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MMWR – Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report

1. Traffic-Related Pedestrian Deaths — United States, 2001–2010

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Pedestrian deaths are a serious public health problem. Strategies to prevent pedestrian deaths should include consideration of the needs of older adults and cultural differences among racial/ethnic populations. Adults 75 years or older and American Indians/Alaska Natives had the highest traffic-related pedestrian death rates in the United States from 2001-2010. This study examined motor vehicle traffic-related pedestrian death rates by sex, age group, race/ethnicity, and urbanization level (such as a city or a rural area). It found that traffic-related pedestrian death rates increased with age. Death rates for men aged 75 years or older were more than double those of people aged 0-34 years. Death rates for women aged 75 years or older were more than double those of people aged 0-64 years.  Among both men and women, American Indians/Alaska Natives had the highest traffic-related pedestrian death rates of all races/ethnicities and whites had the lowest rates.  

2. FoodNet Data on the Incidence and Trends of Infection with Pathogens Transmitted Commonly Through Food — 10 U.S. Sites, 1996–2012

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Foodborne diseases are an important public health problem in the United States.  Progress in preventing these infections has been limited in recent years as evidenced by increases in the incidence of Campylobacter and Vibrio infections in 2012. The Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) of CDC's Emerging Infections Program conducts surveillance in 10 U.S. sites for all laboratory-confirmed infections caused by selected pathogens transmitted commonly through food to quantify them and monitor their incidence. This report summarizes 2012 preliminary surveillance data and describes trends since 1996. The data contributes to our understanding of the human health impact of foodborne diseases. In 2012, the incidence of infections caused by Campylobacter and Vibrio increased from the 2006–2008 period, whereas the incidence of infections caused by Cryptosporidium, Listeria, Salmonella, Shigella, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157, and Yersinia was unchanged. These findings highlight the need to continue to identify and address food safety gaps that can be targeted for action by the food industry and regulatory authorities.

3.Assessment of Current Practices and Feasibility of Routine Screening for Critical Congenital Heart Defects — Georgia, 2012

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Critical congenital heart defects (CCHD) are birth defects that require treatment during the first year of life. Newborn screening using pulse oximetry can be used to detect CCHDs. Universal newborn screening for CCHD is not required in Georgia but this study found that about half of Georgia hospitals were currently screening newborn babies for CCHD or planning to start by the end of 2012. Hospitals reported barriers to screening such as cost concerns and lack of a clear follow-up plan for babies who screen positive for CCHD and variation in screening practices were noted. Differences in screening practices could be lessened with the use of a standard screening procedure and hospitals could work together to ensure appropriate follow-up for babies with possible CCHD. Hospitals in Georgia have begun screening for CCHD, even in the absence of a state mandate. Standard practices and procedures in hospitals can ensure that newborn screening for CCHDs is working effectively to identify babies with these conditions and get them help they need to prevent death and disability. 

4. Rapid Implementation of Pulse Oximetry Newborn Screening to Detect Critical Congenital Heart Defects — New Jersey, 2011

CDC
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During the first three months of newborn screening for critical congenital heart defects (CCHD) in New Jersey, 98 percent of New Jersey newborns were screened and two newborns with CCHD were detected.  Implementation of newborn screening for CCHD posed a relatively low burden to hospitals in New Jersey.  Critical congenital heart defects (CCHD) are birth defects that require treatment during the first year of life.  Newborn screening using pulse oximetry can be used to detect CCHD. In August 2011, New Jersey began requiring all hospitals to screen newborns for CCHD. Five months after the CCHD screening program began; hospitals were screening and reporting data to the state health department. Hospitals reported that implementation of the newly mandated pulse oximetry screening posed a low burden to their nursing staff. 

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