Figure 4.11. German Cockroaches, Various Stages and Ages [Source: University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Cockroach picture gallery. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska-Lincoln; no date.]
Figure 4.12. Brown-banded Cockroaches, Various Stages and Ages
Figure 4.13. Wood Cockroach, Adult Male [Source: University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Cockroach picture gallery. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska-Lincoln; no date.]
Figure 4.14. Reported Human Plague Cases (1970–1997) [Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Reported human plague cases by county: United States, 1970–1997. Atlanta: US Department of health and Human Services; no date.]
Figure 4.15. Flea Life Cycle [Source: Armed Forces Pest Management Board. Military pest management handbook. Washington, DC: Armed Forces Pest Management Board; no date.]
Figure 4.16. Housefly (Musca domestica) [Source: Leslie M, editor. Netwatch: flys in the Web. Science 2004;306:1269.]
Figure 4.17. Life Cycle of the Fly [Source: Oderkirk A. Fly control in poultry barns: poultry fact sheet. Truro, Nova Scotia, Canada: Nova Scotia Department of Agriculture and Marketing; 2001.]
Figure 4.18. Termite Tube Extending from Ground to Wall (Red Arrows) [Source: Fumapest Group. Western subterranean termites. Revesby, New South Wales, Australia: Fumapest Group Pty.; no date.]
Figure 4.19. Termite Mud Shelter Tube Constructed Over A Brick Foundation  [Source: Fumapest Group. Western subterranean termites. Revesby, New South Wales, Australia: Fumapest Group Pty.; no date.]
Figure 4.20. Differences Between Ants and Termites [Source: Ferster B, Deyrup M, Scheffrahn RH. How to tell the difference between ant and termite alates. Fort Lauderdale, FL: University of Florida; no date.]
Figure 4.21. Life Cycle of the Subterranean Termite [Source: Su N-Y. Life cycle of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida; no date.]
Figure 4.22. Subterranean Termite Risk in the United States [Source: Suiter DR, Jones SC, Forschler BT. Biology of subterranean termites in the Eastern United States. Bulletin 1209. Columbus, OH: The Ohio State University Extension; no date.]
Figure 4.23. Typical Points of Attack by Termites in the Home [Source: Armed Forces Pest Management Board. Military pest management handbook. Washington, DC: Armed Forces Pest Management Board; no date.]
Figure 4.24. Construction Techniques That Discourage Termite Attacks: Thin Metal  [Source: Armed Forces Pest Management Board. Military pest management handbook. Washington, DC: Armed Forces Pest Management Board; no date.]
Figure 4.25. Fire Ants [Source: Core J. Update: hot on the trail of fire ants. Agric Res 2003; 51:20–23.]
Figure 4.26. Range Expansion of Red Imported Fire Ants (RIFA)_in the United States, 1918–1998 [Source: California Department of Food and Agriculture. First reported occurrence of red imported fire ant; Solenopsis invicta. Sacramento, CA: California Department of Food and Agriculture; no date.]
Figure 4.27. Fire Ant Mound [Source: CAPT Craig Shepherd, U.S. PHS; used with permission.]

Chapter 5—Indoor Air Pollutants and Toxic Materials

Figure 5.1. Mold Growth in the Home
Figure 5.2. Home Carbon Monoxide Monitor [Source: U.S. Navy]
Figure 5.3. Environmental Tobacco Smoke and Children’s Exposure [Source: US Environmental Protection Agency. What you can do about secondhand smoke as parents, decision-makers, and building occupants. Washington, DC: US Environmental Protection Agency; 1993.]
Figure 5.4. Wood Products Label [Source: US Department of Housing and Urban Development. Formaldehyde emission controls for certain wood products. 24CFR3280.308. Washington, DC: US Department of Housing and Urban Development; 2001.]
Figure 5.5. EPA Map of Radon Zones Zone 1: predicted average indoor radon screening level greater than 4 pCi/L (picocuries per liter); Zone 2: predicted average indoor radon screening level between 2 and 4 pCi/L; and Zone 3: predicted average indoor radon screening level less than 2 pCi/L.
Important: Consult the EPA Map of Radon Zones document (EPA-402-R-93-071) before using this map. This document contains information on radon potential variations within counties. EPA also recommends that this map be supplemented with any available local data to further understand and predict the radon potential of a specific area. [Source: US Environmental Protection Agency. Assessment of risk of radon in homes. Washington, DC: US Environmental Protection Agency; 2003.]
Figure 5.6. Radon Entry [Source: Shaughnessy RJ, Morey PR. Remediation of microbial contamination. In: Macher J, editor. Bioaerosols: assessment and control. Cincinnati, OH: American Conference of Governmental and Industrial Hygienists; 1999.]
Figure 5.7. Home Radon Detectors [Source: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. Interim final guidelines for the protection and training of workers engaged in maintenance and remediation work associated with mold. Report of a national technical workshop, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, New York City, 2004 Jan 27–28.]
Figure 5.8. Radon-resistant Construction [Source: US Environmental Protection Agency. Radon-resistant new construction. Washington, DC: US Environmental Protection Agency; no date.]
Figure 5.9. Arsenic Label

