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Glossary

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Acanthosis nigricans : a skin condition characterized by increased pigmentation (darkening of the skin) and hyperkeratosis (thickening of the skin). It occurs most commonly in the skin fold areas behind the knee, in front of elbow, neck, etc.

Cholelithiasis : the presence of stones in the gallbladder. The stones are formed from bile salts, lecithin, and cholesterol. They may be as small as a grain of sand, or become as large as an inch in diameter.

Glucose Intolerance : a carbohydrate intolerance of variable severity: a state in which fasting plasma is < 140 mg/dl and the 30, 60, or 90 minute plasma glucose concentration following a dose of glucose (e.g., from a glucose tolerance test) exceeds 200 mg/dl. Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) is when the fasting plasma glucose is less than 126 mg/dl and the 2-hour glucose level is between 140 and 199 mg/dl.

Hyperinsulinemia : excessively high blood insulin levels resulting from a variety of conditions including obesity and pregnancy.

Hypertension : blood pressure is the force of blood against the walls of the arteries recorded as systolic (as the heart beats) and diastolic (as the heart relaxes between beats). Hypertension is defined as: children and adolescents 1 to 17 years old: average systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure readings are at or above the 95th percentile (based on age, sex, and height) on at least three separate occasions (view Tables from www.brightfutures.org). Children and adolescents between the 90th and 95th percentiles for their age, sex and height are at risk for developing hypertension; adults: a consistent reading of 140/90 mm Hg or higher; adolescents 18 and older are considered hypertensive based on adult criteria.

Obesity hypoventilation syndrome : also called Pickwickian syndrome, can accompany massive obesity that interferes with the movement of the chest wall and diaphragms. Subsequently this reduces the depth of breathing and results in a decreased ability to oxygenate blood.

Overfat : a triceps skinfold measurement > 95th percentile for gender and age.

Pseudotumor Cerebri : a rare disorder characterized by increased pressure within the skull, normal brain ventricle size, and no neurologic focal signs. It is called pseudotumor because the symptoms may mimic a tumor. Frequent symptoms include headache, dizziness, nausea and vomiting.

Sleep Apnea : during sleep, relaxation of the muscles at the base of the throat causes obstruction of the airway, with loud snoring and labored breathing. When complete blockage of the airway occurs, breathing stops and oxygen levels in the blood may fall drastically. Episodes of cessation of breathing last at least 10 seconds during sleep.

Stature : also referred to as height.