National Typhoid and Paratyphoid Fever Surveillance
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has been conducting surveillance of cases of typhoid fever since 1975, at the request of the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists. EDEB developed a standard reporting form that is completed by states and local health departments for each culture-confirmed case. In 2007, the form was modified to capture similar information for cases of paratyphoid fever.
Although typhoid fever is not as common an illness in the United States as it was in the 19th or 20th centuries, close to 400 cases of typhoid fever are reported annually. Approximately 80% are associated with international travel.
Isolations of Salmonella Typhi, the agent that causes typhoid fever, are reported to CDC through the Public Health Laboratory Information System (PHLIS). Both culture-confirmed cases of S. Typhi infection and probable cases of typhoid fever are reported through the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS). Additional information about S. Typhi isolates is provided by the National Salmonella Reference Laboratory. In addition, the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) provides antimicrobial resistance data on S. Typhi isolates.
In 2005, a 1-year study was conducted for surveillance of paratyphoid fever, caused by Salmonella serotypes Paratyphi A, B, and C. This study documented a substantial number of paratyphoid fever cases among travelers, and an increase in antimicrobial resistance among isolates of S. Paratyphi A. As a result of this study, the typhoid surveillance form was amended to capture information on cases of paratyphoid fever. National surveillance for paratyphoid fever using this form and NARMS will be launched in January 2008.
Typhi Surveillance Form (PDF - 1 page)
National Typhoid and Paratyphoid Fever Surveillance Overview (PDF - 482 KB)
Typhoid and Paratyphoid Fever Annual Summary 2011 (PDF - 271 KB)
Typhoid and Paratyphoid Fever Annual Summary 2010 (PDF - 655 KB)
Typhoid and Paratyphoid Fever Annual Summary 2009 (PDF - 629 KB)
Typhoid and Paratyphoid Fever Annual Summary 2008 (PDF - 648 KB)
Typhoid Fever Annual Summary 2007 (PDF - 506 KB)
Content source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID)
Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases (DFWED)