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Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report

Cryptosporidiosis Outbreaks Associated with Recreational Water Use - Five States, 2006

PRESS CONTACT: CDC Division of Media Relations
(404) 639-3286

To prevent outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis, change is needed in the way we build and operate the nations disinfected recreational water facilities. Swimming pool-associated outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis, a serious diarrheal disease caused by the chlorine-resistant parasite, Cryptosporidium, continue to impact the recreational water industry. Federal officials report on five (CO, LA, IL, SC, WY) of at least 18 outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis that occurred across the country in 2006 and call for changes to reduce the risk of these outbreaks occurring in the future. All of the outbreaks were thought to have resulted from swimmer contamination of swimming waters. Key changes call for the inclusion of new supplementary disinfection measures that kill the parasite (e.g., ultraviolet light or ozone treatment) and existing chlorine disinfection. Improved communication is also critical to raise awareness so that swimmers know that they should refrain from swimming when they are ill with diarrhea up to 2 weeks after the end of diarrhea. Additional measures that may reduce the risk of these outbreaks from occurring include improved filtration, remedial germ killing shock treatments, and bather number-dependent water replacement.

Nonfatal Traumatic Brain Injuries from Sports and Recreation - United States, 2001-2005

PRESS CONTACT: CDC
National Center for Injury Prevention and Control
(770) 488-4902

  • Press Release
    New Study Finds Most Sports- and Recreation-Related
    Traumatic Brain Injuries Occur In Youth and Teens

Increased awareness of traumatic brain injuries (including concussion) risks, prevention strategies, and the importance of timely identification and management is key in reducing the incidence, severity and long-term negative health effects of this type of injury. An estimated 135,000 (65 percent) of sports- and recreation-related traumatic brain injuries (TBI) treated in U.S. emergency departments occur each year in young people ages 5 to 18, Traumatic brain injuries, including concussions, are caused by a blow or bump to the head that disrupts the way the brain normally works. The study found that for 5 to 18 year olds, the sport and recreation activities that generated the greatest number of emergency department visits for treatment of traumatic brain injuries were popular activities such as bicycling, football, basketball, playground activities, and soccer. The study also found that some sport and recreation activities resulted in a higher percentage of traumatic brain injury-related emergency department visits. Among 5 to 18 year olds, horseback riding, ice skating, riding all-terrain vehicles, hockey and tobogganing/sledding were the sport and recreation activities with the highest percentage of visits for that activity related to TBIs. To help coaches, parents, and athletes learn the signs, symptoms, and action steps to take when a concussion is suspected, CDC has created and is making available a new free tool kit: "Heads Up: Concussion in Youth Sports."

Type of Alcohol Consumed by Students in 9th-12th Grades - Four States, 2005

PRESS CONTACT: CDC
National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion
(770) 488-5131

Liquor is the most commonly consumed alcoholic beverage among high school students who drink, including among those who binge drink. Effective strategies to prevent underage drinking should be widely adopted, including increasing alcohol excise taxes and enforcing minimum legal purchase age laws. Beverage-specific alcohol consumption by youth should also be considered when developing these policies, since the price and availability of alcoholic beverages varies by beverage type. Liquor is the most common alcoholic beverage usually consumed by high school students in Arkansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, and Wyoming, according to a new study released by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The study analyzes 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) data collected on type of alcohol usually consumed by 9th and 12th grade students attending public schools in the four states studied. Among students who were current alcohol users (drinking in past 30-days) liquor consumption ranged from 34.1 percent in Nebraska to 44.7 percent in Arkansas. Among students who reported binge drinking (consuming 5 or more drinks in a row) liquor consumption ranged from 37.2 percent in Nebraska to 49.1 percent in Arkansas. Liquor was also the most commonly consumed alcoholic beverage by high school students who drank across most gender, grade, and racial/ethnic groups. Beer or malt beverages were the second most common type of alcoholic beverage consumed by high school students who drank in these states.

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U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES

  • Historical Document: July 26, 2007
  • Content source: Office of Enterprise Communication
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