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Recreational Water

CDC's Healthy Swimming/Recreational Water – CDC's portal for information about swimming and recreational water illness prevention including brochures, and videos

Cryptosporidiosis Outbreak Response & Evaluation (CORE) [PDF - 224 KB] – guidelines for health departments, aquatics operators/managers, and child care program operators

Drop of News – newsletter highlighting state and local waterborne disease surveillance activities and informal CDC updates on waterborne disease and outbreak surveillance initiatives

EHS Feature News page on 2013 Recreational Water Illness and Injury (RWII) Prevention Week – new healthy swimming data and environmental health materials related to healthy swimming

Environmental Health Systems Approach to Recreational Water Illness Prevention [PDF - 165 KB] or DOC [54 KB] – form in which to enter data for a better understanding of how the aquatic facility works

Environmental Public Health Online Courses (EPHOC) – a comprehensive online/on-demand package of courses for environmental public health practitioners including a module on swimming pools and recreational facilities

Health Hazard Evaluation Report: Investigation of Employee Symptoms at an Indoor Waterpark, Mason, OH [PDF - 1.3 MB] – results of the NIOSH investigation on the cause of symptoms reported at the Great Wolf Lodge indoor waterpark resort in Mason, Ohio

Healthy Housing Reference Manual – revision provides information on the impact of housing on health and safety and includes a chapter on swimming pools and spas

Model Aquatic Health Code (MAHC) – a model and guide under development for local and state agencies needing guidance to update or implement an aquatic health code in their jurisdictions

Model Pool Code Video – Check out a new short video on the Model Aquatic Health Code (MAHC) as a tool to prevent outbreaks, drowning, and chemical poisoning.

Outbreak of Cryptosporidiosis Associated with a Manmade Chlorinated Lake--Tarrant County, Texas, 2008. [PDF - 317 KB] – describes an assessment of cryptosporidiosis cases associated with a manmade lake in Texas

Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia intestinalis in Swimming Pools, Atlanta, Georgia; EID – 2008 examination of public pools in Atlanta for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp.

Recommendations for Preventing Pool Chemical–Associated Injuries – seven categories of CDC recommendations for preventing pool chemical-associated injuries

Recreational Water Illness and Injury (RWII) Prevention Week – information about National Recreational Water Illness and Injury Prevention Week

Journal of Environmental Health Articles Related to the National Recreational Water Illness and Injury Prevention Week

    May 2013 [PDF - 520 KB] – discusses prevention of health events associated with pool chemicals and includes examples of pool chemical posters as well as information on the Model Aquatic Health Code and how it can be a beneficial tool in preventing accidents involved with pool chemicals

    May 2012 [PDF - 385 KB] – discusses how the Model Aquatic Health Code (MAHC) and International Swimming Pool and Spa Code (ISPSC) can complement each other in identifying the respective roles of building and health officials to maintain healthy aquatic venues

    May 2011 [PDF - 180 KB] – discusses using education, engineering, and enforcement to combat recreational water illnesses

    May 2010 [PDF - 718 KB] – discusses a new pool inspection data study and the Model Aquatic Health Code (MAHC)

    May 2009 [PDF - 675 KB] – describes the importance of building a strong national model pool code

    May 2008 [PDF - 171 KB] – discusses new CDC online reporting system linked to foodborne and other waterborne disease reports

    May 2007 [PDF - 197 KB] – simple RWI week activities can be the first step in developing an RWI prevention plan

    May 2006 [PDF - 180 KB] – discusses the increase of recreational water illnesses and what local and state health departments can use to control the problem

MMWR - Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports

Reports by Environmental Public Health Leadership Institute Graduates

These reports were prepared by graduates of CDC’s Environmental Public Health Leadership Institute. These documents have not been revised or edited to conform to agency standards. The findings and conclusions in these reports are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. For more reports search the EPHLI fellow projects page.

A Closer Look at the State of Iowa's Swimming Pool Program [DOC - 334 KB]

Creating a Comprehensive Public Swimming Pool and Water Attraction Program to Provide Safe Water Recreation in Wisconsin [DOC - 578 KB]

Monitoring and Warning System for Recreational Waters in New Hanover County, North Carolina [DOC - 178 KB]

Developing a Tool to Help States Address Cyanobacteria Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) in Freshwater and Drinking Water [PDF - 342 KB]

Safe Swimming: A Call For Stakeholders To Become Involved [PDF - 242 KB]

Links to information from outside CDC

Battling the Parasite in Your Local Pool (Wall Street Journal) – news article about new measures to battle the threat of Cryptosporidium

Beaches (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) – links to information about beaches, planning a trip to the beach, and about beach protection

Center for Watershed Protection – nonprofit 501(c)3 corporation that provides technical tools for protecting some of the nation’s most precious natural resources: our streams, lakes, and rivers

Nonhygienic Behavior, Knowledge, and Attitudes Among Interactive Splash Park Visitors [PDF - 417 KB] (Journal of Environmental Health) – study of nonhygienic behavior among children at Idaho splash parks and the influences of signage and hygiene attendants

Ocular and Respiratory Symptoms Among Lifeguards at a Hotel Indoor Waterpark Resort (Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine) – describes results of a study to determine the cause of eye and respiratory irritation symptoms among lifeguards at an indoor waterpark

Preventing Recreational Water Illness Outbreaks (National Swimming Pool Foundation) – article about a 2005 outbreak at a park linked to more than 3,000 illnesses and spread to 36 New York counties, 26 states, and two countries

Prevention and Control of Recreational Water Illnesses [PDF - 85 KB] (Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists) – position paper concerning the prevention and control of recreational water illnesses

Virginia Graeme Baker Pool & Spa Safety Act (Consumer Product Safety Commission [CPSC]) – June 2008 guidance on technical requirements of new swimming pool and spa drain cover performance

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