Chapter 6—Housing Structure

Figure 6.1. Housing Structure Terminology, Typical House Built Today [Source: US Inspect. Glossary of terms. Chantilly, VA: US Inspect; no date.]
Figure 6.2. Housing Structure Terminology, Typical House Built Between 1950 and 1980 [Source: Center for Disease Control. Housing construction terminology. In: Basic housing inspection. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services; 1976.]
Figure 6.3. Foundation [Source: Building Science Corporation. Read this before you design, build, or renovate. Westford, MA: Building Science Corporation; 2004.
Figure 6.4. Foundation Cracks [Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Basic housing inspection. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services; 1976.]
Figure 6.5. Interior Stairway [Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Basic housing inspection. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services; 1976.]
Figure 6.6. Classifications of Windows [Source: US Inspect. Glossary of terms. Chantilly, VA: US Inspect; no date.]
Figure 6.7. Three-dimensional View of a Window [Source: US Inspect. Glossary of terms. Chantilly, VA: US Inspect; no date.]
Figure 6.8. Window Details [Source: Building Science Corporation. Read this before you design, build, or renovate. Westford, MA: Building Science Corporation; 2004.]
Figure 6.9. Wall Framing [Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Basic housing inspection. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services; 1976.]
Figure 6.9a Foundation Trench
Figure 6.9b Concrete on Top of Footer
Figure 6.9c Concrete Will Be Poured Into This Form
Figure 6.9d Foundations Are Not Always Poured Concrete
Figure 6.9e Gravel Fill
Figure 6.9f Termite Shield
Figure 6.9g OSB Subfloor
Figure 6.9h Flooring Material of the First Floor
Figure 6.9i Interior Wall Framing
Figure 6.9j Exterior Wall Framing
Figure 6.9k Joists
Figure 6.9l Roof Sheathing
Figure 6.9m Interior Wall
Figure 6.9n Flashing Material
Figure 6.9o Safety Scaffold
Figure 6.9p Front Porch

Chapter 7—Environmental Barriers

Figure 7.1. Sources of Moisture and Air Pollutants (Not Shown: Bathroom, Laundry Room, Bedroom) [Source: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Cool roofing materials database. Berkeley, CA: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Environmental Energy Technologies Division; 2000.]
Figure 7.2. Blown Attic Insulation
Figure 7.3. Depth of Attic Insulation
Figure 7.4. Attic Insulation
Figure 7.5. Brick Structural Defect
Figure 7.6. Corrosion in Piping Resulting From Galvanic Response

Chapter 8—Rural Water Supplies

Figure 8.1. U.S. Water Supply by Source [Source: US Census Bureau. Historical census of housing graphs: water supply. Washington, DC: US Census Bureau; no date.]
Note: In 1970, questions about drilled versus dug wells were not asked.
Figure 8.2. Cross Section of a Driven Well [Source: Rhode Island Department of Health and University of Rhode Island Cooperative Extension Water Quality Program. Healthy drinking waters for Rhode Islanders. Kingston, RI: Rhode Island Department of Health and University of Rhode Island Cooperative Extension Water Quality Program; 2003.]
Figure 8.3. Well Seal
Figure 8.4. Converted Dug Well [Source: Rhode Island Department of Health and University of Rhode Island Cooperative Extension Water Quality Program. Healthy drinking waters for Rhode Islanders. Kingston, RI: Rhode Island Department of Health and University of Rhode Island Cooperative Extension Water Quality Program; 2003.]
Figure 8.5. Recapped and Sealed Dug Well [Source: Rhode Island Department of Health and University of Rhode Island Cooperative Extension Water Quality Program. Healthy drinking waters for Rhode Islanders. Kingston, RI: Rhode Island Department of Health and University of Rhode Island Cooperative Extension Water Quality Program; 2003.]
Figure 8.6. Drilled Well [Source: Rhode Island Department of Health and University of Rhode Island Cooperative Extension Water Quality Program. Healthy drinking waters for Rhode Islanders. Kingston, RI: Rhode Island Department of Health and University of Rhode Island Cooperative Extension Water Quality Program; 2003.]
Figure 8.7. Typical Dug Well
Figure 8.8. Sewage in Drainage Ditch
Figure 8.9. Drilled Well
Figure 8.10. Spring Box [Source: US Environmental Protection Agency. Spring development. Chicago: US Environmental Protection Agency; 2001.]

