© World Health Organization 2011
This document is not a formal publication of the World Health Organization. All rights reserved. This document may, however, be reviewed, abstracted, reproduced and translated, in part or in whole, but not for sale or for use in conjunction with commercial purposes.
The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement.
The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers' products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. Errors and omissions excepted, the names of proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters.
All reasonable precautions have been taken by the World Health Organization to verify the information contained in this publication. However, the published material is being distributed without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied. The responsibility for the interpretation and use of the material lies with the reader. In no event shall the World Health Organization be liable for damages arising from its use.
To ensure the highest integrity and public confidence in its activities, WHO required that all contributors of this manual (authors and reviewers) disclose any circumstances that could give rise to a potential conflict of interest related to the subject of the activity in which they were involved. All contributors have signed the WHO declaration of interest form and none of the declarations were judged to pose a conflict.
For microbiology staff in National Reference Laboratories, CDC will provide a free copy of this book upon request. Additional copies can also be obtained from WHO.
- WHO Press, World Health Organization,
20 Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland
tel.: +41 22 791 3264;
fax: +41 22 791 4857;
Requests for permission to reproduce or translate WHO publications – whether for sale or for noncommercial distribution – should be addressed to WHO Press through the WHO web site http://www.who.int/about/licensing/copyright_form/en/index.html
Website URL: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2011/WHO_IVB_11.09_eng.pdf [4.45 MB, 323 pages]
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
1600 Clifton Road, NE
Atlanta, Georgia 30329 USA
tel.: 800-CDC-INFO (800-232-5636)
Website URL: http://www.cdc.gov/meningitis/bacterial.html
- Page last reviewed: April 15, 2016
- Page last updated: March 15, 2012
- Content source: