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Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report

Wild Poliovirus Type 1 and Type 3 Importations – 15 Countries, Africa, 2008-2009

CDC, Division of Media Relations, (404) 639-3286

Until the challenges in countries with ongoing wild poliovirus transmission have been fully addressed, the risk of wild poliovirus (WPV) importations will continue. Although countries that border countries with ongoing WPV transmission are at higher risk, all polio-free countries need to maintain sensitive surveillance systems and prepare for rapid response campaigns. From 2007 to 2008, cases of polio in Africa increased 144 percent, from 387 in 2007 to 946 in 2008, primarily because of a resurgence of cases in Nigeria as well as an increase in Angola, Chad and Sudan and the introduction of WPV from these countries into neighboring countries. These importations of WPV have resulted in 96 polio cases in 15 countries in West Central Africa, the Horn of Africa, and South Central Africa in 2008-2009 as of March 24. The majority of these cases were caused by importations of WPV originating in Nigeria; the remaining importations were from WPV originating in India, and were introduced either directly or after persistent transmission in another country. The four African countries from which multiple importations have spread — Angola, Chad, Nigeria, Sudan — have serious weaknesses in health infrastructure and require specific efforts to strengthen their fight again WPV circulation. Until polio eradication is reached, other countries need to have sensitive surveillance and plans to rapidly respond if imported WPV is found.

Chlamydia Screening Among Sexually Active Young Female Enrollees of Health Plans – Untied States, 2000-2007

CDC, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD and TB Prevention
(404) 639-8895

In an analysis of data reported by commercial and Medicaid health plans to the Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS), CDC found that the percentage of young (age 16 – 25) sexually active women screened for chlamydia in the U.S. increased consistently between 2000 and 2006 – from 25.3 percent to 43.6 percent, but declined slightly in 2007 to 41.6 percent. The highest regional rate of chlamydia screening in 2007 was in the Northeast (45.5 percent), and the lowest was in the South (37.3 percent). By state, in 2007, Hawaii had the highest rate of screening (57.8 percent) and Utah had the lowest (20.8 percent). The findings demonstrate that despite increases in the first half of the decade, chlamydia screening rates remain substantially lower than other critical women’s health services, such as Pap tests. Further monitoring is needed to determine whether the decreased screening rate in 2007 represents a trend or is due to increases in the number of plans reporting screening data that year. Low chlamydia screening rates are particularly concerning due to the severe health consequences that can result from untreated chlamydia – pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy and infertility. Economic barriers and lack of provider emphasis on chlamydia screening may contribute to low screening rates.

Adult Blood Lead Epidemiology and Surveillance – United States, 2005-2007

Fred Blosser, NIOSH Public Affairs, (202) 245-0645

Work-related lead exposure remains a national occupational health problem, the research by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) points to the need to strengthen prevention efforts by industry, government, labor, and a dedicated effort to strengthen the public awareness. Despite general reductions in prevalence rates of elevated blood lead levels in adults in the U.S, overexposure to inorganic lead continues to be an important problem among workers, according to new surveillance data reported by NIOSH. The trend underscores concern from recent research about the toxicity of lead even at low doses. The persistence of elevated blood-lead levels primarily due to workplace exposures, and a slight increase in 2006 and 2007 rates over the 2005 rate after declines since 1994, point to the need for stronger efforts by industry, labor, government, and others to reduce occupational exposures in sectors such as battery manufacturing, mining of lead and zinc ores, and painting and paper-hanging, and education of the public to prevent non-occupational exposures from recreational, home improvement, and food sources.

Updated: Influenza Activity – United States, September 28, 2008-April 4, 2009, and Composition of the 2009-10 Influenza Vaccine

CDC, Division of Media Relations, (404) 639-3286

No summary available.

FDA Approval of Expanded Age Indication for a Tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid and Acellular Pertussis Vaccine

CDC, Division of Media Relations, (404) 639-3286

The best way for adolescents and adults to protect themselves against pertussis is to get vaccinated with Tdap. Pertussis (whooping cough) is the least well-controlled bacterial vaccine-preventable disease in the United States. Pertussis is highly contagious and can cause serious or prolonged illness. Infants, especially those too young to be vaccinated, are at increased risk for death from pertussis. To boost their immunity to pertussis, all adolescents and adults are recommended to receive a one-time dose of Tdap vaccine in place of a Td booster. Adolescents should receive a dose of Tdap, preferably at a preventive care visit at age 11 or 12 years. Adults who previously have not received Tdap should get a single dose of Tdap in place of their next Td booster. BOOSTRIX (GSK) has been available since 2005 for adolescents, and is now approved for use in adults as well.

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  • Historical Document: April 16, 2009
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