Home | Contact Us
The MMWR is embargoed until Thursday, 12 PM EST
Synopsis for January 30, 2004
Prevalence of Cigarette Use Among 14 Racial/Ethnic Populations ― United States, 1999-2001
Tobacco use is responsible for a large portion of death and disease
in these racial/ethnic communities.
The report provides a first-ever snapshot of national smoking prevalence data among 14 ethnic/racial groups in the United States using data from the National Survey on Drug Use & Health (NSDUH) conducted in 1999, 2000, and 2001. The results indicate that the prevalence of cigarette smoking varied among the racial/ethnic populations, from 40.4 percent to 12.3 percent, respectively, among American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/AN) and Chinese adults aged 18 and older, and from 27.9 percent to 5.2 percent, respectively, among American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/AN) and Japanese youth ages 12 to 17 years. According to U.S. Surgeon General Richard Carmona, "There is good news and bad news in this report. The good news is that we have eliminated the gap between the historically higher smoking rates among African American adults compared to white adults. More good news is that youth smoking rates are lower than the U.S. average for most racial/ethnic minority groups. But the bad news, however, is the continued high smoking rates among American Indians and Alaska Natives, both youth and adults. This is cause for ongoing concern. With 440,000 Americans dying every year from smoking and 4,000 kids trying their first cigarette everyday, we need to continue efforts encouraging smokers to quit, and children to not start."
State Medicaid Coverage for Tobacco-Dependence Treatments United States, 19942002
While the number of state Medicaid programs offering any form of
tobacco-dependence treatments increased from 2001 to 2002, comprehensive
coverage for recommended treatments remained low.
One of the national health objectives for 2010 is to provide coverage in the 50 states and the District of Columbia (DC) for nicotine-dependence treatment by Medicaid. In 2000, of approximately 32 million persons who received health insurance coverage through Medicaid programs, an estimated 11.5 million (36%) smoked. The amount and type of coverage for tobacco-dependence treatment offered by Medicaid has been reported previously for 1998, 2000, and 2001. All states and DC were surveyed again in 2002 about the amount and type of coverage they provided. This report summarizes the results of the survey, which indicate that 1) 36 Medicaid programs covered some tobacco-dependence counseling or medication for all Medicaid recipients, compared with 35 in 2001; 2) four states offered coverage only for pregnant women, compared with two states in 2001; 3) two states offered coverage for all pharmacotherapy and counseling treatments recommended by the 2000 PHS guideline; and 4) seven states covered all recommended medications and at least one form of counseling.
Economic Costs Associated with Mental Retardation, Cerebral Palsy, Hearing Loss, and Vision Impairment United States, 2003
Developmental disabilities are a public health problem with substantial economic costs.
Developmental disabilities cost the United States more than $50 billion each year in extra expenditures on medical care, special education, long-term care, and lost productivity. For instance, a child diagnosed with mental retardation or cerebral palsy can experience additional costs or economic losses of one million dollars or more. We can prevent some forms of intellectual and physical disability through public health programs such as newborn screening and childhood immunizations. We need to do much more. For example, reducing smoking and eliminating alcohol use among pregnant women are promising opportunities for prevention of adverse outcomes. Finally, helping people with disabilities to fully participate in activities is not only socially valuable but may have an economic payoff as well.
Day Care-Related Outbreaks of Rhamnose-Negative Shigella sonnei Six States, June 2001-March 2003
Shigellosis is a common cause of diarrhea among daycare-aged children, and outbreaks can be prevented through consistent, careful handwashing.
During 20012003, a large outbreak of shigellosis (a bacteria that causes diarrhea) occurred in several south and mid-Atlantic states. This outbreak initially affected daycare-aged children primarily, but then spread throughout these communities. Over 4,000 cases were confirmed by culture, but it is likely that the true amount of illness was much greater. Shigella bacteria spread very easily whenever breaches in hygiene or sanitation occur. The most important way to prevent such outbreaks is careful, consistent handwashing. People who work or live with young children, including daycare providers, need to be particularly vigilant to prevent shigellosis from spreading.
Update: Influenza Activity United States, January 1824, 2004
No summary available.
This page last reviewed January 30, 2004
Disease Control and Prevention