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Physical Activity and Health - A Report of the Surgeon General
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Nutrition and Physical Activity


Chapter 3

Physiologic Responses and Long-Term Adaptations to Exercise

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Contents

  • Introduction

  • Physiologic Responses to Episodes of Exercise
      Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems
        Cardiovascular Responses to Exercise
          Cardiac Output
          Blood Flow
          Blood Pressure
          Oxygen Extraction
          Coronary Circulation
        Respiratory Responses to Exercise
        Resistance Exercise
      Skeletal Muscle
      Skeletal Muscle Energy Metabolism
        Energy Systems
        Metabolic Rate
        Maximal Oxygen Uptake
        Lactate Threshold
      Hormonal Responses to Exercise
      Immune Responses to Exercise

  • Long-Term Adaptations to Exercise Training
      Adaptations of Skeletal Muscle and Bone
      Metabolic Adaptations
      Cardiovascular and Respiratory Adaptations
        Long-Term Cardiovascular Adaptations
        Respiratory Adaptations

  • Maintenance, Detraining, and Prolonged Inactivity
      Maintaining Fitness and Muscular Strength
      Detraining
      Prolonged Inactivity

  • Special Considerations
      Disability
      Environmental Conditions
      Effects of Age
      Differences by Sex

  • Conclusions
      Research Needs

  • References

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Historical Document: November 17, 1999

United States Department of Health and Human Services
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion
Division of Nutrition and Physical Activity