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Workshop Abstracts

Name of Session:

Session E 5

Emerging Lead-related Issues: Science, Community, Culture and Sensitivity, and Collaboration

Description of Session

This session focuses on the association between soil lead and mercury in Metropolitan New Orleans. The health significance of the interaction between mercury and lead is that both metals have a strong affinity for sulfur and sulfhydryls and affect transsulfuration pathways. When mercury and lead binds to sulfur-containing protein amino acids, they alter normal biochemical functions including brain chemistry. One measure to reduce exposure to soil mercury is to systematically cover contaminated neighborhoods with 6 inches of low metal Mississippi River alluvial soil.

Presenter(s) E-mail
Moderator: Mary Jean Brown, ScD, RN mjb5@cdc.gov

Presenter: D. Jason Scholl, PhD

Title of Presentation: Reduction of Blood Lead Levels in Children Living in a Utah Mining Community Through Collaborative Efforts by Local, State, and Federal Agencies
Abstract_15

dscholl@utah.gov
Presenter: Harold Frank, Jr., BS

Title of Presentation:Elimination of Lead-based Paint and Other Household Hazards: A Culturally Sensitive Approach for Alaska
Abstract_25

hfrank@ccthita.org
Presenter: NAILA KHALIL., MBBS, MPH

Title of Presentation:Lead Effects on Bone and Fractures in Older Women
Abstract_54

khalil_naila@yahoo.com
Presenter: Howard Mielke, BA, MS, PhD

Title of Presentation:Mapping Mercury and Lead in New Orleans: GIS as a Tool for Identifying Communities with High Exposure Vulnerability
Abstract_56

howard.mielke@gmail.com

Abstract 15

Reduction of Blood Lead Levels in Children Living in a Utah Mining Community

Description of Abstract

Eureka, Utah is approximately 70 miles south of Salt Lake City. Mining and milling activities conducted in this area from 1870 to 1965 resulted in elevated levels of metals in the soil. Much of the impacted area is residential. The Utah Department of Health (UDOH) conducted an exposure investigation during the period August 2000–September 2001. The investigation concluded that children living in Eureka City were 10 times more likely than other Utah children to have elevated blood lead levels (EBLLs). Prevalence of EBLLs was high for both young children and teenagers. Collaborative activities involving UDOH, the Central Utah Public Health Department, the Utah Department of Environmental Quality, EPA, and ATSDR include remediation of residential properties and mining waste sites; quarterly blood lead testing; and lead poisoning prevention education. As health education and remediation activities have progressed, the geometric mean blood lead levels in children has continually decreased from a high of 9.4 μg/dL in 2001 to only 3.2 μg/dL in 2005. The prevalence of EBLLs above 10 μg/dL has also decreased from 44% in 2001 to 8% in 2005.

Abstract 25

Reduction of Blood Lead Levels in Children Living in a Utah Mining Community

Description of Abstract

Elimination of bioavailable lead vectors and pathways remains a high priority both at the national and tribal level of government. The information and education program created by the Central Council of Tlingit and Haida Indian Tribes of Alaska (CCTHITA) adopts a culturally sensitive approach targeting the diverse cultures of the whole State. Aluet, Yupik, Inupiaq, Tlingit and Haida cultures often have English as a second language. The goal is to communicate accurate lead information and data statewide.

Abstract 54

Lead Effects on Bone and Fractures in Older Women

Description of Abstract

In 533 U.S. women aged 65 and older, we report the relationships of blood lead levels (BLL) with Bone Mineral Density (BMD) measured at several sites, and subsequent fracture risk at multiple sites with over >10 years of follow-up. Introduction: Lead disturbs neuromuscular functions, affects bone turnover, and decreases growth and stature in young children. Whether lead is associated with rates of bone loss and fracture risk in older women is not established. Materials and Methods: In the multicenter Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF), we studied the relationship of blood lead levels, BMD measures and non-spinal fracture risk. Results: Our results show higher rates of bone loss and incidence of non-spinal fractures in women with higher blood lead levels. A 68% higher Hazard ratio of fractures was observed in women with ≥7.5µg/dl BLL (age-adjusted hazard ratio [HR],1.68; 95% CI , (1.02, 2.8) compared with women with lower BLL. Conclusion: Lead stored in bone is associated with age-related bone loss and fractures.

Abstract 56

The Health Significance of the Interaction of Lead and Mercury in Soil

Description of Session

Metropolitan New Orleans has been extensively mapped for soil metals. This study focuses on the association between soil lead and mercury. Soil samples were systematically collected and stratified by 287 census tracts (~ 19 samples per census tract, n = 5,467). Composite samples for each census tract were analyzed for total mercury. For the 287 soil composites the Spearman correlation coefficient for mercury and lead is 0.879 (P-value < 0.0001). Mercury and lead show similar distribution patterns. Composite samples exaggerate the amounts of metals per census tract as demonstrated by the relationships between composite, mean and median results and the map outcomes for each of these values. The health significance of the interaction between mercury and lead is that both metals have a strong affinity for sulfur and sulfhydryls and affect transsulfuration pathways. When mercury and lead bind to sulfur-containing protein amino acids, they alter normal biochemical functions, including brain chemistry. One measure to reduce exposure to soil mercury is to systematically cover contaminated neighborhoods with 6 inches of low-metal Mississippi River alluvial soil.