Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to navigation Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options
CDC Home

Motorcycle Safety Guide: Endnotes

  1. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Fatality Analysis Reporting System: 1994–2010. Washington (DC): National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation; 1994–2010.
  2. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Fatality Analysis Reporting System: 2010. Washington (DC): National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation; 2012.
  3. Derrick AJ, Faucher LD. Motorcycle helmets and rider safety: A legislative crisis. J Public Health Pol. 2009;30(2):226–242.
  4. Naumann RB, Dellinger AM, Zaloshnja E, Lawrence BA, Miller TR. Incidence and total lifetime costs of motor vehicle-related fatal and nonfatal injury by road user type, United States, 2005. Traffic Inj Prev. 2010;11(4):353–360.
  5. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Countermeasures that work: A highway safety countermeasure guide for state highway safety offices. 6th ed. Washington (DC): National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation; 2011.
  6. Newton J. Two weeks after motorcycle crash, still ‘touch and go’ for teen, dad ‘We’re looking for thoughts and prayers’. News Sun. Published August 7, 2006.
  7. Haas-Warren E. Personal Interview; January 24, 2010.
  8. Motorcycle Industry Council. Motorcycle and scooter sales climb for 14th consecutive year [media release]. Irvine: Motorcycle Industry Council; February 16, 2007.
  9. Padmanaban J, Eyges V. Characteristics of motorcycle crashes in the U.S. Presented at the International Road Traffic Accident Database Conference; September 2009. http://www.internationaltransportforum.org/irtadpublic/pdf/seoul/2-Padmanaban.pdf. Accessed April 11, 2012.
  10. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Traffic safety facts, 2010: Alcohol-impared driving. Washington (DC): National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation; 2012.
  11. McCarty DD. Why ER’s call them donor-cycles. The Republic. Published May 7, 2006. Permission obtained from and story confirmed by Rev. Dennis McCarty on January 28, 2010.
  12. Simon v. Sargent, D.C.Mass. 1972, 346 F.Supp.277, affirmed 93 S.Ct. 463, 409 U.S. 1020, 34 L.Ed.2d 312.
  13. Savage M. National Conference of State Legislators. Personal Interview; October 21, 2009.
  14. Champagne Lt. Col. J. Louisiana Highway Safety Commission, Retired. Personal Interview; October 8, 2009.
  15. Hundley JC, Kilgo PD, Miller PR, Chang MC, Hensberry RA, Meredith JW, Hoth JJ. Non-helmeted motorcyclists: A burden to society? A study using the national trauma data bank. J Trauma. 2004;57(5):944–949.
  16. Rivara FP, Dicker BG, Bergman AB, Dacey R, Herman C. The public cost of motorcycle trauma. JAMA. 1988;260(2):221–223.
  17. Cook LJ, Kerns T, Burch C, Thomas A, Bell E. Motorcycle helmet use and head and facial injuries: Crash outcomes in CODES-linked data. Washington (DC): National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation; 2009.
  18. Shankar BS, Ramzy AI, Soderstrom CA, Dischinger PC, Clark CC. Helmet use, patterns of injury, medical outcome, and costs among motorcycle drivers in Maryland. Accid Anal Prev. 1992;24(4):385–396.
  19. Governor’s Traffic Safety Bureau. Motorcycle Fact Sheet. Des Moines: Iowa Department of Public Safety; 2008.
  20. Mounce N, Brackett Q, Hinshaw W, Lund AK, Wells JK. The reinstated comprehensive motorcycle helmet law in Texas. Arlington: Insurance Institute for Highway Safety; 1992.
  21. Teoh ER. Effectiveness of antilock braking systems in reducing motorcycle fatal crash rates. Traffic Inj Prev 2011;12(2):169–173.
  22. Hailstone J. Personal Interview; January 30, 2010.
  23. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Motorcycle helmet effectiveness revisited. Washington (DC): National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation; 2004.
  24. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Lives and costs saved by motorcycle helmets, 2010. Washington (DC): National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, US Department of Transportation; 2012. Unpublished data.
  25. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Traffic Safety Facts, 2006: Motorcycle Helmet Use Laws. Washington (DC): National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation; 2007.
  26. Liu BC, Ivers R, Norton R, Boufous S, Blows S, Lo SK. Helmets for preventing injury in motorcycle riders. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008;(1):CD004333. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD004333.pub3.
