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MMWR – Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report

1. Epilepsy and Access to Care Among Adults — United States, 2010

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About one percent of U.S. adults (2.3 million) have active epilepsy, and these adults were more likely to live in households with lower annual incomes. Epilepsy is a neurological disorder that causes recurrent seizures that produce momentary changes in awareness, involuntary movements, or convulsions. Epilepsy is caused by different conditions that affect a person’s brain. Adults with active epilepsy have been diagnosed by a health professional and either had at least one seizure in the past year or are currently taking medicine for a seizure disorder. Only about one-half (53 percent) of adults with active epilepsy had seen a neurologist or epilepsy specialist in the past 12 months, suggesting that many adults with active epilepsy have not received appropriate care.

2. Comprehensive Smoke-Free Laws — 50 Largest U.S. Cities, 2000 and 2012

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Significant progress has been achieved since 2000 in expanding comprehensive smoke-free policy coverage in the 50 largest U.S. cities, but 20 cities remain without full protection from secondhand smoke in private workplaces, restaurants and bars.Analysis of census data shows that 30 of America’s 50 largest cities are now covered by laws that prohibit smoking in all indoor areas of private workplaces, restaurants, and bars.  At the end of 2000, only one of the country’s 50 biggest cities—San Jose, California—was covered by such a law.  As of October 5, 2012, 16 of the 50 largest U.S. cities were covered by local comprehensive smoke-free laws, and 14 more were covered by state comprehensive smoke-free laws. The 2006 Surgeon General’s Report concluded that there is no risk-free level of exposure to secondhand smoke and that only smoke-free environments fully protect nonsmokers. Smoke-free laws reduce nonsmokers’ exposure to secondhand smoke, help smokers quit, and improve health. However, gaps remain in these protections, especially in southern states and states that preempt local smoking restrictions.

3. Diagnosed Diabetes — United States and Puerto Rico, 1995–2010

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From 1995-2010, the age-adjusted prevalence of diagnosed diabetes among adults increased in all U.S. regions and states. Age-adjusted prevalence increased by greater than 50 percent in most states and by greater than or equal 100 percent in 18 states. Rates were highest in the South and this region had the largest increase in diabetes prevalence. Increasing prevalence is likely due to both improved survival of persons with diabetes and increasing risk factors for type 2 diabetes (which accounts for 90-95 percent of all diabetes) such as sedentary lifestyle and obesity. Lifestyle programs, such as the National Diabetes Prevention Program, that promote modest weight loss, good nutritional practices, and increased physical activity have been shown to lower the risk of developing type 2 diabetes among adults at high risk. Prevention strategies that target the entire population and high-risk groups are needed to reverse the increasing trend of type 2 diabetes.

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