Chapter 9—Plumbing

Figure 9.1. Typical Home Water System [Source: US Environmental Protection Agency. United States Environmental Protection Agency guidance from hotline compendium: lead ban. Washington, DC: US Environmental Protection Agency; 1988.]
Figure 9.2. House Service Installation [Source: US Environmental Protection Agency. United States Environmental Protection Agency guidance from hotline compendium: lead ban. Washington, DC: US Environmental Protection Agency; 1988.]
Figure 9.3. Gas Water Heater
Figure 9.4. Temperature-pressure Valve
Figure 9.5. Branch Connections
Figure 9.6. P-trap [Source: US Environmental Protection Agency. United States Environmental Protection Agency guidance from hotline compendium: lead ban. Washington, DC: US Environmental Protection Agency; 1988.]
Figure 9.7. Types of S-traps [Source: US Environmental Protection Agency. United States Environmental Protection Agency guidance from hotline compendium: lead ban. Washington, DC: US Environmental Protection Agency; 1988.]
Figure 9.8. Trap Seal: (a) Seal Intact; (b) Fixture Draining; (c) Loss of Gas Seal [Source: US Environmental Protection Agency. United States Environmental Protection Agency guidance from hotline compendium: lead ban. Washington, DC: US Environmental Protection Agency; 1988.]
Figure 9.9. Loss of Trap Seal in Lavatory Sink [Source: US Environmental Protection Agency. United States Environmental Protection Agency guidance from hotline compendium: lead ban. Washington, DC: US Environmental Protection Agency; 1988.]
Figure 9.10. Back-to-back Venting (Toilet)
Figure 9.11. Back-to-back Venting (Sink)
Figure 9.12. Wall-hung Fixtures
Figure 9.13. Unit Vent Used in Bathtub Installation
Figure 9.14. Toilet Venting
Figure 9.15. Janitor’s Sink
Figure 9.16. Common Y-trap
Figure 9.17. Hose Bib With Vacuum Breaker
Figure 9.18a Roughed-In Clothes Washer
Figure 9.18b Roughed-In Sink
Figure 9.18c Roughed-In Bathroom
Figure 9.18d Back of a Fiberglass Shower
Figure 9.18e Water Service and Wastewater Line

Chapter 10—On-site Wastewater Treatment

Figure 10.1. Conventional On-site Septic System [Source: University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Residential on-site wastewater treatment: septic system and drainfield maintenance. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska-Lincoln; 2000.] Effluent leaves home through a pipe, enters a septic tank, travels through a distribution box to a trench absorption system composed of perforated pipe.
Figure 10.2. Straight Pipe Discharge [Source: Donald Johnson; used with permission]
Figure 10.3. Clear Creek Water Contaminated With Sewage [Source: Donald Johnson; used with permission]
Figure 10.4. Septic Tank System [Source: Mankl K, Slater B. Septic system maintenance. Columbus, OH: The Ohio State University Extension; no date.]
Figure 10.5. Septic Tank [Source: Center for Disease Control. Basic housing inspection. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services; 1976.]
Figure 10.6. On-site Sewage Disposal System Site Evaluation Form
Figure 10.7. Cross-section of an Absorption Field [Source: Purdue Research Foundation. Environmental education software series. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue Research Foundation; 1989.]
Figure 10.8. Mound System Cutaway [Source: Rosenberg CE. The cholera years. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press; 1962.]
Figure 10.9. Low Pressure On-site System [Source: Clay Township Regional Waste District. Septic systems. Indianapolis: Clay Township Regional Waste District; 2004.]
Figure 10.10. Plant-rock Filter System [Source: Clay Township Regional Waste District. Septic systems. Indianapolis: Clay Township Regional Waste District; 2004.]
Figure 10.11. Sludge and Scum in Multicompartment Septic Tank [Source: Jackson Purchase Resource Conservation and Development Foundation, Inc. Septic systems: an overview. Cynthiana, KY: Jackson Purchase Resource Conservation and Development Foundation, Inc.; no date.]