  27. McKnight AJ, McKnight AS. The effects of motorcycle helmets upon seeing and hearing. Washington (DC): National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation; 1994.
  28. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Traffic Safety Facts, 2008: Motorcycle Helmet Use Laws. Washington (DC): National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation; 2008.
  29. Otte D, Hannover Medical University, Dept. of Traffic Accident Research, Germany. In: Hough DL. Proficient Motorcycling. Irvine: BowTie Press; 2008.
  30. Muelleman RL, Milinek EJ, Collicott PE. Motorcycle crash injuries and costs: effect of a reenacted comprehensive helmet use law. Ann Emerg Med. 1992;21(3):266–272.
  31. Auman KM, Kufera JA, Ballesteros MF, Smialek JE, Dischinger PC. Autopsy study of motorcyclist fatalities: The effect of the 1992 Maryland motorcycle helmet use law. Am J Public Health. 2002;92(8):1352–1355.
  32. Rowland J, Rivara F, Salzberg P, Soderberg R, Maier R, Koepsell T. Motorcycle helmet use and injury outcome and hospitalization costs from crashes in Washington State. Am J Public Health. 1996;86(1):41–45.
  33. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Evaluation of the reinstatement of the motorcycle helmet law in Louisiana. Washington (DC): National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation; 2008.
  34. Ulmer RG, Preusser DF. Evaluation of the repeal of motorcycle helmet laws in Kentucky and Louisiana. Washington (DC): National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation; 2003.
  35. Ulmer RG, Northrup VS. Evaluation of the repeal of the all-rider motorcycle helmet law in Florida. Washington (DC): National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation; 2005.
  36. Mertz KJ, Weiss HB. Changes in motorcycle-related head injury deaths, hospitalizations, and hospital charges following repeal of Pennsylvania’s mandatory motorcycle helmet law. Am J Public Health. 2008;98(8):1464–1467.
  37. Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. History of US motorcycle laws and changes in coverage. Arlington: Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, Highway Loss Data Institute; 2011. http://www.iihs.org/laws/helmetusecurrent.aspx. Accessed April 12, 2012.
  38. McCoy L. South Fork High Students graduate with heavy hearts after Friday motorcycle crash kills classmate. TCPalm. Published June 7, 2008.
  39. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Without motorcycle helmets, we all pay the price. Washington (DC): National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation; 2005.
  40. Brooks E, Naud S, Shapiro S. Are youth-only motorcycle helmet laws better than none at all? Am J Foren Med Path. 2010;31(2):125–129.
  41. Weiss H, Agimi Y, Steiner C. Youth motorcycle-related brain injury by state helmet law type: United States, 2005–2007. Pediatrics. 2010;126(6):1149–1155.
  42. Houston DJ, Richardson Jr. LE. Motorcycle safety and the repeal of universal helmet laws. Am J Public Health. 2007;97(11):2063–2069.
  43. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Determining lives and costs saved and injuries prevented by motorcycle helmets. Washington (DC): National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation; 2011.
  44. Federal Highway Administration. Highway statistics 2010: State motor-vehicle registrations (Table MV-1). Washington (DC): Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation; 2011.
  45. Advocates for Highway and Auto Safety. 2004 Louis Harris poll: Survey of the attitudes of the American people on highway and auto safety. Washington (DC): AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety; 2004.
  46. Hudnet C. Registered Nurse, Quality Improvement Coordinator, San Diego Medical Enterprise Services. Personal Interview; December 9, 2009.
 
Contact Us:
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
    National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC)
    4770 Buford Hwy, NE
    MS F-63
    Atlanta, GA 30341-3717
  • 800-CDC-INFO
    (800-232-4636)
    TTY: (888) 232-6348
  • Contact CDC–INFO
USA.gov: The U.S. Government's Official Web PortalDepartment of Health and Human Services
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention   1600 Clifton Road Atlanta, GA 30329-4027, USA
800-CDC-INFO (800-232-4636) TTY: (888) 232-6348 - Contact CDC–INFO
A-Z Index
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D
  5. E
  6. F
  7. G
  8. H
  9. I
  10. J
  11. K
  12. L
  13. M
  14. N
  15. O
  16. P
  17. Q
  18. R
  19. S
  20. T
  21. U
  22. V
  23. W
  24. X
  25. Y
  26. Z
  27. #