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Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report

Rapid HIV Testing in Emergency Department Settings - Three Sites, January 2005-March 2006

PRESS CONTACT: National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD and TB Prevention
Office of Communication
(404) 639-8895

Routine rapid HIV testing in hospital emergency departments (EDs) can be effective in helping individuals, particularly those with limited access to health care, learn their HIV status. Between January 2005 and March 2006, 34,627 patients were offered rapid HIV tests at three EDs in Los Angeles, New York City and Oakland, California as part of CDC demonstration projects. Nearly 60 percent agreed to be tested and 9,365 patients of those who agreed, received rapid HIV tests. Of those, 97 patients (1 percent) had a preliminary positive result for HIV infection and a majority of those newly identified as HIV positive (88 percent) were successfully linked to care. The report’s findings indicated that efforts to make rapid testing routine in these settings significantly increased the number of individuals tested. The projects also illustrated the value of a streamlined counseling approach in significantly increasing the numbers of individuals who could be tested and paved the way for CDC’s 2006 recommendations for routine HIV testing in health care settings. CDC believes expanded rapid HIV testing in EDs and other health care settings is critical to reach the quarter of a million HIV-infected persons in the United States who do not know they are infected.

Rapid HIV Testing and Behavioral Surveys of Minorities at Gay Pride Events - Nine U.S. Cities, 2004-2006

PRESS CONTACT: National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD and TB Prevention
Office of Communication
(404) 639-8895

Offering rapid HIV testing to minorities at gay pride events is an effective way to help minority men who have sex with men-- a population at high risk for infection—learn their HIV status, especially those with limited access to health care. Researchers analyzed data from a survey of minority attendees at gay pride events in nine cities from 2004-2006. CDC, in partnership with local community based organizations and health departments, also offered rapid HIV testing to survey participants reporting they had not been previously diagnosed with HIV. Of the 543 men surveyed, 133 agreed to be tested. Eight (6 percent) of those tested were newly identified as HIV positive. Half of those testing positive had a negative test within the past year, highlighting the importance of at least annual HIV testing for at-risk men who have sex with men (MSM). Of the 229 respondents for whom health-care seeking behaviors were available, more than a quarter had not seen a medical provider in the previous 12 months. Of those who had, only 40 percent had been offered an HIV test by a provider in the past year. Authors note that expanding testing efforts to reach minority MSM outside of health care settings can serve as a valuable complement to CDC’s 2006 recommendations for routine, voluntary HIV screening in medical settings.

Decline in Smoking Prevalence - New York City, 2002-2006

PRESS CONTACT: New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene
Sara Markt
(212) 788-5290

Comprehensive tobacco control measures including increasing tobacco taxes, smoke-free environments and hard-hitting anti-tobacco ads can produce a rapid decrease in smoking prevalence. From 2002 to 2006, New York City implemented comprehensive tobacco control measures including increased tobacco tax, smoke-free workplaces, and hard-hitting educational campaigns. After a decade with no progress, New York City’s smoking rate declined from 21.6 percent in 2002 to 17.5 percent in 2006. After the decline stalled in 2005, in 2006 NYC ran a year-long hard-hitting media campaign to motivate more smokers to quit. From 2005 to 2006, smoking decreased sharply among males (from 22.5 percent to 19.9 percent) and among Hispanics (from 20.2 percent to 17.1 percent). By 2006 there were 240,000 fewer smokers in New York City than there were in 2002. This reduction will prevent at least 80,000 deaths from smoking-related causes.

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U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES

  • Historical Document: June 21, 2007
  • Content source: Office of Enterprise Communication
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