The 2011 NARMS Annual Human Isolates Report
This webpage highlights key results from the NARMS 2011 Annual Human Isolates Report.
The NARMS 2011 Annual Human Isolates Report [PDF - 71 pages] is published by CDC and includes:
- CDC’s surveillance data and data summaries for 2011 for human isolates of non-typhoidal Salmonella, typhoidal Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter, E. coli O157, and Vibrio species other than V. cholerae
- A listing of antimicrobial classes defined by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI)
- World Health Organization’s categorization of antimicrobial agents of critical importance to human medicine (Appendix A, Table A1 [PDF - 71 pages] )
- NEW! Interactive graphs allowing users to visualize the percentage of NARMS human isolates resistant to antimicrobial agents, by year
What's New in the 2011 NARMS Annual Human Isolates Report?
- For the first time, we present azithromycin susceptibility data for Salmonella, Shigella, and E. coli O157. Azithromycin is recommended for the treatment of both invasive salmonellosis and shigellosis by the World Health Organization and The American Academy of Pediatrics, and this drug is increasingly being used for the management of uncomplicated enteric fever.
- The azithromycin breakpoints used in this report were developed internally by CDC NARMS for the purpose of monitoring susceptibility. They are not clinically validated and cannot be used to predict clinical efficacy.
- In 2012, CLSI revised the fluoroquinolone interpretive criteria for invasive Salmonella. In this report, all interpretations are based on the new breakpoints published in the January 2012 CLSI M100 document. For public health surveillance purposes, the new breakpoints were applied to all Salmonella isolates (not just those from sterile sites) because all Salmonella serotypes have the potential to cause invasive infection.
- Starting in 2011, all nontyphoidal Salmonella isolates displaying resistance to the third-generation cephalosporins ceftriaxone or ceftiofur received additional testing. Results for six broad-spectrum β-lactam drugs, including aztreonam, cefepime, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, imipenem, and piperacillin-tazobactam are reported.
- Over the last 10 years, a notable increase of Salmonella ser. I 4,,12:i:- infections with resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfonamide, and tetracycline (ASSuT) but not chloramphenicol has been observed throughout Europe. In the United States, ASSuT resistance among human Salmonella ser. I 4,,12:i:- isolates emerged in 2010. In 2011, 15 (18%) of 82 human isolates in NARMS had this resistance pattern, compared with 1 (1.4%) of 72 in 2009.
- For the first time, we present interactive graphs that allow users to visualize the percentage of NARMS human isolates resistant to various antimicrobial agents, by year. Graphs are presented for non-typhoidal Salmonella (all and select serotypes), typhoidal Salmonella (serotypes Typhi and Paratyphi A), Shigella, Escherichia coli O157, and Campylobacter. Users can select the antimicrobial agent to view.