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Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report

Trends in HIV-Related Risk Behaviors Among High School Students – United States, 1991-2007

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Progress has been made during the past 17 years in decreasing overall the prevalence of lifetime sexual intercourse, multiple sex partners, and current sexual activity, and in increasing the prevalence of condom use among currently sexually active high school students. However, targeted efforts to prevent sexual risk behaviors are needed to eliminate disparities among black students, Hispanic students, and male students, who have not experienced the same decreases in all of these behaviors. Such efforts should involve parents and families, schools, youth-serving community organizations, health-care providers, mass media campaigns, government agencies, and youth themselves. Overall, HIV-related sexual risk behaviors have decreased during the past 17 years among high school students in the United States, according to data from the CDC’s National Youth Risk Behavior Survey. During 1991-2007, the prevalence of sexual experience decreased 12 percent, the prevalence of multiple sex partners decreased 20 percent, the prevalence of current sexual activity decreased 7 percent and the prevalence of condom use among currently sexually active students increased 33 percent Despite these positive changes, many students still engage in HIV-related risk behaviors. In addition, some subgroups of students have not experienced these changes. Targeted efforts to prevent these risk behaviors are needed to lower the incidence and prevalence of HIV infection and STDs among young persons.

RHIV Prevention Education and HIV-Related Policies in Secondary Schools – Selected Cities, 2006

PRESS CONTACT: Division of Media Relations
(404) 639-3286

State and local education agencies should continue to encourage schools to provide health education on HIV prevention topics as part of a coordinated school health program. They also should work to increase the percent of health education teachers who teach HIV prevention topics and who receive staff development on how to teach knowledge and skills related to HIV prevention. Schools without a current policy on students and/or staff who have HIV infection or AIDS should work with education, public health, and legal professionals to develop and implement HIV-related policies. In 2006, most secondary schools in states and school districts participating in a CDC-sponsored survey provided some education on HIV prevention topics in required health education courses. However, few secondary schools taught all 11 topics related to HIV prevention listed in the questionnaire. Teaching these topics is important to help reduce the prevalence of HIV-related risk behaviors. In addition, having a school health policy on students and/or staff who have HIV infection or AIDS can help protect the rights and health of HIV-infected students and staff and reduce the likelihood of transmitting HIV infection to others. In 2006, approximately half of all secondary schools had such a policy.

Newborn Hepatitis B Vaccination Coverage Among Children Born January 2003-June 2005 – United States

PRESS CONTACT: Division of Media Relations
(404) 639-3286

Newborn hepatitis B vaccination coverage is low and delivery hospitals should have policies and procedures in place to administer hepatitis B vaccine to all newborns to prevent them from becoming chronically infected with this serious illness. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends that all newborns receive their first dose of hepatitis B vaccine before leaving the hospital. However, according to estimates from a national survey conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, only about 50 percent of newborns are getting vaccinated by hospital discharge. Vaccination coverage varied widely among cities and states surveyed from a high of 77.5 percent in Detroit, Michigan to a low of 8.2 percent Fresno County, California. Infants infected with the hepatitis B virus have a 90 percent chance of becoming chronically infected which can lead to cirrhosis or liver cancer. Delivery hospitals play a key role in the national strategy to prevent hepatitis B transmission and should have policies and procedures in place to ensure that hepatitis B vaccine is administered to all newborns before hospital discharge.

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U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES

  • Page last reviewed: July 31, 2008
  • Page last updated: July 31, 2008
  • Content source: Office of Enterprise Communication
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