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Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report

1. (Box) National HIV Testing Day — June 27, 2009

Press Contact: National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD and TB Prevention
Phone: (404) 639-8895

No summary available.

2. Late HIV Testing — 34 States, 1996–2005

Press Contact: National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD and TB Prevention
Phone: (404) 639-8895

New CDC data released today indicate far too many people are diagnosed with HIV late in the course of infection, when neither treatment nor prevention can have optimal benefit.  An analysis of persons first diagnosed with HIV from 1996 to 2005 in 34 states with name-based HIV reporting shows that 38.3 percent of these individuals were diagnosed with AIDS within one year of receiving an initial HIV diagnosis, and an additional 6.7 percent were diagnosed with AIDS in the next two years.  Compared to whites, racial/ethnic minorities were more likely to be diagnosed late; higher percentages of people of all other racial/ethnic groups progressed to AIDS within three years.  Those receiving an initial HIV diagnosis at an older age were more likely to progress to AIDS within three years, as were men.  Because progression from HIV to AIDS generally takes about 10 years without treatment, these findings underscore the importance of HIV testing early in the course of infection, when antiretroviral treatments can have maximum benefit.  Additionally, because studies show that most people who know they are infected take steps to protect their partners, HIV testing is an essential step in reducing the number of new infections.  CDC continues to work on a number of fronts to increase HIV testing and knowledge of serostatus in the U.S., both in health care and community settings.

3. HIV Testing Among High School Students — United States, 2007

Press Contact: National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD and TB Prevention
Phone: (404) 639-8895

New HIV testing data released today indicate while some U.S. high school students have been tested for HIV, increased testing among this population is needed. CDC researchers analyzed self-reported data on HIV testing and sexual behavior from the 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a nationally representative survey of students in grades nine through 12 in the 50 states and District of Columbia. Overall, 12.9 percent of students, and 22.3 percent of students who had ever had sex, have been tested for HIV. The percentage of those tested was higher among female students (14.8 percent) than male students (11.1 percent), higher among black students (22.4 percent) than white (12.7 percent) or Hispanic students (10.7 percent), and highest among students who first had sex before age 13 (30.7 percent). Testing increased with advancing grade level. Although prevalence of testing was highest among sexually active black students in 12th grade (49.4 percent of females, 33.4 percent of males in this subgroup), efforts to further promote HIV testing are vital, given the significant and disproportionate impact that HIV has on African Americans nationwide and the important role testing can play in reducing transmission. Because two-thirds of adolescents aged 15-17 have had a physical examination in the preceding 12 months, routine testing in health care settings as recommended by CDC could substantially boost testing and awareness of HIV status among high school students.

4. Progress Toward the 2012 Measles Elimination Goal — Western Pacific Region, 1990–2008

Press Contact: Division of Media Relations
Phone: (404) 639-3286

Twenty four of the 37 countries and jurisdictions of the Western Pacific Region already have likely achieved or nearly achieved the Region’s 2012 goal for measles elimination.  The Western Pacific Region of WHO has made progress towards its goal of measles elimination by 2012. Routine immunization coverage has been increasing; more and better vaccination campaigns have been conducted; surveillance is being enhanced; and an extensive laboratory network is in place. Twenty four of the Region’s 37 countries and jurisdictions already have likely eliminated or nearly eliminated measles. However, large numbers of measles cases continue to occur in several countries, especially in China and Japan, which together account for 82 percent of the Region’s population. Increased political, financial and human resource commitments and efforts by countries and partners are required to implement the WHO-recommended strategies and achieve the 2012 goal.

5. Updated Recommendations for Use of Haemophilus influenzae Type b (Hib) Vaccine: Reinstatement of the Booster Dose at Ages 12–15 Months

Press Contact: Division of Media Relations
Phone: (404) 639-3286

The supply of Hib-containing vaccine is now sufficient to reinstate the on time booster dose administration of Hib vaccine at 12-15 months for all children who completed the primary series. Older children whose booster dose was deferred should receive a dose at their next routinely scheduled visit or medical encounter. Supply constraints do not permit mass recall of all children whose Hib booster dose was deferred.  The key objective of the MMWR is to let providers know that the Hib booster dose that had been temporarily deferred for healthy children since December 2007, has now been reinstated for all children. The manufacturer (sanofi pasteur) of the two currently available Hib-containing vaccines has increased the number of doses available to allow reinstatement of the Hib booster dose.  The Hib booster dose is recommended for children at 12 through 15 months of age and should be given on time. There has always been enough Hib-containing vaccine for all US children to receive the primary 3-dose vaccine series at 2, 4, and 6 months.  Although supply is sufficient to reinstate the booster dose, there is currently only enough supply for limited catchup.  Limited catchup means that older children for whom the booster dose was deferred should receive their Hib booster dose at the next routinely scheduled visit or medical encounter. However, there is not enough vaccine available currently to support a mass recall or active notification of all children with deferred booster doses. Before Hib conjugate vaccines, Hib was the most common cause of bacterial meningitis in children aged <5 years. Approximately 1 in 200 children in this age group developed invasive Hib disease. Hib vaccine can prevent Hib disease.

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U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES

  • Historical Document: June 24, 2009
  • Content source: Office of Enterprise Communication
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