Chapter 11—Electricity

Figure 11.1. Utility Overview [Source: Center for Disease Control. Basic housing inspection. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services; 1976.]
Figure 11.2. Entrance Head
Figure 11.3. Armored Cable Service Entrance [Source: Center for Disease Control. Basic housing inspection. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services; 1976.]
Figure 11.4. Breakers [Source: Center for Disease Control. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services; 1976.]
Figure 11.5. Thin-wall Conduit [Source: Center for Disease Control. Basic housing inspection. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services; 1976.]
Figure 11.6. Electric Meter
Figure 11.7. Typical Service Entrance [Source: Center for Disease Control. Basic housing inspection. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services; 1976.]
Figure 11.8. Grounding Scheme [Source: Center for Disease Control. Basic housing inspection. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services; 1976.]
Figure 11.9. Grounding [Source: Center for Disease Control. Basic housing inspection. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services; 1976.]
Figure 11.10. Three-wire Service [Source: Center for Disease Control. Basic housing inspection. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services; 1976.]
Figure 11.11. Two-wire Service [Source: Center for Disease Control. Basic housing inspection. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services; 1976.]
Figure 11.12. Wire Markings [Source: Center for Disease Control. Basic housing inspection. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services; 1976.]
Figure 11.13. Armored Cable [Source: Center for Disease Control. Basic housing inspection. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services; 1976.]
Figure 11.14. 200-Amp Service Box
Figure 11.15. External Power Shutoff and Meter
Figure 11.16. Ground Fault Circuit Interruptor
Figure 11.17. Arc Interrupter
Figure 11.18. Types of Fuses
Figure 11.19. Appliance Ground and Grounded Plug

Chapter 12—Heating, Air Conditioning, and Ventilating

Figure 12.1. Piping Hookup for Inside Tank Installation
Figure 12.2. Piping Hookup for Buried Outside Tank
Figure 12.3. Heat Pump in Cooling Mode
Figure 12.4. Minimum Clearance for Pipeless Hot Air and Gravity Warm Air Furnace
Figure 12.5. Minimum Clearance for Steam or Hot Water Boiler and Mechanical Warm-air Furnace
Figure 12.6. Heating Ducts Covered With Asbestos Insulation
Figure 12.7. Typical Underfeed Coal Stoker Installation in Small Boilers
Figure 12.8. Cutaway View of Typical High-pressure Gun Burner
Figure 12.9. Gas-fired Boiler
Figure 12.10. Typical Gravity One-pipe Heating System
Figure 12.11. One-pipe Gravity Water Heating System
Figure 12.12. Two-pipe Gravity Water Heating System
Figure 12.13. Warm-air Convection Furnace
Figure 12.14. Cross-sectional View of Building Showing Forced-warm-air Heating System
Figure 12.15. Perforated-sleeve Burner
Figure 12.16. Condition of Burner Flame with Different Rates of Fuel Flow
Figure 12.17. Wall and Ceiling Clearance Reduction
Figure 12.18. Draft in Relation to Height of Chimney
Figure 12.19. Location and Operation of Typical Backdraft Diverter
Figure 12.20. Split-system Air Conditioner
Figure 12.21. External Air-conditioning Condenser Unit
Figure 12.22. Chimney Plan
Figure 12.23. Fireplace Construction

Chapter 13—Energy Efficiency

Figure 13.1. Roof Components [Source: RoofHelp.com. R-value. Fort Worth, TX: RoofHelp; 1999.]
Figure 13.2. Potential Effects of Radiant Barriers [Source: State of Hawaii, Department of Business, Economic Development, and Tourism, Energy Resources and Technology Division. Ceiling insulation. Honolulu, HI: State of Hawaii, Department of Business, Economic Development, and Tourism; no date.]
Figure 13.3. Common Floor Insulation Flaws [Source: Oikos. Filling a floor with batt insulation. Energy Source Builder 1995 [Apr]; 38.]  Reprinted from Energy Source Builder 38 with permission of Iris Communications, Inc., publisher of Oikos.com
Figure 13.4. Insulation Cavity Fill [Source: Oikos. Filling a floor with batt insulation. Energy Source Builder 1995 [Apr]; 38.]
Figure 13.5. Solar Panels

Chapter 14—Residential Swimming Pools and Spas

Figure 14.1. Pool Cover
Figure 14.2. Typical Home Pool Equipment System [Source: Photo courtesy of Donald Johnson]

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